“There is growing empirical and clinical interest in purpo


“There is growing empirical and clinical interest in purported associations between smoking and the aggravation of cancer symptoms and treatment side effects, such as pain. Both pain and smoking are highly prevalent among persons with cancer, and there is recent evidence to suggest that cancer patients who continue to smoke despite their diagnosis experience greater pain than nonsmokers. Accordingly, the main goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine associations between multiple levels of smoking status and several Fosbretabulin pain-related outcomes among a sample of 224 cancer patients

about to begin chemotherapy. Patients completed self-report measures of pain severity, pain-related distress,

and pain-related interference, as well as a demographics questionnaire. Results indicated that persons who continued to smoke despite being diagnosed with cancer reported more severe pain than never smokers, F (2, 215) = 3.47, p < .05. Current smokers also reported greater interference from pain than either former or never smokers, F (2, 215) = 5.61, p < .01. Among former smokers, an inverse relation between pain severity and the number of years since quitting smoking was observed, r (104) = .26, p < .01. These data suggest that continued smoking despite a cancer diagnosis is associated with greater pain severity and interference from pain; however, future MAPK inhibitor VX-680 nmr research is warranted to determine the directionality of this relationship. (C) 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In 2005 we published draft guidelines for reporting studies of quality improvement,

as the initial step in a consensus process for development of a more definitive version. The current article contains the revised version, which we refer to as standards for quality improvement reporting excellence ( SQUIRE). This narrative progress report summarises the special features of improvement that are reflected in SQUIRE, and describes major differences between SQUIRE and the initial draft guidelines. It also briefly describes the guideline development process; considers the limitations of and unresolved questions about SQUIRE; describes ancillary supporting documents and alternative versions under development; and discusses plans for dissemination, testing, and further development of SQUIRE.”
“Multivariable regression models can link a potentially large number of variables to various kinds of outcomes, such as continuous, binary, or time-to-event endpoints. Selection of important variables and selection of the functional form for continuous covariates are key parts of building such models but are notoriously difficult due to several reasons.

Fourteen fetal hearts from human fetuses between 10 and 18 weeks

Fourteen fetal hearts from human fetuses between 10 and 18 weeks of gestational age (GA) were prospectively collected at the time of elective termination of pregnancy. RNA from recovered tissues was used for

transcriptome analysis with Affymetrix 1.0 ST microarray chip. From the amassed data we investigated differences in cardiac development within the 10-18 GA period dividing the sample by GA in three groups: 10-12 (H1), 13-15 (H2) and 16-18 check details (H3) weeks. A fold change of 2 or above adjusted for a false discovery rate of 5% was used as initial cutoff to determine differential gene expression for individual genes. Test for enrichment to identify functional groups was carried out using the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Array analysis correctly identified the cardiac specific genes, and transcripts reported to be differentially expressed were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Single transcript and Ontology analysis showed first trimester heart expression

of myosin-related genes to be up-regulated bigger than 5-fold compared with second trimester heart. In contrast the second trimester hearts showed further gestation-related Selleckchem BIX 01294 increases in many genes involved in energy production and cardiac remodeling. In conclusion, fetal heart development during the first trimester was dominated by heart-specific genes coding for myocardial development and differentiation. During the second trimester, transcripts related to energy generation and cardiomyocyte communication for contractile coordination/proliferation

were more dominant. Transcripts related to fatty acid metabolism can be seen as early as 10 weeks and clearly increase as the heart matures. Retinol receptor and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor transcripts were detected, and have not been described previously in human fetal heart during this period. For the first time global gene expression of heart has been described in human samples to create a database of normal development to understand and compare with known abnormal fetal heart development.”
“Background: In current literature the association between statin use and cataracts is inconsistent selleck products and controversial. We sought to further examine the effect of statin use on the risk of cataract and need for surgical intervention in 2 North American populations. Methods: This retrospective nested case-control study derived data from the British Columbia (BC) Ministry of Health databases from 2000-2007 and the IMS LifeLink database from 2001-2011 to form 2 patient cohorts. The BC cohort was comprised of female and male patients; 162,501 patients were matched with 650,004 control subjects. The IMS LifeLink cohort was comprised of male patients aged 40-85 years; 45,065 patients were matched with 450,650 control subjects. Patients with statin use for bigger than 1 year before the initial ophthalmology visit were identified. Diagnosis and surgical management of cataract were followed.

