These components include an inner-membrane-embedded polysaccharid

These components include an inner-membrane-embedded polysaccharide

synthase, a periplasmic tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing scaffold protein, and an outer-membrane beta-barrel porin. There is also increasing Ganetespib evidence that many synthase-dependent systems are post-translationally regulated by the bacterial second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Here, we compare these core proteins in the context of the alginate, cellulose, and poly-beta-D-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) secretion systems.”
“The delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 underlies a majority of the somatic K+ current in neurons and is particularly important for regulating intrinsic neuronal excitability. Various AZD0156 clinical trial stimuli alter Kv2.1 channel gating as well as localization of the channel to cell-surface cluster domains. It has been postulated that specific domains within the C-terminus of Kv2.1 are critical for channel gating and sub-cellular localization; however, the distinct regions that govern these processes remain elusive. Here we show that the soluble C-terminal fragment of the closely related channel Kv2.2 displaces Kv2.1 from clusters in both rat hippocampal neurons and HEK293 cells, however neither steady-state activity nor N-methyl-D-aspartate

(NMDA)-dependent modulation is altered in spite of this non-clustered localization. Ribociclib supplier Further, we demonstrate that the C-terminus of Kv2.1 is not necessary for steady-state gating, sensitivity to intracellular phosphatase or NMDA-dependent modulation, though this region is required for localization of Kv2.1 to clusters. Thus, the molecular determinants of Kv2.1 localization and modulation are distinct regions of the channel that function independently. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Diabetes is associated with decreased muscle mass. The effect of higher levels of glucose and insulin on muscle mass has not been studied in individuals without diabetes. We sought to

determine the relationship of insulin and glucose measurements from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with muscle mass in persons without diabetes.

We analyzed data from 587 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (mean age 67.3 years, range 26-95 years) without diabetes who underwent a 2-hour OGTT, including glucose and insulin measurements taken every 20 minutes and assessment of midthigh muscle cross-sectional area by computed tomography, taken as a proxy measure of muscle mass. Linear regression models and Bayesian model averaging were used to explore the independent cross-sectional association of various OGTT-derived measures and midthigh muscle cross-sectional area, independent of confounders.

The patient also reported a transient inability to urinate for 36

The patient also reported a transient inability to urinate for 36 h before the visit. An abdominal ultrasound and blood chemistry were obtained. On day 5, he was referred by his physician to the emergency department for a serum creatinine of 9.2 mg/100 ml from day 3. At the time FHPI mw of admission, the patient reported using 5-6 g/day of ibuprofen for the previous 4 days and admitted to sniffing cocaine a few hours before the initial onset of flank pain.

On physical examination, the patient was a well-built African-American male with a temperature of 99.2 degrees

F, pulse rate of 60/min, blood pressure of 150/85 mmHg and weight of 85 kg (BMI 27.7 kg/m(2)). There was no orthostasis, pallor, or skin rash. The heart and lung examinations

were unremarkable. The abdomen Selonsertib manufacturer was soft, with no suprapubic dullness. There was no costovertebral angle tenderness or pitting edema. The extremity pulses were symmetric and equal.

Laboratory results are presented in Table 1. Serologic tests for hepatitis B and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor were negative. Serum complements, including C3, C4, and CH50, were within the normal range. Hemoglobin electrophoresis, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram were unremarkable. Renal ultrasound revealed normal-sized kidneys Tryptophan synthase with mildly increased echogenecity and no hydronephrosis. A (99m)Tc-MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) radionuclide renogram showed multiple wedge-shaped photopenic areas in both kidneys (Figure 1a). Owing to the absence of a clear explanation for the patient’s acute renal failure, renal biopsy was performed 12 days after the onset of symptoms.”
“Muscle weakness is consistently associated with falls in the elderly people, typically when present along with other risk

