Additionally, the recommendations done by Horswill [20] concernin

Additionally, the recommendations done by Horswill [20] concerning body mass control during the season are important sources of information. This author suggests specific goals for each periodization phase. Pre-season: determine athlete’s optimal weight category; estimate body composition to determine the minimum body mass the athlete can have to compete safely; initiate the weight category change if needed; adjust technique

and tactics for the new weight category; aerobic conditioning and strength training to reduce body fat and maintain muscle mass; reduce energy and fat intake to decrease body fat percentage; Season: keep body mass near the upper weight limit; increase caloric intake Torin 1 supplier to deal with training and competition demands; maintain strength training; adequate micro and macronutrients intake; Off season: avoid increase in body fat; begin strength training; maintain aerobic conditioning; avoid high-fat diets. Management procedures to control or discourage rapid weight loss Management procedures have been used in wrestling [53] and proposed for judo [8] to avoid weight loss among athletes.

The following recommendations were first drafted in 1976 [54] and reinforced in 1996 by the American College of Sports Medicine [14]. They are currently in use in most scholastic wrestling competitions in United States as a part of a program aiming at controlling the weight management issue among wrestlers. This program has been shown effective in attenuating the aggressive patterns of rapid weight loss and discouraging Selleck LOXO-101 athletes from losing weight irresponsibly [20]. Therefore, these recommendations should be implemented by other combat sports organizations in order to avoid widespread weight loss among combat athletes [8]: matches should begin in less than 1 h after weight in; each

athlete is allowed to weigh-in only one time; RWL methods and artificial rehydration methods are prohibited on competition days; athletes must pass the hydration test to get the weigh-in validated; an individual minimum MLN2238 mw competitive weight is determined at the beginning of each season; no athletes are allowed to compete in a weight class that would require weight loss greater than 1.5% of body mass per others week. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank FAPESP for supporting the studies on rapid weight loss (grant # 2006/51293-4). References 1. Kim S, Greenwell TC, Andrew DPS, Lee J, Mahony DF: An analysis of spectator motives in an individual combat sport: a study of mixed martial arts fans. Sport Mark Q 2008, 17:109–119. 2. Ko Y, Kim Y, Valacich J: Martial arts participation: Consumer motivation. Int J Sport Mark Spo 2010, 11:105–123. 3. Burke LM, Cox GR: Nutrition in combat sports. In Combat Sports Medicine. 1st edition.

albicans strains under different conditions of growth   Doubling

albicans strains under different conditions of growth.   Doubling time of each strain (hours) Growth conditions Wild-type (DAY185) sur7 Δ (SMB3-H) sur7 Δ + SUR7 (SMB3-R) 30°C, CSM (p > 0.05) 2.244 ± 0.070 2.199 ± 0.016 2.168 ± 0.034 42°C, CSM (*p < 0.0001) 3.645 ± 0.066 11.08 ± 0.122 * 3.560 ± 0.055 42°C, CSM + 1

M NaCl (*p < 0.001) 3.145 ± 0.119 3.374 ± 0.072 * 3.000 ± 0.036 * indicates statistical PP2 significance of sur7Δ compared to wild-type and SUR7 complemented strains. Figure 1 Characterization of growth of the sur7 Δ null mutant strain. The growth of strains DAY185 (black), sur7Δ (red), and sur7Δ+SUR7 (blue) were compared under different conditions. Standard growth

IACS-10759 conditions at 30°C in complete synthetic medium (CSM) supplemented with uridine is shown in (A). Growth at extreme temperature (42°C) was also tested in CSM supplemented with uridine (B) and CSM with 1 M NaCl supplemented with uridine (C). At high temperatures (42°C), the impaired growth of the sur7Δ null mutant strain was statistically significant compared to the control strains. All growth curves were performed in triplicate, with Log10 of OD600 plotted