In right-sided curve, the risks of the aorta impingement were mai

In right-sided curve, the risks of the aorta impingement were mainly from left PS while in left-sided

curves, from right PS. The aorta was more proximal to entry points in right-sided lumbar curve when compared with left-sided curve; thus placing PS carries more risks in right-sided thoracolumbar/lumbar curve. Surgeons should be more cautious when placing PSs on the concave sides of T12 and L1 vertebrae of right-sided thoracolumbar/lumbar curves.”
“The phenomenon of peak area decrease due to high injection voltage (V-inj, e.g. 10-30 kV, 200-600 V/cm in the 50 cm capillary) was found in the analysis of very dilute DNA fragments ( smaller than 0.2 mg/L) by using high-sensitive electrokinetic supercharging-CGE. The possibility of DNA cleavage in aqueous solution https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd1390.html was suggested, in addition to the aggregation phenomenon that is already known. The analysis of intentionally voltage-affected fragments (at 200 V/cm) also showed decreased peak areas depending on the time of the voltage Epigenetic screening being applied. Computer simulation suggested that a high electric field (a few kV/cm or more) could be generated partly between the electrode and the capillary end during electrokinetic injection

(EKI) process. After thorough experimental verification, it was found that the factors affecting the damage during EKI were the magnitude of electric field, the distance between tips of electrode and capillary (D-e/c), sample concentration and traveling time during EKI in sample vials. Furthermore, these factors are correlating with each other. A low conductivity of diluted sample would cause a high electric field (over a few hundred volts per centimeter), while the longer D-e/c results in a longer traveling time during EKI, which may cause a larger degree of damage (aggregation check details and cleavage) on the DNA fragments. As an important practical implication of this study,

when the dilute DNA fragments (sub mg/L) are to be analyzed by CGE using EKI, injection voltage should be kept as low as possible.”
“The targeting of proteins to subcellular organelles is specified by the presence of signal/leader peptide sequences normally located on the N-terminus. In the past two decades, messenger RNA (mRNA) localization, a pathway driven by cis-acting localization elements within the RNA sequence, has emerged as an alternative mechanism for protein targeting to specific locations in the cytoplasm, on the endoplasmic reticulum or to mitochondria and chloroplasts. In this review, we will summarize studies on mRNA-based protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast within plant cells.”
“Serelaxin, a recombinant form of the human relaxin-2 hormone, is currently under clinical investigation for treatment of acute heart failure.

To demonstrate the viability of the operando EPR method, two cell

To demonstrate the viability of the operando EPR method, two cells using different electrolytes were studied. When using an electrolyte containing fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive, a higher reversibility of the lithium anode and reduced formation of micro-structured (mossy/dendritic) lithium were observed.”
“The 4-(5-fluoro-6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-5-quinoxalin-6-yl-1H-imidazol-2-ylamine 3 is a potent and selective inhibitor of TGF-beta R1. Substitution of the amino group of 3 typically led to a

slight decrease in the affinity for the receptor and in TGF-beta-inducted PAI-luciferase reporter activity. However, 2-acetamidoimidazoles were identified as attractive candidates for further optimization as a result of their significant activity combined to their superior pharmacokinetic profile. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Engagement of Fc epsilon RI causes its phosphorylation learn more by Lyn kinase. Two alternatively spliced variants, Lyn A and B, are expressed in mast cells, and both isoforms interact with Fc epsilon RI. Unlike Lyn

A, Lyn B lacks a 21-aa region in the N-terminal unique domain. In this study, we investigated the role of Lyn A and B isoforms in mast cell signaling and responses. Lyn B was found to be a poor inducer of mast cell degranulation and was less potent in both inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production and calcium responses. Expression of Lyn B alone showed reduced phosphorylation of both phospholipase C gamma-1 and -2 and decreased interaction of phospholipase C gamma-1 with the phosphorylated linker for activation of T cells. Lyn this website B also showed increased binding of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, which included the negative regulatory lipid phosphatase SHIP-1. In contrast, both Lyn Vadimezan price A and B caused similar total cellular tyrosine

phosphorylation and Fc epsilon RI phosphorylation and neither Lyn A nor Lyn B alone could completely restore mast cell degranulation or dampen the excessive cytokine production seen in the absence of Lyn. However, expression of both isoforms showed complementation and normalized responses. These findings demonstrate that Lyn B differs from Lyn A in its association with SHIP-1 and in the regulation of calcium responses. However, complementation of both isoforms is required in mast cell activation. The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 184: 5000-5008.”
“Tie2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on vascular endothelial cells (ECs). It has dual roles in promoting angiogenesis and stabilizing blood vessels, and it has been suggested that Tie2 forms dimers and/or oligomers in the absence of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1); however, the mechanism of ligand-independent dimerization of Tie2 and its biological significance have not been clarified. Using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay and a kinase-inactive Tie2 mutant, we show here that ligand-independent Tie2 dimerization is induced without Tie2 phosphorylation.

