We found that all 829TT homozygous individuals were HNA-2 deficie

We found that all 829TT homozygous individuals were HNA-2 deficient. In addition, the SNP 829A bigger than T genotypes were significantly associated with the percentage of HNA-2 positive neutrophils. Transfection experiments confirmed that HNA-2 expression was absent on cells expressing the CD177 SNP 829T allele. Our data clearly demonstrate that the CD177 SNP 829A bigger than T is the primary genetic determinant for HNA-2 deficiency and expression variations. The mechanistic delineation of HNA-2 genetics will enable the development AG-014699 solubility dmso of genetic tests for diagnosis and prognosis of HNA-2-related human diseases.”
“There has been increasing interest in recent years in describing the lateral organization

of membranes and the formation of membrane domains. Much of the focus in this area has been on the formation of cholesterolrich domains in mammalian membranes. However, it is likely that there are domains in all biological membranes. One of the challenges has been to define the chemical composition, lifetime and size of these domains. There is evidence that bacteria have domains that are enriched in cardiolipin. In addition, the formation of lipid domains can be induced BMN 673 mouse in bacteria by clustering negatively charged lipids with polycationic substances. Many antimicrobial compounds have multiple positive

charges. Such polycationic compounds can sequester anionic lipids to induce lipid phase separation. The molecular interactions among lipids and their lateral packing density will be different in a domain from its environment. This will lead MAPK inhibitor to phase boundary defects that will lower the permeability barrier between the cell and its surroundings. The formation of these clusters of anionic lipids may also alter the stability or composition of existing membrane domains that may affect bacterial function. Interestingly many antimicrobial agents are polycationic and therefore likely have some effect in promoting lipid phase segregation between anionic

and zwitter onic lipids. However, this mechanism is expected to be most important for substances with sequential positive charges contained within a flexible molecule that can adapt to the arrangement of charged groups on the surface of the bacterial cell. When this mechanism is dominant it can allow the prediction of the bacterial species that will be most affected by the agent as a consequence of the nature of the lipid composition of the bacterial membrane. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. Ail rights reserved.”
“Cdc7/Hsk1 is a conserved kinase required for initiation of DNA replication that potentially regulates timing and locations of replication origin firing. Here, we show that viability of fission yeast hsk1 Delta cells can be restored by loss of mrc1, which is required for maintenance of replication fork integrity, by cds1 Delta, or by a checkpoint-deficient mutant of mrc1.

In dermal fibroblasts, accumulation of glucosylceramide

In dermal fibroblasts, accumulation of glucosylceramide Rabusertib datasheet augments actin polymerization and promotes microtubules persistence, resulting in a

higher number of filopodia and lamellipodia and longer microtubules. Similar cytoskeletal defects were observed in male germ and Sertoli cells from GBA2 knockout-mice. In particular, the organization of F-actin structures in the ectoplasmic specialization and microtubules in the sperm manchette is affected. Thus, glucosylceramide regulates cytoskeletal dynamics, providing mechanistic insights into how glucosylceramide controls signaling pathways not only during sperm development, but also in other cell types.”
“Insulin resistance has been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased cardiovascular risk in several high-risk populations.

The purpose of this study was to determine if insulin resistance measured by insulin clamp can predict deterioration of glucose metabolism and increased cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic young adult African Americans. Nondiabetic young African American men (n = 60) and women (n = 114),were enrolled. Measurements obtained included blood pressure, anthropometrics, plasma lipids, oral glucose tolerance test, and insulin NVP-HSP990 mw sensitivity by insulin clamp. Participants were reexamined 8 years later. The relationship between insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism was analyzed using a 2-way analysis of variance with body mass index at the initial examination as a covariate. After adjusting for the significant difference of body mass index between the insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive groups, JNJ-26481585 Epigenetics inhibitor insulin resistance

predicted statistically significant worsening glucose metabolism, developing diabetes, and increasing risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Orb-weaving spiders (Araneidae) are commonly regarded as generalist insect predators but resources provided by plants such as pollen may be an important dietary supplementation. Their webs snare insect prey, but can also trap aerial plankton like pollen and fungal spores. When recycling their orb webs, the spiders may therefore also feed on adhering pollen grains or fungal spores via extraoral digestion. In this study we measured stable isotope ratios in the bodies of two araneid species (Aculepeira ceropegia and Araneus diadematus), their potential prey and pollen to determine the relative contribution of pollen to their diet. We found that about 25% of juvenile orb-weaving spiders’ diet consisted of pollen, the other 75% of flying insects, mainly small dipterans and hymenopterans. The pollen grains in our study were too large to be taken up accidentally by the spiders and had first to be digested extraorally by enzymes in an active act of consumption. Therefore, pollen can be seen as a substantial component of the spiders’ diet.

(C) 2014 Elsevier

Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2014 Elsevier

Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose To determine the risk of iatrogenic damage to the extensor tendons and sensory nerves under a bridge plate along the second versus third metacarpal. Methods Using 6 paired Adriamycin (left right) cadaver forearms wrists and via a volar approach, we created a distal radius fracture with metaphyseal comminution. We then applied a dorsal distraction plate to either the second or third metacarpal. We next performed dorsal dissection of the hand and wrist over the zone of injury to determine the position of the plate relative to the extensor tendons and sensory nerves. Results The bridge plate on the third metacarpal entrapped tendons of the first and third compartment in all 6 specimens. When the plate was

applied to the second metacarpal there were no cases of tendon entrapment. There were no instances of nerve entrapment in plating to either the second or third metacarpal. Conclusions BTK inhibitor Distraction plating has been proposed for use in the second and third metacarpals for unstable comminuted distal radius fractures. We recommend formal exposure of the extensor tendons over the zone of injury when applying a distraction bridge plate to the third metacarpal. Clinical relevance Plating to the second metacarpal decreases the risk of entrapment of extensor tendons compared with plating to the third metacarpal. Copyright (C) 2015 BYL719 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose To establish whether NSC80467, a novel fused naphthquinone imidazolium, has a similar spectrum of activity to the well-characterized “survivin suppressant” YM155 and to extend mechanistic studies for this structural class of agent.\n\nMethods NSC80467 and YM155 were analyzed in parallel using assays measuring viability, survivin suppression, inhibition of DNA/RNA/protein synthesis and the cellular response to DNA damage.\n\nResults GI(50) values generated for

both compounds in the NCI-60 screen yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.748, suggesting significant concordance. Both agents were also shown to inhibit protein expression of survivin [BIRC5]. COMPARE analysis identified DNA damaging agents chromomycin A3 and bisantrene HCl and one DNA-directed inhibitor of transcription, actinomycin D, as correlating with the activity of NSC80467 and YM155. Furthermore, both agents were shown to preferentially inhibit DNA, over RNA and protein synthesis. Thus, the ability of NSC80467 and YM155 to induce a DNA damage response was examined further. Treatment of PC3 cells with either agent resulted in dose-dependent induction of gamma H2AX and pKAP1, two markers of DNA damage. The concentrations of agent required to stimulate gamma H2AX were considerably lower than those required to inhibit survivin, implicating DNA damage as an initiating event.

92 mm during voiding CONCLUSIONSAll the men in our study

92 mm during voiding.\n\nCONCLUSIONS\n\nAll the men in our study showed relaxation of the pelvic floor, followed by a descent

of the bladder neck. Voiding could not be initiated unless the prostate rotated around the symphysis.\n\nThe study suggests that both the rotation and a vertical contraction of the prostate precede voiding.\n\nThe anatomy of physiological voiding or voiding dysfunction can be investigated non-invasively using rtMRI.”
“Acquired neonatal lung lesions including pneumatoceles, cystic bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and pulmonary interstitial emphysema can cause extrinsic mediastinal compression, which may impair pulmonary and cardiac function. Acquired lung lesions are typically managed medically. DMH1 Here we report a case series of three extremely premature infants with acquired lung lesions. All three patients underwent aggressive medical management and ultimately required tube thoracostomies. These interventions were Selleck Alvespimycin unsuccessful and emergency thoracotomies were performed in each case. Two infants with acquired pneumatoceles underwent unroofing of the cystic structure and primary repair of a bronchial defect. The third infant with pulmonary interstitial emphysema, arising from cystic bronchopulmonary dysplasia, required a middle lobectomy for severe and diffuse cystic disease.

When medical management fails, tube thoracostomy can be attempted, leaving surgical intervention for refractory cases. Surgical options include oversewing a bronchial defect in the setting of a bronchopleural fistula or lung resection in cases of an isolated expanding lobe.”
“Purpose: Fatty liver infiltrations and fatty sparing impair diagnostic performance of grey-scale ultrasonography in differentiating malignant and benign focal liver lesions.\n\nIn the study, we present our experience in diagnosing focal fatty

liver infiltrations and focal fatty sparing with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in comparison to grey-scale ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT).\n\nMaterial and Method: The retrospective study group (n=82 patients), included 44 Momelotinib (53.7%) men, 38 (46.3%) women (aged 29-81 years, mean 55.8 years) with 48 focal fatty liver infiltrations and 34 focal fatty sparing. All patients underwent grey-scale ultrasonography (US), CEUS using SonoVue (R) and CECT executed within the 7 days.\n\nResults: With US, CEUS and CECT focal fatty liver infiltrations were diagnosed in 22, 46 and 44 cases, respectively. The following values were obtained: sensitivity – 45.8%, 95.8% and 91.7%, specificity – 100% for all, accuracy – 95.2%, 99.6% and 99.3%, respectively. Focal fatty sparing was diagnosed in 16, 31 and 30 cases, respectively. The following values were obtained: sensitivity – 47.1%, 91.2% and 88.2%, specificity – 99.8%, 100% and 100%, accuracy – 95.6%, 99.4% and 99.3%, respectively.

(C) 2010 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“The soybean

(C) 2010 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“The soybean aspartic proteinase gene soyAP1 has previously been shown to be expressed specifically in soybean seeds. To investigate the expression pattern and active cis-elements of the soyAP1 promoter, the 1,650-bp 5′-upstream genomic DNA fragment named PS-552 was isolated by PCR walking. Sequence

analysis revealed that this fragment contains a series of motifs related to seed-specific promoters and some pollen-expressed elements. Stable expression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the PS-552 promoter can regulate beta-glucuronidase gene accumulation in mature seeds at much higher levels than other tissues, especially vegetative tissues, and exhibits similar activity to the 35S promoter in mature seeds. These results show that the PS-552 Vorinostat promoter is a highly active promoter controlling downstream gene expression, mainly in mature seeds. The 5′-end deletion studies of PS-552 showed that the cis-elements of CAAACAC, AACA, E-box, and CCAA

play a role in increasing the seed-specific activity. The proportion of mature seed activity and flower activity was increased as the deletion fragment lengthened, indicating that seed cis-elements possibly lessen or suppress the effect of pollen-expressed selleck chemicals llc elements, increasing the activity of PS-552 in mature seeds.”
“This paper concerns the formation of biofilm in bacteria of the genus Arcobacter. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was introduced and optimized for detecting biofilm while using the intercalating dyes ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA), first for analysis of strains of the genus Arcobacter from a collection, and then applied to samples of prepared biofilms. The results LCL161 ic50 of the study indicate considerable variability among species of bacteria within the genus Arcobacter. The EMA-PMA PCR method can distinguish viable cells from dead cells and is therefore suitable for determining the viability of cells.”
“This paper reviews progress on understanding biological carbon sequestration in

the ocean with special reference to the microbial formation and transformation of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (RDOC), the microbial carbon pump (MCP). We propose that RDOC is a concept with a wide continuum of recalcitrance. Most RDOC compounds maintain their levels of recalcitrance only in a specific environmental context (RDOCt). The ocean RDOC pool also contains compounds that may be inaccessible to microbes due to their extremely low concentration (RDOCc). This differentiation allows us to appreciate the linkage between microbial source and RDOC composition on a range of temporal and spatial scales. Analyses of biomarkers and isotopic records show intensive MCP processes in the Proterozoic oceans when the MCP could have played a significant role in regulating climate.

We also attempted to

estimate cherry full-flowering dates

We also attempted to

estimate cherry full-flowering dates from phenological records of other deciduous species, adding further data for 6 years in the tenth and eleventh centuries by using the flowering phenology of Japanese wisteria (Wisteria floribunda). The reconstructed tenth century March mean temperatures were around 7A degrees C, indicating warmer conditions than at present. Temperatures then fell until the 1180s, recovered gradually until the 1310s, and then declined again in the mid-fourteenth www.selleckchem.com/products/BMS-754807.html century.”
“We assessed the satisfaction of onboard caregivers with the maritime telehealth service provided by the Centre de Consultations Medicales Maritimes (CCMM). We conducted a survey of captains and caregivers by email. Of the 385 surveys sent out, 165 (43%) were completed. Eighty four percent of responders (n = 110) thought that waiting time was satisfactory or very satisfactory, and 97% (n = 128) were satisfied or very satisfied with their relationship with the remote physician. Thirty eight per cent

of participants (n = 50) considered that the physician understood the medical Quisinostat problem very well; understanding was good in 58% of cases (n = 76) and bad in only 4% of cases (n = 5). Sixty two per cent of participants (n = 83) sent pictures before consultation. The respondents were also satisfied with the telephone advice overall, the competence of the physicians providing the advice, the length of time spent waiting, the verbal prescription and the medical advice given. Onboard caregivers were generally well satisfied with the maritime teleconsultations and the advice provided by the CCMM physicians.”
“The central melanocortin system plays an essential

role in the regulation of energy balance. While anorexigenic effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) acting in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), a critical medullary autonomic control center, have been established, the cellular events underlying these effects are less well characterized. In this study, we used whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine firstly whether alpha-MSH exerts direct postsynaptic Tipifarnib price effects on the membrane potential of rat NTS neurons in slice preparation, and secondly whether alpha-MSH influences GABAergic signaling in the NTS. In normal artificial cerebrospinal fluid, perfusion of alpha-MSH (500 nM) resulted in a depolarization in 39% of cells (n = 16, mean 6.14 +/- 0.54 mV), and a hyperpolarization in 22% of cells (n= 9, -6.79 +/- 1.02 mV). Studies using tetrodotoxin to block neuronal communication revealed alpha-MSH exerts direct depolarizing effects on some NTS neurons, and indirect inhibitory effects on others. A third subset of neurons is simultaneously directly depolarized and indirectly hyperpolarized by alpha-MSH, resulting in a net lack of effect on membrane potential.

With the discovery of fibronectin, a “structural glycoprotein”, s

With the discovery of fibronectin, a “structural glycoprotein”, started the study of cell-matrix interactions, reinforced by the identification of cell-receptors mediating them and the “cross-talk” between cells and matrix constituents. The first initiative to organise societies for this rapidly growing discipline was that of Ward Pigman in New York in 1961, restricted however to glycol-conjugates. Next year, in 1962 was founded the first European Connective Tissue Society in Paris: the “Club francais du tissu conjonctif’, which played

a crucial role in the establishment of schools, laboratories, national and international meetings in the major cities of France: Paris, Lyon, Reims, Caen,Toulouse. A second European society was born in Great Britain, and at a joint meeting with the French ALK assay society at the Paris Pasteur Institute, was founded in 1967 by these societies the Federation of European Connective Tissue Societies (FECTS). Their meetings, organised every second year, drained a wide attendance from all over the world. An increasing number of young AEB071 scientists joined since then this branch of biomedical discipline with several international journals devoted to connective tissue

research, to matrix biology. The increasing number and quality of the young generation of scientists engaged in research related to the extracellular matrix or better Biomatrix and cell-matrix interactions is a further guarantee for the continued interest in this crucial field of science at the interface BMS-345541 datasheet of basic and medically oriented research. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Evidence indicates that vitamin D involves in development of brain as well as its function. This study assesses occurrence of long term potentiation (LTP), as an experimental form of synaptic plasticity, in adult rats under the normal regimen (CON), and the regimens without vitamin D (CON D) or with a supplement of 1,25(OH)2D3 (CON+D). Stimulating the Schaffer collaterals pre- and post-tetanus excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs)

were recorded in the CA1 area of hippocampus in anesthetized animals. Amplitude change of the EPSPs was considered for comparisons. Our results indicated that the basic EPSPs were similar in the three groups. Tetanization elicited a considerable LIP in both the CON and CON+D rats but a moderate potentiation in the CON D group. We concluded that optimal level of vitamin D is required for induction of LTP. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Post-tonsillectomy swallowing pain is a common and distressing side effect after tonsillectomy and thus of great clinical interest. Up until now, there is no randomized controlled patient- and observer-blinded study evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture against swallowing pain after tonsillectomy.

In WT controls, EDHF-dependent vasodilation was significantly dim

In WT controls, EDHF-dependent vasodilation was significantly diminished after an inhibition of K+ channel, EETs synthesis, or H2O2 production. Our molecular results indicate that mRNA and protein expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were greater in db/db versus WT and db(TNF-)/db(TNF-) mice, but neutralizing antibody to IL-6 (anti-IL-6; 0.28 mg . ml(-1) . kg(-1) ip for 3 days) attenuated IL-6 expression in db/db mice. The incubation of the microvessels with IL-6 (5 ng/ml) induced endothelial dysfunction in the presence of L-NAME and Indo MAPK Inhibitor Library cell assay in WT

mice, but anti-IL-6 restored ACh-induced vasodilation in the presence of L-NAME and Indo in db/db mice. In db(TNF-)/db(TNF-) mice, EDHF-induced vasodilation was greater and comparable with controls, but IL-6 decreased EDHF-mediated vasodilation. Our results indicate that Staurosporine cell line EDHF compensates for diminished NO-dependent dilation in IL-6-induced endothelial dysfunction by the activation of H2O2 or a K+ channel in type 2 diabetes.”
“We sought to determine the effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on clustered metabolic risk and related outcomes in healthy older adults in a single-centre, explanatory randomised controlled trial.\n\nParticipants from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (born

1931-1939) were randomly assigned to 36 supervised 1 h sessions on a cycle ergometer over 12 weeks or to a non-intervention control group. Randomisation and group allocation were conducted by the study co-ordinator, using a software programme. Those with prevalent diabetes, unstable ischaemic heart disease or poor mobility were excluded. All data were collected at our clinical research facility in Cambridge. Components of the metabolic syndrome were used to derive a standardised composite Microbiology inhibitor metabolic risk score (zMS) as the primary outcome. Trial status: closed to follow-up.\n\nWe randomised 100 participants (50 to the intervention, 50 to the control group). Mean age was 71.4 (range 67.4-76.3) years.

Overall, 96% of participants attended for follow-up measures. There were no serious adverse events. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, we saw a non-significant reduction in zMS in the exercise group compared with controls (0.07 [95% CI -0.03, 0.17], p = 0.19). However, the exercise group had significantly decreased weight, waist circumference and intrahepatic lipid, with increased aerobic fitness and a 68% reduction in prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism (OR 0.32 [95% CI 0.11-0.92], p = 0.035) compared with controls. Results were similar in per-protocol analyses.\n\nEnrolment in a supervised aerobic exercise intervention led to weight loss, increased fitness and improvements in some but not all metabolic outcomes.


“Though the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in femal


“Though the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in female infertility has been a subject of rigorous research worldwide, there is inadequate information on the cut-off value of ROS in the oocyte microenvironment beyond which ART outcome may be adversely affected. An upper ROS level in follicular fluid (FF) samples of women undergoing IVF beyond which good quality embryo formation is unlikely, is established. ROS, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity were estimated. The upper cut-off ROS level beyond which viable embryo formation is not favorable was found to be similar to 107

cps/400 mu l FF. This level, determined in women with tubal factor infertility, was further validated click here in women with endometriosis and PCOS and correlated with fertilization and pregnancy rate and embryo quality. Summarizing, a threshold level in FF has been established for the first time beyond which ROS may be considered toxic for viable embryo formation and pregnancy outcome. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To assess the feasibility of sealing the thoracic duct (TD) in dogs using ultrasonically selleck chemical activated shears via thoracoscopy.\n\nStudy Design: In vivo experimental study.\n\nAnimals:

Mature dogs (n = 6).\n\nMethods: Dogs were anesthetized without pulmonary exclusion and positioned in left lateral recumbency. Lymphangiography was performed to identify TD anatomy. Methylene blue was injected into the lymphatic catheter to identify the TD and its branches. Under thoracoscopic guidance (right dorsal 8-10th intercostal spaces), the TD was sealed with an ultrasonic device and lymphangiography was repeated. If the flow of contrast continued beyond the occlusion site, additional attempts to seal the duct were CB-839 made. Dogs were euthanatized, the TD was excised and fixed in formalin for histopathology.\n\nResults: Thoracoscopic

identification of the TD was possible in 5 dogs. Three dogs required conversion to a thoracoscopic-assisted approach and 3 dogs required resealing of the TD closer to the diaphragm. Thoracic duct occlusion (TDO) was ultimately achieved in all 6 dogs based on follow-up lymphangiography. TDO by tissue coagulation was confirmed by histopathology.\n\nConclusions: Thoracoscopic identification and occlusion of the TD using ultrasonically activated shears with bilateral lung ventilation is technically feasible in normal dogs and provides a less invasive alternative to open thoracotomy procedures.”
“To investigate the susceptibility of Sri Lankan new entry university students to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among new entrant medical and engineering students of the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Self-reported history of chicken pox was studied first, followed by serological evaluation for VZV IgG antibodies.

Endogenous cellular Psor co-precipitated with endogenous beta 6 a

Endogenous cellular Psor co-precipitated with endogenous beta 6 and colocalised with alpha v beta 6 at the cell membrane and intracellular vesicles. Knockdown of Psor, with small interfering RNA, had no effect on alpha v beta 6-dependent adhesion or migration but abrogated alpha v beta 6-mediated oral carcinoma cell invasion both in Transwell and, the more physiologically relevant, organotypic invasion assays, recapitulating

the behaviour of the beta 6-mutant cell line. Membrane-permeant Tat-peptides encoding the unique C-terminal residues of beta 6, bound directly to DUB inhibitor recombinant Psor and inhibited cellular Psor binding to beta 6; this blocked alpha v beta 6-dependent, but not alpha v beta 6-independent, invasion. These data identify a novel interaction between Psor and beta 6 and demonstrate that it is required for alpha v beta 6-dependent invasion by carcinoma cells. Inhibition of this interaction may represent a novel therapeutic

strategy to target carcinoma invasion. Oncogene (2011) 30, 1422-1435; doi:10.1038/onc.2010.535; published online 6 December 2010″
“Background Poppers are a recreational substance of abuse belonging to the alkyl nitrite family of compounds. In the United Kingdom, where they are legal to purchase but illegal to sell for human consumption, 10% of the general population have tried them. They are considered low risk to physical and mental health. Two recent case series from France demonstrated foveal Cl-amidine inhibitor pathology in individuals associated with poppers use.\n\nMethod

A case series of seven patients presenting to four hospitals in the United Kingdom with visual impairment and maculopathy associated with inhalation of poppers.\n\nResults All patients experienced visual symptoms associated with poppers use. The majority had impaired visual acuity, central scotomata, distortion, or phosphenes. Clinical signs on fundoscopy ranged from normal foveal appearance to yellow, dome-shaped lesions at the foveola. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed varying degrees of disruption of the presumed inner segment/outer see more segment (IS/OS) junction.\n\nDiscussion Although poppers have been in use for several decades, in 2007, following legislative changes, there was a change in the most commonly used compound from isobutyl nitrite to isopropyl nitrite. There were no reports of ‘poppers maculopathy’ before this. Poppers maculopathy may be missed if patients are not directly questioned about their use. The disruption or loss of the presumed IS/OS junction on SD-OCT are a characteristic feature. Further study of maculopathy in poppers users is now needed. Raising public awareness of the ocular risks associated with their use may be necessary. Eye (2012) 26, 1479-1486; doi:10.1038/eye.2012.