factors. However, it remains unknown whether and how muscle weakness alone affects balance. This hampers development of more effective fall prevention strategies. Clinical observations suggest that the amount and distribution of muscle weakness influences balance control. We therefore investigated balance corrections in patients with either predominantly proximal (limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD); n=8) or distal (distal spinal muscular atrophy; n=5) leg weakness, and 27 matched healthy controls. Balance was perturbed using surface tilt rotations that were delivered randomly in eight directions. Balance measures were full body kinematics and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) of leg, arm, and trunk muscles. Both patient groups were more unstable than controls, as reflected by greater excursions of the centre of mass (COM), especially in the pitch (anterior-posterior (AP)) plane. COM displacements were greater in distal weakness patients.

Subnuclear domains, designated BMRF1 cores, which were highly enr

Subnuclear domains, designated BMRF1 cores, which were highly enriched in viral polymerase processivity factor BMRF1 could be identified inside the replication compartments. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that newly synthesized viral genomes organized around the BMRF1 cores were transferred inward. HRR factors could be demonstrated mainly outside BMRF1 cores, where de novo synthesis of viral DNA was ongoing, whereas MMR factors were found predominantly inside. These results imply that de novo synthesis of viral DNA is coupled with HRR

outside the cores, followed by MMR selleck screening library inside cores for quality control of replicated viral genomes. Thus, our approach unveiled a viral genome manufacturing plant.”
“Serotonin transporter

(SERT) mediates the intracellular reuptake of released serotonin, thus regulating its biological functions. Abnormalities in serotonin reuptake can alter enteric serotonergic signalling, leading to sensory, motor and secretory gut dysfunctions, which contribute to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This relationship has fostered the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of IBS. Current data on the efficacy of SSRIs in IBS, association of the SERT gene promoter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR with IBS and the expression pattern of SERT in the intestinal mucosa of IBS patients are conflicting. Recent molecular studies have raised BTK inhibitor critical questions PRKACG about multiple SERT mRNA transcripts in the human gut, the role of polymorphic SERT promoter in the regulation of enteric SERT expression and the ability of 5-HTTLPR to affect human SERT gene transcription. The present review highlights recent advances in SERT genetics, discusses their implications for potential therapeutic applications of SSRIs in IBS and presents original suggestions for future investigations.”
“Serotonergic dysfunction appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) has been Suggested to be a valid indicator

of the brain serotonin system’s activity in humans. Patients with schizophrenia showed weaker LDAEP, indicating high scrotonergic activity, in comparison to healthy controls. Thus, we were able again to demonstrate electrophysiological evidence for an upregulated serotonergic system in schizophrenia. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Impaired perception of consonants by poor readers is reflected in poor subcortical encoding of speech timing and harmonics. We assessed auditory brainstem representation of higher harmonics within a consonant-vowel formant transition to identify relationships between speech fine structure and reading. Responses were analyzed in three ways: a single stimulus polarity, adding responses to inverted polarities (emphasizing low harmonics), and subtracting responses to inverted polarities (emphasizing high harmonics).

In preventive and therapeutic models of murine colitis, administr

In preventive and therapeutic models of murine colitis, administration of GG-52 significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, as assessed by disease activity index, colon length, and histology. In contrast, GG-50B did not show a significant reduction in the colitis severity. Moreover, the efficacy on attenuating colitis by GG-52 was comparable

to that by sulfasalazine or prednisolone. These results indicate that the novel guggulsterone derivative GG-52 blocks NF-kappa B activation in IEC and ameliorates DSS-induced acute murine colitis, which suggests that GG-52 is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Laboratory Investigation (2010) 90, 1004-1015; doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2010.54; published online 1 March 2010″
“The ability to retrieve temporal and spatial context information AICAR nmr from memory declines with healthy aging. The hippocampus (HC) has Capmatinib solubility dmso been shown to be associated with successful encoding and retrieval of spatio-temporal context, versus item recognition information (Davachi, Mitchell, &