Results demonstrated that yield- and profit-maximizing N rates ca

Results demonstrated that yield- and profit-maximizing N rates can be different, and the yield- and profit-maximizing

N rates across different across the soil types/landscapes. The profit-maximizing N rate was sensitive to the price of N and the price of switchgrass across all soil types/landscapes, but sensitivity to price changes were not equal for all soil types/landscapes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Background: Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some, the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood.\n\nMethods: A large sample of high school students (n = 3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health

Epigenetics inhibitor behaviors including check details substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior.\n\nResults: The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95% CI, 2.93-4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls.\n\nConclusion: Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity.

Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers CAL-101 manufacturer actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to “walk the talk”, i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention survey with 1163 Swiss electricity consumers. Our results show that by providing information targeted at the key factors influencing the intention to purchase green electricity, namely attitudes towards purchase, social norms and perceived behavioural control, a significant increase in green electricity market share can be achieved. Our results show that price is not the only barrier to purchasing green electricity, and that information to increase the perceived benefit of buying green electricity as well as targeted communication to overcome inertia among retail electricity consumers are equally important factors.

Conclusions: The proposed model is suitable to empirically ve

\n\nConclusions: The proposed model is suitable to empirically verify the cognitive actions of problem-solving of medical students. The cognitive actions evaluation, representation and integration are crucial for the complete model and therefore for the accuracy of the solution. The educational implication which may be drawn from this

study is to foster students reasoning by focusing on higher level reasoning.”
“Effect of nucleotides on VX-680 inhibitor the repair of DNA damaged by N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in mice thymocytes was evaluated using comet assay. Thymocytes from KunMing male mice were damaged with 0, 10 or 50 mu mol/l MNNG. DNA damaged cells in each treatment were divided into four groups and cultured in medium supplemented with 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mmol/l nucleotides. Nucleotide supplementation decreased the comet cells at 2 and 5 h and increased DNA repair on a dose dependent manner. These being more effective at 10 mu mol/l MNNG level than 50 mu mol level.

Effect of nucleotides was more pronounced on comet tail size. The results indicated that the nucleotides supplementation accelerated Screening Library DNA repair and the effect of nucleotides depended on the supplemental levels and the extent of DNA damage.”
“The cardinalfish Siphamia tubifer has been selected as a model for the study of genetic connectivity in reef-associated fishes among marine-protected-areas in Socotra Island in the northwestern Indian Ocean (part of the Socotra Archipelago, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008). Twenty-six novel microsatellite markers are described for S. tubifer and are now available see more for studies on its genetic population structure. In a population sample from Socotra Island, the newly developed markers possessed between three and 20 alleles. Expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.56-0.96

to 0.55-0.95, respectively. The markers did not show deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were not in linkage disequilibrium.”
“Saudi Arabia is the third-largest Arab country with a moderate annual burden of tuberculosis. However, tuberculosis (TB) is among several infectious diseases that have not been brought under control, despite the government’s considerable efforts. This is clearly evidenced by the ongoing transmission of several imported and indigenous clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, the country faces the threat from rising proportions of extrapulmonary TB, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections, and drug resistance. Furthermore, the country falls behind the global targets set by World Health Organization for the success rate of TB treatment. The country needs more population-based research studies, centralized and easily accessible clinical data registries, and centralized research and diagnostic facilities. This review focused on the trends of mycobacterial infections and on future proposals to improve TB control measures in Saudi Arabia.

As expected, the amphiphilic peptide resides horizontally on the

As expected, the amphiphilic peptide resides horizontally on the membrane surface in a monomeric form at a low P/L,

whereas CCI-779 cell line the T-state is seen in the simulations to be a symmetric antiparallel dimer, with close contacts between small glycine and alanine residues at the interface. The computed tilt angles and azimuthal rotations, as well as the quadrupolar splittings predicted from the simulations agree with the experimental NMR data. The simulations reveal many structural details previously inaccessible, such as the immersion depth of the peptide in the membrane and the packing of the dimerization interface. The study highlights the ability and limitations of current state-of-the-art multimicrosecond all-atom simulations of membrane-active peptides to complement experimental data from solid-state NMR.”
“No methods proposed thus far have the sensitivity to measure the transport of single molecules through single nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in intact cells. Here we demonstrate that fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) combined with real-time tracking of