against Time (hours). Corresponding error bars are indicated. Table 2 lists the calculated doubling time of each strain under each condition presented here. C. albicans Fmp45p-GFP fluorescence intensity increases in the presence of high Vasopressin Receptor salt and temperature In S. cerevisiae, transcript levels of the SUR7 paralog YNL194 is increased in the presence of high salt [24]. Expression of the Ynl194p-GFP fusion protein under its native promoter shifted from barely detectable fluorescence levels to highly detectable levels with the addition of high salt, and the gene product was found to co-localize with S. cerevisiae Sur7p [4]. There is only one closely related paralog of Ca Sur7p in C. albicans, Ca Fmp45p (orf19.6489), which shares 31% identity and 45% similarity. Captisol According to predictions using TMHMM http://​www.​cbs.​dtu.​dk/​services/​TMHMM/​, Fmp45p has 4 transmembrane domains similar to Sur7p defined by amino acids 7-29; 106-128; 135-157; 186-208, and 7-29; 104-126; 139-161; 183-205, respectively.

A comparison with these studies, the absence of examples may have

A comparison with these studies, the absence of examples may have

caused some underreporting of supplement use. Conclusion Our study presents the results of follow-up study made with a large sample of elite athletes representing various different sports. According to these results, dietary supplementation among elite athletes seems to be diminishing, especially in younger age groups, HDAC activity assay but the frequency of supplement use varies between different sport groups being highest among endurance athletes and lowest among team sport athletes. In Finland, male athletes use more nutritional supplements whereas female athletes use more vitamins and minerals. Compared with other studies with elite athletes, the percentage of dietary supplements used among Finnish Olympic athletes is high. Since the purity of nutritional supplements cannot be guaranteed, professional nutritional counseling is needed to avoid irrational and potentially unsafe practices of dietary supplement use. Further investigations are needed for

evaluating elite athlete’s dietary supplement use. Sport nutritionist involvement is Selleckchem Wnt inhibitor required to ensure well balanced diet for high training athletes. Acknowledgements and Funding The data collection for this study was supported by the Finnish Olympic Committee. We would like to thank Paul Lemetti for editing the English edition of our manuscript. References this website 1. Braun Interleukin-2 receptor H, Koehler K, Geyer H, Kleiner J, Mester J, Schanzer W: Dietary Supplement use among Elite Young German Athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2009, 19:97–109.PubMed 2. Dascombe BJ, Karunaratna

M, Cartoon J, Fergie B, Goodman C: Nutritional Supplementation Habits and Perceptions of Elite Athletes within a State-Based Sporting Institute. J Sci Med Sport 2010, 13:274–80.PubMedCrossRef 3. Duellman MC, Lukaszuk JM, Prawitz AD, Brandenburg JP: Protein Supplement Users among High School Athletes have Misconceptions about Effectiveness. J Strength Cond Res 2008, 22:1124–1129.PubMedCrossRef 4. Erdman KA, Fung TS, Doyle-Baker PK, Verhoef MJ, Reimer RA: Dietary Supplementation of High-Performance Canadian Athletes by Age and Gender. Clin J Sport Med 2007, 17:458–464.PubMedCrossRef 5. Froiland K, Koszewski W, Hingst J, Kopecky L: Nutritional Supplement use among College Athletes and their Sources of Information. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004, 14:104–120.PubMed 6. Huang SH, Johnson K, Pipe AL: The use of Dietary Supplements and Medications by Canadian Athletes at the Atlanta and Sydney Olympic Games. Clin J Sport Med 2006, 16:27–33.PubMedCrossRef 7. Nieper A: Nutritional Supplement Practices in UK Junior National Track and Field Athletes. Br J Sports Med 2005, 39:645–649.PubMedCrossRef 8. Petroczi A, Naughton DP, Mazanov J, Holloway A, Bingham J: Performance Enhancement with Supplements: Incongruence between Rationale and Practice.

2010) Therefore, there appears to be no publication bias regardi

2010). Therefore, there appears to be no publication bias regarding the most described performance-based measure. To Tariquidar prevent publication bias resulting in a higher level of evidence due to studies of less than good quality, the evidence synthesis was formulated in such a way that regardless of the number of studies of moderate or poor quality, the qualification remained “limited”. This stringent evidence synthesis was also used to do justice to the heterogeneity of the included studies regarding not only the different performance-based tests and outcome measures for work