Wagner, 2003; Nadel, Samsonovich, Ryan, & Moscovitch, 2000; Ross & Slotnick, 2008). Aging has been linked to volume reduction in the HC (Bouchard, Malykhin, Martin, Hanstock, Emery, Fisher, & Camicioli, 2008; Malykhin, Bouchard, Camicioli, & Coupland, 2008; Raz et al., 2005). As such, age-associated reductions in anterior HC volume may contribute to the context memory deficits observed in older adults. In the current MRI study we investigated whether item recognition, spatial context and temporal context IKBKE memory performance would be predicted by regional volumes in HC head (HH), body (HB) and tail (HT) volumes, using within group multiple regression analyses in a sample of 19 healthy young (mean age 24.3) and 20 older adults (mean age 67.7). We further examined between

age-group differences in the volumes of the same HC sub-regions. Multiple regression analyses revealed that in younger adults both spatial and temporal context retrieval performance was predicted by anterior HC volume. Older age was associated with significant volume reductions in HH and HB, but not HT; and with reduced ability to retrieve spatial and temporal contextual details from episodic memory. However, HC volumes did not predict context retrieval performance in older adults. We conclude that individual differences in anterior, not posterior, HC volumes predict context memory performance in young adults. With age there may be a posterior-to-anterior shift from using HC-related processes, due to HC volume loss, to employing the prefrontal cortex to aid in the performance of cognitively demanding context memory tasks. However, due to concomitant changes in the prefrontal system with age, there are limits to compensation in the aging brain. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Here we describe the successful co-development of vemurafenib, a

Here we describe the successful co-development of vemurafenib, a first-in-class selective inhibitor of oncogenic BRAF kinase, and its companion diagnostic, the cobas (R) 4800 BRAF V600 Mutation Test. Key success factors

in the development www.selleckchem.com/products/Pazopanib-Hydrochloride.html process included early identification of the BRAF V600E biomarker, early development of the diagnostic test, and early and close collaboration between the pharmaceutical and diagnostic development teams. This focused and integrated process resulted in the first personalized medicine for the treatment of metastatic melanoma less than five years after the Investigational New Drug Application, a remarkably short time.”
“Protein phosphorylation on serine, threonine, and tyrosine is well established as a crucial regulatory posttranslational modification in eukaryotes. With the recent whole-genome sequencing projects reporting the presence of serine/threonine kinases and two-component proteins both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the importance of protein phosphorylation in archaea and bacteria is gaining acceptance. While conventional biochemical methods failed to obtain a snapshot of the bacterial phosphoproteomes, advances

https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Temsirolimus.html in MS methods have paved the way for in-depth mapping of phosphorylation sites. Here, we present phosphoproteomes of two ecologically diverse non-enteric Gram-negative bacteria captured by a nanoLC-MS-based approach combined with a novel phosphoenrichment method. While the phosphoproteome data from the two species are not very similar, the results reflect high similarity to the previously published dataset in terms of the pathways the Vasopressin Receptor phosphoproteins belong to. This study additionally provides evidence to prior observations that protein phosphorylation is common in bacteria. Notably, phosphoproteins identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa belong to motility, transport, and pathogenicity pathways that are critical for survival and virulence. We report, for the first time, that motility

regulator A, probably acting via the novel secondary messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate, significantly affects protein phosphorylation in Pseudomonas putida.”
“The consensus view in mirror neuron research is that mirror neurons comprise a uniform, stable execution observation matching system. In this opinion article, we argue that, in light of recent evidence, this is at best an incomplete and oversimplified view of mirror neurons, where activity is actually variable and more plastic than previously theorized. We propose an epigenetic account for understanding developmental changes in sensorimotor systems, including variations in mirror neuron activity.

