The Pioneer Researchers
Turner NJ (1999) “Time to burn”: traditional use of fire to enhance resource production by aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. In: Boyd R (ed) Indians, fire, and the land in the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, pp 185–218 Tveten RK, Fonda RW (1999) Fire effects on prairies and oak woodlands on Fort Lewis, Washington. Northwest Sci 73:145–158 Walker IR, Pellatt MG (2003) Climate change in coastal British Columbia—a paleoenvironmental perspective. Can Water Resour J 28:531–566CrossRef Walsh MK, Whitlock C, Bartlein PJ (2010) 1200 years of fire and vegetation history in the Willamette Valley, Oregon and Washington, reconstructed using high-resolution macroscopic charcoal selleck screening library and pollen analysis. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 297:273–289CrossRef Weisberg PJ, Swanson FJ (2003) Regional synchroneity in fire regimes of western Oregon and Washington, USA. Forest Ecol Manag 172:17–28 Weiser A, Lepofsky D (2009) Ancient land use and management of Ebey’s Prairie, Whidbey Island, Washington. J Ethnobiol 29:184–212CrossRef White CA, Perrakis DDB, Kafka VG, Ennis T (2011) Burning at the edge: Integrating biophysical and eco-cultural fire processes in Canada’s parks and protected areas. Fire Ecol 7:74–106CrossRef Whitlock LCL161 supplier C, Knox MA
(2002) Prehistoric burning in the Pacific Northwest: human versus climatic influences. In: Vale TR (ed) Fire, native peoples, and the natural landscape. Island Press, Washington, pp 195–231 Williams JW, Jackson ST, Kutzbach JE (2007) Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:5738–5742PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef”
Of all the land plants the orchids (Orchidaceae) are among the most beautiful and charismatic. Found on all continents except Antarctica, the Orchidaceae is one of the most diverse families of flowering Dipeptidyl peptidase plants with approximately 20,000 species (Smith et al. Smith 2004). In Maryland, 21 genera and 51 species are known (Knapp and Naczi unpublished data) occupying a diverse array of habitats from dry to wet substrates in Epigenetics inhibitor forested to open-sunny conditions (Brown and Brown 1984). In the Catoctin Mountains of Frederick Co., Maryland, 27 species (native and non-native) have been informally reported (Wieg and unpublished data). Of these 27 species, 21 were readily occurring at the onset of this study. Four are listed as threatened or endangered (Maryland Natural Heritage Program 2010): longbract frog orchid (Coeloglossum viride var. virescens, yellow fringed orchid (Platanthera ciliaris), greater purple fringed orchid (Platanthera grandiflora), and yellow nodding ladie’s tresses (Spiranthes ochroleuca). Two are listed as rare (Maryland Natural Heritage Program 2010): brown widelip orchid (Liparis liliifolia), and palegreen orchid (Platanthera flava var. herbiola).