participation but also for differences regarding chronic and non-chronic patients with MSDs in different body regions, Selleck AZD6738 rehabilitation and occupational setting, and treatment and non-treatment studies. Performance-based tests can be performed in patients with severe MSDs (pain intensity 7 out of 10 or higher). Patients with severe MSDs were indeed included in the studies. Of course, regardless of pain intensity, if a person is not willing to participate, then the reliability and the validity of the

results should be reconsidered. In the included studies, participants were able to perform the tests and no comments were made about unwillingness to perform a test, In test practice, however, patients’ willingness BIBW2992 mw to perform to full capacity is seldom a matter of 100 or 0% but almost always somewhere in between. None of the studies reported to have controlled for level of effort. When looking at these tests

as measures of behavior, it is plausible that physically submaximal effort has occurred, which is consistent with the definition of FCE and also observed in a systematic review by van Abbema et al. (2011). Performance-based measures and work participation The use of performance-based measures to guide decisions on work participation (pre- and periodic work screens, return-to-work, and disability Anacetrapib claim assessments) is still under debate, at least in the Netherlands (Wind et al. 2006). This is not only due to the time-consuming nature of some of these assessments but also to its perceived limited evidence for predictive value regarding work participation. Regarding the time-consuming nature, this study also showed that a number of tests were predictive of work participation: lifting tests (Gross et al. 2004; Gross and Battié 2005, 2006; Gouttebarge et al. 2009a; Hazard et al. 1991; Matheson et al. 2002; Strand et al. 2001; Vowles et al. 2004), a 3-min step test and a lifting test (Bachman et al. 2003; Kool et al. 2002), a short-form FCE consisting of tests specific for the region of complaints (Gross and Battié 2006; Branton et al. 2010), and a trunk strength test (Mayer et al. 1986). A performance-based lifting test was most often used and appeared to be predictive of work participation in 13 of these 14 studies—especially a lifting test from floor-to-waist level in patients with chronic low back pain.

Recombinant rP1-I, rP1-II, rP1-III and rP1-IV proteins are immuno

Recombinant rP1-I, rP1-II, rP1-III and rP1-IV proteins are immunogenic High antibody responses were seen against

each of the four recombinant proteins. The time course response for each of the recombinant proteins showed that the antibody titers gradually increased Selleckchem PLX3397 after first and second booster and peaked after the second boost. An additional figure file [see Additional file 1] shows the time dependent response for recombinant P1-I protein. Almost similar antigenic responses were observed for other three P1 protein fragments (data not shown). The end point titers for each protein were > 1 × 105. Western blotting for all the four recombinant proteins with their respective antibodies confirmed the specificity of each antibody. All these antibodies showed major reactivity with ~170 kDa band of P1 protein in M. pneumoniae lysate by ELISA (Figure 3B) and western blotting. Anti-P1 antibodies also reacted with few additional bands in M. pneumoniae lysate. These additional bands probably represent the degraded P1 protein bands (Figure 3A). No cross reactivity was observed between each of the four antibodies (Figure 3C & 3D). Almost

similar reactivity was observed with two other P1 protein fragments rP1-II & rP1-III (data not shown). These results indicated that all the four P1 protein fragments P005091 are immunogenic and antibodies are specific as they only recognized the corresponding protein fragment. Pre-bleed and control Selleckchem CAL-101 rabbit sera showed no reactivity with any of the recombinant protein fragments. An additional figure

file [see Additional file 2] shows the reactivity of each protein fragment with pre-bleed sera. Figure 3 Western blot and ELISA analysis of M. pneumoniae lysate and Cross reactivity of Pab (rP1-I) and Pab (rP1-IV). Reactivity of P1 (170 kDa) with anti-P1 protein fragments antibody Pab (rP1-I), Pab (rP1-II), Pab (rP1-III) & Pab (rP1-IV) rose in Rabbit by western blotting (A) and by ELISA (B). (C) &(D) Immuno blot analysis of rP1-I, rP1-II, rP1-III and rP1-IV fragments with Pab (rP1-I) and Pab (rP1-IV) showing their cross reactivity with respective sera. Lane Marker: L-NAME HCl Molecular mass marker (kDa). Recombinant rP1-I, rP1-II, rP1-III and rP1-IV proteins were recognized by anti-M. pneumoniae antibody and by sera of M. pneumoniae infected patients All the four recombinant proteins were analyzed for their reactivity to anti-M. pneumoniae antibody and pooled sera of M. pneumoniae infected patients. To do so, 1 μg of each recombinant protein was loaded on SDS-PAGE gel (Figure 4A-I) and the proteins were blotted to nitrocellulose membrane. As shown in Figures 4A-II & III, all the four proteins showed similar reactivity with either of the two sera. We next compared the reactivity of the four recombinant proteins with fifteen and twenty-five sera of M. pneumoniae infected patients by western blot analysis and by ELISA respectively. Figures 4B & 5A shows the reactivity of the recombinant proteins with sera of M.