In experiment 1, ASD subjects

In experiment 1, ASD subjects Dasatinib in vitro exhibited significantly lower rates of correct responses in D1 but not in D2. In experiment 2, ASD subjects exhibited significantly longer response times in NT-U but not in TN-I. These results showed a deficit in holistic processing, which is consistent with weak central coherence in ASD. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The gene M94 of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) as well as its homologues UL16 in alphaherpesviruses is involved in viral morphogenesis. For a better understanding

of its role in the viral life cycle, a library of random M94 mutants was generated by modified transposon-based linker scanning mutagenesis. A comprehensive set of M94 mutants was reinserted into the MCMV genome and tested for their capacity to complement the M94 null mutant. Thereby, 34 loss-of-function mutants of M94 were identified, which were tested in a second screen for their see more capacity to inhibit virus replication. This analysis identified two N-terminal insertion mutants of M94 with a dominant negative effect. We compared phenotypes induced by the conditional expression of these dominant negative M94 alleles with the null phenotype of the M94 deletion. The viral gene expression cascade and the nuclear morphogenesis

steps were not affected in either setting. In both cases, however, secondary envelopment did not proceed in the absence of functional M94, and capsids subsequently accumulated in the center of the cytoplasmic assembly complex. In addition, deletion of M94 resulted in a block of cell-to-cell spread. Moreover, the dominant negative mutant of M94 demonstrated a defect in interacting with M99, the UL11 homologue of MCMV.”
“Although mood has a direct impact on mental and physical health, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying mood regulation is limited. Here, I propose that there is a direct reciprocal relation between the cortical activation of associations and mood regulation, whereby positive mood promotes associative processing, and PFKL associative processing promotes positive mood. This relation might stem from an evolutionary pressure for learning and predicting.

Along these lines, one can think of mood as a reward mechanism that guides individuals to use their brains in the most productive manner. The proposed framework has many implications, most notably for diagnosing and treating mood disorders such as depression; for elucidating the role of inhibition in the regulation of mood; for contextualizing adult hippocampal neurogenesis; and for a general, non-invasive improvement of well-being.”
“Difficulties in the ability to successfully inhibit impulsive behaviors have been reported in marijuana (MJ) smokers, yet few studies have made direct comparisons between early (prior to age 16) and late (age 16 or later) onset MJ smokers, specifically during behavioral inhibition tasks.

Although observed category-specific deficits were striking, they

Although observed category-specific deficits were striking, they were often Ralimetinib missed by the BNT, suggesting that they are more prevalent than recognized in both pre- and post-surgical epilepsy patients. Systematic investigation of these deficits could lead to more refined models of semantic memory, aid in the localization of seizures, and contribute to modifications in surgical technique and patient selection in epilepsy surgery to improve neurocognitive outcome. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background/Aims: Proteinuria, hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and oedema

are major characteristics of nephrotic syndrome. Aims of this study were to detect serum total LDH activity and its isozymes in nephrotic syndrome. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, clinical parameters were compared in three cohorts, namely kidney patients with or without nephrotic syndrome and hypoalbuminaemic controls (NEPHR, NON-NEPHR, CONTR, respectively).

Results: Serum total LDH activity in the NEPHR group was increased compared with the NON-NEPHR and CONTR groups (p < 0.001) and correlated with serum total protein (r = -0.549, p < 0.001), serum albumin (r = -0.596, p < 0.001), proteinuria (r = 0.456, p < 0.001) and serum total cholesterol (r = 0.523, p ! 0.001). LDH isozyme pattern was analysed in three subgroups of the patients. Serum LDH-2 activity was higher in the NEPHR subgroup compared with the NON-NEPHR and CONTR subgroups ( p ! 0.001). Serum LDH-2 activity

correlated with serum total protein (r = -0.665, p < Vactosertib 0.001), serum albumin (r = -0.615, p < 0.001), proteinuria (r = 0.694, p < 0.001), and serum total cholesterol (r = 0.723, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that serum total protein proved to be an independent predictor of serum total LDH activity, while serum total protein and proteinuria were predictors of LDH-2. Conclusions: These findings suggest that serum total LDH activity might be a marker of the activity of the nephrotic syndrome. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.”
“Humans excel at reciprocal altruism in which two individuals exchange altruistic acts to their mutual advantage. The evolutionary stability of this system depends on recognition of and discrimination until against non-reciprocators, and the human mind is apparently specialized for detecting non-reciprocators. Here we investigate the neural response to non-reciprocation of cooperation by imaging human subjects with fMRI as they play an iterated Prisoner’s dilemma game with two assumed human partners. Unreciprocated cooperation was associated with greater activity in bilateral anterior insula, left hippocampus and left lingual gyrus, compared with reciprocated cooperation. These areas were also more responsive to unreciprocated cooperation than to unsuccessful risk taking in a non-social context.

Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the pati

Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed Crizotinib neuropsychological assessment.

The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n = 37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n = 17) revealed bilateral

cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment.

Group https://www.selleckchem.com/products/sb273005.html analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral

to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms.”
“May’s [1972. Will a large complex system be stable? Nature 238, 413-414] local stability analysis of random food web models showed that increasing network complexity

leads to decreasing stability, a result that is contradictory to earlier empirical findings. Since this seminal work, research of complexity-stability relations became one of the most challenging issues in theoretical ecology. We investigate conditions for positive complexity-stability relations in the niche, cascade, nested hierarchy, and random models by evaluating the network robustness, i.e., the fraction of surviving species after population dynamics. We find that positive relations between robustness and complexity can be obtained when resources are large, Holling II functional response is used and interaction strengths are weighted with the number of prey species, in order to take foraging efforts into account. In order to obtain these results, no foraging dynamics needs Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase to be included. However, the niche model does not show positive complexity-stability relations under these conditions. By comparing to empirical food web data, we show that the niche model has unrealistic distributions of predator numbers. When this distribution is randomized, positive complexity-stability relations can be found also in the niche model. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

Trends in microbiology 2005,13(8):389–397 PubMedCrossRef 5 Sadik

Trends in microbiology 2005,13(8):389–397.GSK923295 research buy PubMedCrossRef 5. Sadikot RT, Blackwell TS, Christman JW, Prince AS: Pathogen-host interactions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005,171(11):1209–1223.PubMedCrossRef 6. Alcorn JF, Wright JR: Degradation of pulmonary surfactant protein D by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase abrogates innate immune function. J Biol Chem 2004,279(29):30871–30879.PubMedCrossRef 7.

Cowell BA, Twining SS, Hobden JA, Kwong MS, Fleiszig SM: Mutation of lasA and lasB reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion of epithelial cells. Microbiology 2003,149(Pt 8):2291–2299.PubMedCrossRef 8. Lau C646 solubility dmso GW, Hassett DJ, Ran H, Kong F: The role of pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Trends Mol Med 2004,10(12):599–606.PubMedCrossRef

9. Leduc D, Beaufort N, De Bentzmann S, Rousselle JC, Namane A, Chignard M, Pidard D: The Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasB metalloproteinase regulates the human urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor through domain-specific endoproteolysis. Infect Immun 2007,75(8):3848–3858.PubMedCrossRef 10. Matsumoto K: Role of bacterial proteases in pseudomonal and serratial keratitis. Biol Chem 2004,385(11):1007–1016.PubMed 11. Veesenmeyer JL, Hauser AR, Lisboa T, Rello J: Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and therapy: evolving translational strategies. Crit Care Med 2009,37(5):1777–1786.PubMedCrossRef 12. Cobb LM, Mychaleckyj JC, Wozniak DJ, Lopez-Boado YS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellin and alginate elicit very distinct gene expression patterns in airway epithelial cells: implications for cystic fibrosis disease. J Immunol 2004,173(9):5659–5670.PubMed 13. Fuchs EL, Brutinel ED, Jones AK, Fulcher NB, Urbanowski ML, Yahr TL, see more Wolfgang MC: The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vfr regulator controls global virulence factor expression through cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Bacteriol 2010,192(14):3553–3564.PubMedCrossRef

14. Smith RS, Wolfgang MC, Lory S: An adenylate cyclase-controlled signaling network regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence in a mouse model of acute pneumonia. Infect Immun buy 5-Fluoracil 2004,72(3):1677–1684.PubMedCrossRef 15. West SE, Sample AK, Runyen-Janecky LJ: The vfr gene product, required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and protease production, belongs to the cyclic AMP receptor protein family. J Bacteriol 1994,176(24):7532–7542.PubMed 16. Albus AM, Pesci EC, Runyen-Janecky LJ, West SE, Iglewski BH: Vfr controls quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . J Bacteriol 1997,179(12):3928–3935.PubMed 17. Beatson SA, Whitchurch CB, Sargent JL, Levesque RC, Mattick JS: Differential regulation of twitching motility and elastase production by Vfr in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . J Bacteriol 2002,184(13):3605–3613.PubMedCrossRef 18. Kanack KJ, Runyen-Janecky LJ, Ferrell EP, Suh SJ, West SE: Characterization of DNA-binding specificity and analysis of binding sites of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa global regulator, Vfr, a homologue of the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein.

Authors’ contributions AM participated in the study design, condu

Authors’ contributions AM participated in the study design, conducted the experimental work, analyzed and interpreted data, and wrote the manuscript. LS conducted the statistical analysis. KN and LA conceived the study, participated in the study design process and reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The Gram-negative bacterium Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) is among the most virulent serotypes of the four Shigella (S.) species (S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, selleck inhibitor S. sonnei and S. boydii). SD1 is a causative agent of shigellosis, a severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery in humans and primates

[1, 2]. Shigellosis is most prevalent in underdeveloped countries, with a mortality rate of 10-15% when untreated, killing about 1.1 million people of the roughly 120 million cases each year http://​www.​who.​int/​vaccine_​research/​diseases/​diarrhoeal/​en/​index6.​html. SD1 has an extremely low infectious dose of 10-100 organisms which has contributed to causing pandemic Shiga dysentery in several continents including Asia, Africa and Central America [2]. In addition to having a low infectious dose, Epacadostat nmr multi-drug antibiotic resistance to more than six types Palbociclib order of antibiotics (tetracycline, streptomycin,

chloramphenicol, etc.) has developed in several Shigella serotypes [3]. S. dysenteriae is also very closely related to Escherichia (E.) coli, with certain strains of E. coli (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, or STEC) producing the potent Shiga toxins (Stx) of which Stx1 is produced by SD1 as well [4]. Shiga toxin causes cell death primarily in the microvascular endothelium. A vaccine that is protective against Shigella serotypes is of utmost importance, and several attenuated vaccines are currently being developed and tested in human volunteers. Components of the Type Three Secretion

System (TTSS) encoded by a virulence plasmid are also involved in the pathogenesis of shigellosis [5]. Also called the Mxi-Spa system in Shigella, the TTSS is responsible for triggering entry into host epithelial cells and apoptosis in macrophages [6, 7]. The TTSS is activated upon contact selleckchem with host cells, leading to the integration of translocators in the host cell membranes which then promotes transit of effectors into host cells [8]. The TTSS and effector proteins thereby play an important role in infection and intra- and inter-cellular spreading of bacterial cells in the host intestinal epithelium [9]. O-antigens present in the cell surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Shigella also contribute to its virulence [2]. The Shigella O-antigen comprises of a toxic lipid A moiety embedded in the bacterial outer membrane, a core sugar region and an exposed terminal O-polysaccharide. In SD1, the O-polysaccharide consists of tetrasaccharide repeats that contain repeat units of three rhamnose residues and one N-acetylglucosamine [2].