the center of GSK2879552 mass of single NPCs in live, unperturbed cells allows us to detect the transport of single molecules in a reference system of a pore with high temporal (millisecond) and spatial (limited by diffraction) resolution. We find that the transport of the classical receptor karyopherin-beta 1 (Kap beta 1) is regulated so as to produce a peculiar distribution of characteristic times at the NPC. This regulation, which is spatially restricted to the pore, depends

on the properties and metabolic energy PF-6463922 concentration of Kap beta 1. As such, this method provides a powerful tool for studying nucleocytoplasmic shuttling at the nanometer scale under physiological conditions.”
“Objective: To evaluate the short-term therapeutic outcome of myomectomy using ultraminilaparotomy (UMLT) through a midline vertical incision (MVI) or a modified Pfannenstiel incision (MPI) in the treatment of myomas.\n\nDesign: Controlled, nonrandomized clinical study. ==Setting: University-affiliated medical center.\n\nPatient(S): Ninety-eight patients with symptomatic, uncomplicated myomas warranting myomectomy. Forty-three patients underwent UMLT myomectomy by MVI and 55 by MPI.\n\nIntervention(s): UMLT myomectomy through MI or MPI access.\n\nMain Outcome Measure(S): The outcome was measured by comparing incision length, blood loss, operative time, postoperative pain, complications, success rate, postoperative recovery, and the return to work capability in both groups.\n\nResult(s): General characteristics of the patients were similar in both groups. There were no statistical differences in postoperative recovery, complications, and success rate between the two groups. However, the operative technique seemed to be easier and more acceptable in the MVI group compared with that in the MPI group, because of the smaller incision wound, less operation time, and less blood loss.

Results : Out of a total of 4684 samples reviewed 364 (7 8) were

Results : Out of a total of 4684 samples reviewed 364 (7.8) were positive for cancer cells. Of the malignant pleural effusions 295 (81) were classified as adenocarcinoma or carcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS). Pleural effusion specimens revealing a diagnosis other than adenocarcinoma/carcinoma NOS were: 32 (8.8) malignant mesotheliomas, 14 (3.8) small cell carcinomas, 13 (3.5)

hematolymphoid malignancies and 10 (2.7) squamous cell carcinoma. Hematolymphoid malignancies included non- Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse B large cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma), multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusions: Despite that adenocarcinoma is the most common cause of malignant pleural effusions, there is a significant number of hematological and

non-hematological uncommon causes of such effusions. Cytopathologists Emricasan order and clinicians must keep in mind these uncommon entities in routine practice for an accurate diagnosis.”
“Objective: To determine the ability of 2 clinicians to reliably measure the thickness of the serratus anterior (SA) muscle using ultrasound during scapular protraction selleck chemicals llc and to determine whether that thickness changes during activation of the SA. Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Setting: An outpatient biomechanical laboratory. Participants: Twenty healthy, asymptomatic adults between the ages of 23 and 28 years. Methods: Ultrasound imaging measurements were recorded during 3 conditions: (1) with the subject in a side-lying position and resting in a supported position of 900 of shoulder flexion; (2)

with the subject in a side-lying position and the shoulder in 90 of shoulder flexion and actively protracting; and (3) with the subject in a side-lying position and the shoulder in 90 of shoulder flexion while holding the protracted position against 15 lb of force. Main Outcome Measurements: Reproducibility was examined with use of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and standard error of measurements. The thickness of the SA muscle measured during each condition was compared. Results: Intratester and intertester ICC values were high. Ranges for ICCs were 0.892-0.979 for intratester reliability within a session, 0.900-0.912 for intratester reliability between sessions, and 0.929-0.939 for intertester reliability. Statistically Selleckchem IPI 145 significant differences in the thickness of the SA were found between the rest condition and the hold with resistance condition but not between the rest condition and the active hold condition. Conclusion: Findings of this study document the high reliability of ultrasound imaging in determining SA muscle thickness and thickness changes at rest and during contraction of the SA. Clinicians should be aware that resistance may need to be added to active scapular protraction in a side-lying position to produce a significant change in SA thickness from the rest position.

In patients with mitochondrial disease, psychiatric conditions we

In patients with mitochondrial disease, psychiatric conditions were far more common than in general Italian population (about 60 vs. 20-25%), and included major depression, agoraphobia and/or panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, psychotic syndromes. Psychiatric involvement did not seem to depend on disease progression. Large, multicenter studies are strongly needed to better Selleckchem FG-4592 characterize the natural history of mitochondrial

disorders and of their psychiatric involvement. Moreover, the possibility of mitochondrial diseases should be considered in patients with psychiatric diseases. Finally, we encourage psychiatric evaluation as a routinary approach to mitochondrial patients.”
“Background: The reactive center loop (RCL) of native antithrombin is partially inserted in the main serpin body. It must be fully exposed for optimal inhibitory function. Objective: To test the hypothesis that P-14-s2B interaction affects loop insertion in antithrombin. By mutating Phe(274) to Tyr(274), the objective was to introduce P-14-s2B interaction in antithrombin. Methods: Site-directed mutagenesis and affinity chromatography were used to obtain purified recombinant protein. Antithrombin’s ability to form sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-stable complex with thrombin, stoichiometry of thrombin inhibition, second-order rate constant for thrombin and factor Xa (fXa) inhibition (M-1 s(-1)), and heparin

dissociation www.selleckchem.com/products/Cediranib.html constant (K-D; tryptophan fluorescence emission spectra) were determined. Results and Conclusion: A marginal, but inconclusive, difference between the wild type and the mutant was observed. The result highlights the variable effect of P-14-s2B interaction in different serpins. Alternate hypothesis for achieving loop expulsion is proposed.”
“Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis has a variable prognosis and lacks a reliable laboratory prognostic Topoisomerase inhibitor marker. Our aim in this study was to investigate the association between neurofilament light levels in cerebrospinal fluid in early multiple sclerosis and disease severity at long-term follow-up. Neurofilament

light levels in cerebrospinal fluid collected at diagnostic lumbar puncture were measured in 99 multiple sclerosis cases. Clinical data were obtained from 95 out of those at follow-up visits made 14 years (range 8-20 years) after disease onset. Significant correlations between neurofilament light levels and the multiple sclerosis severity score were found for all cases (r = 0.30, p = 0.005), for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis cases (r = 0.47, p < 0.001) and for cases with a recent relapse (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, neurofilament light levels > 386 ng/L (median value of cases with detectable levels) increased the risk for severe multiple sclerosis fivefold (odds ratio 5.2, 95% confidence interval 1.8-15).

(C) 2014 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Kinetics of

(C) 2014 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Kinetics of the Fer-1 price oxidation of lactose by Cu(II) complexed with bipyridyl have been investigated at 40 degrees C for the first time spectrophotometrically using Rh(III) chloride as homogeneous catalyst in aqueous alkaline medium in its nano-concentration range. The order of reaction was found to be fractional positive-order, when the concentration of Rh(III) chloride was varied from 0.30 x 10(-9) M to 6.00 x 10(-9) M. The reaction shows fractional positive-order

kinetics with respect to [lactose] and [OH] and zeroth-order kinetics with respect to [Cu(II)]. The reaction also shows slight increase in the rate by decreasing dielectric constant of the medium and remains unaffected by the change in ionic strength of the medium. The reaction was carried out at four different temperatures PCI-32765 chemical structure and observed values of rate constants were utilized to calculate various activation parameters specially the entropy of activation

(Delta S-#). The species, [RhCl3(H2O)(2)OH], was postulated as the main reactive species of Rh(III) chloride for the oxidation of lactose by Cu(II) in alkaline medium. On the basis of kinetic and equivalence studies together with spectrophotometric information for the formation of a complex,\n\n[GRAPHICS]\n\nthe most appropriate mechanism for the aforesaid reaction has been proposed. Support to the proposed mechanism was also given by the observed activation parameters and multiple regression analysis. Sodium salts of formic acid, arabinonic acid and lyxonic acid were identified as the main oxidation products of the reaction under investigation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) during IVM and IVC on apoptosis and relative transcript abundance (RA) of three

genes controlling antioxidant enzymes, as well as subsequent pregnancy rates. In experiment 1, oocytes were matured S63845 in the presence of 0,10, 15, or 25 mu M GTP for 24 hours. The GTP dose applied to IVM medium was followed by the same dose supplemented to IVC medium, so oocytes and embryos of a given group were cultured in similar conditions. This resulted in a total of four groups (three experimental groups and the control). After IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in medium containing 0 to 25 mu M GTP for 8 days. The addition of 15 mu M GTP during IVM and IVC increased RA of SOD I. CAT, and GPX genes in blastocysts compared with the control (P < 0.05). Increase in GTP doses from 15 to 25 mu M did not further increase the transcript level. In experiment 2, effects of GTP doses on apoptosis were investigated in bovine blastocysts. Two of the applied GTP doses (10 and 15 mu M) decreased the apoptotic index (Al) in blastocysts (7.4% and 6.2% respectively) compared with the control (9.3%; P < 0.05). However, the highest GTP dose used (25 mu M) caused an increase in Al compared with a dose of 15 mu M (P < 0.05).