Electric field imprinting of GMN is based on electric-field-assis

Electric field imprinting of GMN is based on electric-field-assisted dissolution [12–15] (EFAD) of nanoparticles in glass matrix at elevated temperature. This is to control their spatial distribution via application of DC voltage to the GMN using a structured electrode (stamp). The imprinting enables multiple replication of the stamp image to GMN [14, 16], that MK 8931 mw is, mass fabrication of GMN structures. This paper

is focused on the characterization of the resolution of GMN EFI using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Methods this website Silver-based GMN sample was prepared in a plate of commercial 1-mm thick soda-lime glass using silver-to-sodium ion exchange followed by hydrogen-assisted reduction of silver ions and metal clustering as it was reported elsewhere [17]. According to the results of our previous studies [17], after such processing, the vast majority of the formed silver nanoparticles is located within 200- to 300-nm layer buried under the sample surface at the depth of approximately 100 nm, the diameter of the nanoparticles being around 4 nm. We characterized optical extinction

of the sample with optical absorption spectroscopy. The spectra were measured with UV-vis Specord 50 spectrometer (Analytyk Jena, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse, TPCA-1 Jena, Germany). To find the linewidth achievable in the EFI, a profiled glassy carbon [18] stamp with the set of 350-nm deep grooves of 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, and 600 nm in width was fabricated with EBL. The

distance between the grooves was equal to 2 μm. The widths and depths of the grooves were checked with scanning electron Interleukin-3 receptor microscopy (SEM), Zeiss Leo 1550 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse, Oberkochen Germany). The stamp was used as the anode in the EFI of both the GMN sample and the plate of virgin glass. The imprinting was carried out at 250°C under 600 V DC. The imprinted structure was studied using AFM and SNOM techniques using AIST-NT SmartSPM scanning probe microscope and AIST-NT CombiScope Scanning Probe Microscope with optical fiber probe (AIST NT Inc., Novato, CA USA). Numerical modelling was carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics®; package (COMSOL, Inc., Burlington, MA, USA). Results and discussion The measured optical spectrum of the GMN exhibits strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption centered at 415 nm, and the SPR peak drops after the electric field imprinting (see Figure 1a). The observed blueshift of the SPR peak after the EFI process can be explained by two effects.

These mutually exclusive R/M systems were shown to protect agains

These mutually exclusive R/M systems were shown to protect against viral infection by viruses produced in cells of the opposite genotype, reducing infection frequency to < 10-5 [35]. The R/M cassette has a size compatible with horizontal transfer by transformation, so we wondered if

the distribution of the R/M cassettes could be correlated to the pherotype and thereby contribute to promote asymmetries of horizontal gene transfer within the pneumococcal population. To pursue this hypothesis, the R/M cassette carried by pneumococcal see more isolates previously characterized by MLST was determined. The proportion of CSP-2 isolates with the dpnII cassette (3/23) is lower than the proportion of CSP-1 isolates with that same cassette (25/67) and the association between

pherotype and the R/M system is significant (p = 0.037, selleckchem Fisher exact test), suggesting that phage transduction may be indirectly arbitrated PI3K inhibitor by the pherotype via the R/M systems, such that the spread of large genetic elements that rely on this mechanism of horizontal gene transfer could also be limited by pherotype. Pherotype is a marker of population segregation MLST data has been used to characterize the clonality of bacterial populations and to explore the impact of recombination and mutation in bacterial evolution [4]. For S. pneumoniae

