These components include an inner-membrane-embedded polysaccharide
synthase, a periplasmic tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing scaffold protein, and an outer-membrane beta-barrel porin. There is also increasing Ganetespib evidence that many synthase-dependent systems are post-translationally regulated by the bacterial second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Here, we compare these core proteins in the context of the alginate, cellulose, and poly-beta-D-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) secretion systems.”
“The delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 underlies a majority of the somatic K+ current in neurons and is particularly important for regulating intrinsic neuronal excitability. Various AZD0156 clinical trial stimuli alter Kv2.1 channel gating as well as localization of the channel to cell-surface cluster domains. It has been postulated that specific domains within the C-terminus of Kv2.1 are critical for channel gating and sub-cellular localization; however, the distinct regions that govern these processes remain elusive. Here we show that the soluble C-terminal fragment of the closely related channel Kv2.2 displaces Kv2.1 from clusters in both rat hippocampal neurons and HEK293 cells, however neither steady-state activity nor N-methyl-D-aspartate
(NMDA)-dependent modulation is altered in spite of this non-clustered localization. Ribociclib supplier Further, we demonstrate that the C-terminus of Kv2.1 is not necessary for steady-state gating, sensitivity to intracellular phosphatase or NMDA-dependent modulation, though this region is required for localization of Kv2.1 to clusters. Thus, the molecular determinants of Kv2.1 localization and modulation are distinct regions of the channel that function independently. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Diabetes is associated with decreased muscle mass. The effect of higher levels of glucose and insulin on muscle mass has not been studied in individuals without diabetes. We sought to
determine the relationship of insulin and glucose measurements from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with muscle mass in persons without diabetes.
We analyzed data from 587 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (mean age 67.3 years, range 26-95 years) without diabetes who underwent a 2-hour OGTT, including glucose and insulin measurements taken every 20 minutes and assessment of midthigh muscle cross-sectional area by computed tomography, taken as a proxy measure of muscle mass. Linear regression models and Bayesian model averaging were used to explore the independent cross-sectional association of various OGTT-derived measures and midthigh muscle cross-sectional area, independent of confounders.