the recombination rate has been estimated to be 3-10 times the mutation rate per locus [28, 36]. To test if the pherotype could be limiting the genetic exchanges within pneumococci, we took the simple approach of testing among all pairs of sequence types that diverge at the allele of a single locus (single-locus variants – SLV) and that should represent the initial stages of diversification dominated by recombination, if the allele that differed was more frequent among sequence types sharing the same pherotype or among isolates of a different pherotype. Considering the observed SLV pairs in our study, the probability that the changing allele Tryptophan synthase came from a different pherotype is 0.11. In a panmictic population, the expected probability would be 0.38 (p < 10-4, permutation test), again suggesting that recombination between pherotypes is reduced. To test if the populations defined by each pherotype showed genetic differentiation we analyzed the concatenated sequences of six of the genes used in MLST, excluding ddl since it was previously shown that this gene showed a hitchhiking effect with pbp2b involved in penicillin resistance[37] and could thus bias the results.

J Strength Cond Res 2009, 23:962–971 PubMedCrossRef 45 Oopik V,

J Strength Cond Res 2009, 23:962–971.PubMedCrossRef 45. Oopik V, Paasuke M, Timpmann S, Medijainen L, Ereline J, Gapejeva J: Effects of creatine supplementation during recovery from rapid body mass reduction on metabolism and muscle performance capacity

in well-trained wrestlers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2002, 42:330–339.PubMed 46. Steenge GR, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL: Protein- and carbohydrate-induced augmentation of whole body creatine retention in humans. J Appl Physiol 2000, 89:1165–1171.PubMed 47. Kerksick CM, learn more Wilborn CD, Campbell WI, Harvey TM, Marcello BM, Roberts MD, Parker AG, Byars AG, Greenwood LD, Almada AL, et al.: The effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation with and without D-pinitol on resistance training adaptations. J Strength Cond Res 2009, 23:2673–2682.PubMedCrossRef 48. Dash AK, Sawhney A: A simple LC method with UV detection for the analysis of creatine and creatinine and its application to several creatine formulations. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2002, 29:939–945.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests AlzChem AG (Trostberg, Germany) provided funding for this study NVP-HSP990 through a research grant to Texas A&M University. All researchers involved independently collected, analyzed, and interpreted the results from this study and have no financial interests concerning the outcome of this investigation. RBK has received grants as Principal Investigator through institutions

with which he has Thiazovivin in vitro been affiliated to conduct exercise and nutrition related research, has served as a legal and scientific consultant, and currently serves as a scientific consultant for Woodbolt International (Bryan, TX). Remaining coauthors have

no competing interests to declare. Data from this study have been presented at the International Society of Sports Nutrition Annual meeting and have not been submitted for publication to any other journals. Publication of these findings should not be viewed as endorsement by the investigators or their institutions of the nutrients investigated. Authors’ contributions ARJ served 6-phosphogluconolactonase as the study coordinator, oversaw all testing, and assisted in data analysis and writing of the manuscript. JMO assisted in data collection and statistical analysis. AS assisted with data collection. EG assisted with data collection and reviewed and approved nutritional records as the studies’ registered dietitian. JF and SR supervised the biopsy procedures. MG assisted in experimental design, data analysis, and manuscript preparation. KK supervised muscle assays and CM served as a collaborating scientist. CR served as lab coordinator and oversaw data collection and quality control of the study. RBK served as Principal Investigator and contributed to the design of the study, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, and procurement of external funding. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Jpn J Pharmacol 1992;58(Suppl):342 12 Kario K, Sato Y, Shiraya

Jpn J Pharmacol. 1992;58(Suppl):342. 12. Kario K, Sato Y, Shirayama M, et al. Inhibitory effects of azelnidipine (Calblock®) tablet on early-morning hypertension (At-HOME Study) [in Japanese]. J Clin Ther Med. 2008;24(12):1083–98. 13. Ishikawa J, Kario K, Hoshide S, et al. Determinants of exaggerated difference in morning and evening blood HSP inhibitor pressure measured by self-measured blood pressure monitoring in medicated hypertensive patients: Jichi Morning Hypertension Research (J-MORE) Study. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18(7):958–65.PubMedCrossRef 14. Fukunaga E, Ohkubo T, Ohara T, et al. Current situation in home blood pressure measurement in Japan: practice and

significance of 1,928 doctors. An investigation of the current situation in home blood Thiazovivin solubility dmso pressure measurement ARRY-438162 supplier [in Japanese]. J Blood Pressure. 2006;13:122–8. 15. Ohara T, Ohkubo T, Kikuya M, et al. Current situation in

home blood pressure measurement in Japan: practice and significance in 8,506 outpatients [in Japanese]. An investigation of the current situation in home blood pressure measurement. J Blood Pressure. 2006;13:103–10. 16. Matsui Y, Eguchi K, Shibasake S, et al. Association between the morning–evening difference in home blood pressure and cardiac damage in untreated hypertensive patients. J Hypertens. 2009;27:712–20.PubMedCrossRef 17. Sada T, Mizuno M, Miyama T, et al. Pharmacological characteristics of azelnidipine, a long-acting calcium antagonist,

having vascular affinity (No. 2)—antihypertensive effect and pharmacokinetics in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) [in Japanese]. Jpn Pharmacol Ther. 2002;30(9):711–20. 18. Sada T, Mizuno M, Oohata K, et al. Antiatherosclerotic effect of azelnidipine, a long-acting calcium antagonist with high lipophilicity, in cholesterol-fed rabbits [in Japanese]. Jpn Pharmacol Ther. 2002;30(9):721–8.”
“Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has a well established association with the development of genital warts and many types of cancer, including cervical, anal, oropharyngeal, and penile cancer.[2,3] It is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US,[2] with an annual prevalence of 1% of the sexually BCKDHB active population.[3] It has been estimated that 80% of sexually active women will acquire HPV infection by the time they are aged 50 years.[2] Rates among men are also high, with estimates of ≈65–70% of males being infected with HPV.[4] Young people appear to be most at risk, with 74% of annual HPV infections occurring in men and women aged 14–24 years.[2] While most HPV infections are transient,[2,3] ≈10% lead to persistent infection.[2] Approximately 40 of the >100 known HPV types have been shown to infect the anogenital tract.

Other countries in Europe have their investments at about 100 mil

Other countries in Europe have their investments at about 100 million euros per year and with well-tailored targets to achieve their interest and maintain global competitiveness and sustainability. Observatory NANO [14] reported that the Russian government has since 2006 launched their nanotechnology activities

with block funding from various government agencies with Federal Agency for Science and Innovation (ROSNAUKA) as the implementing body. They have two main bodies charged with overall activities of nanotechnology: the Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies – as an agency responsible for commercialization of nanoproducts and innovations targeting to create many nanotechnology industries by 2015 [20]. Another agency

is the National Nanotechnology Network – a body charged with responsibility of coordinating activities of over 480 R&D institutions and about 1,700 researchers. The this website focus of Russia which is on using cluster manufacturing approach is signaling pathway to produce nanomaterials, nanomedicine, nanophotonics, and nanoelectronics for ICT. Current research and development empowerment nations Discussion on the implications of nanotechnology is going on well among developing countries. Many see nanotechnology as an opportunity for further exploitation of the developing countries [21], whilst others see it as an opportunity to promote sustainability by focusing on the gains [22]. Both opinions may be crotamiton correct for a nation, depending on what they believe and the steps taken. Court et al. [23] categorized 10 developing countries as either fourth runners, middle ground, or up-comers, while Cozzens et al. [12] reported that the Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) countries dominate nanotechnology publications in the developing

countries. They further reported that there is very little activity outside the BRIC and that ‘The nanotechnology game appears to be largely limited to the affluent countries and the BRIC.’ Clearly, advancements in nanotechnology made in China and Russia is enormous that they are no longer in the same categories with other developing countries hence their inclusion in this study as national activity nations. There are also a few other developing countries that have joined the BRIC in the fourth runners’ category, because they have caught the vision of upcoming nanotechnology learn more industrial revolution, and have started their own nanotechnology initiatives through proper policy framework, robust budgetary plan, network linkages, and human capital development for successful national development in line with the effort of Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology-United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (APCTT‒UNESCAP) to facilitate regional collaborations in nanotechnology innovation and industrial application [24]. These countries include South Africa, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand.