Discussion In this paper we use morphology and sequence data from fresh collections and sequence data (types) downloaded from GenBank to detail the Botryosphaeriales, treating 15 type genera and describing two new genera and six new species from Thailand. Phylogenetic resolution of Botryosphaeriales The 28S rRNA gene (LSU) has been shown to be suitable for distinguishing many ascomycetes at the generic level due to its relatively conserved nature (Crous et al. 2006; Schoch et
al. selleck inhibitor 2006; Hibbett et al. 2007). By choosing comparisons of sequences of LSU, Crous et al. (2006) recognized ten lineages within the Botryosphaeriaceae and accepted Fer-1 manufacturer several genera, including those genera with sexual and/or asexual morphs. Separate names were not introduced for morphs of the newly proposed genera when sexual and asexual morphs were known. With the addition of EF1-α and
β-tubulin genes, and molecular data being available for more botryosphaeriaceous taxa, it is now possible to use combined multi-gene data to resolve complex selleckchem groups such as Diplodia/Lasiodiplodia, Phaeobotryon/Barriopsis and Dothiorella/Spencermartinsia which have yet to be resolved. In addition, new asexual genera and cryptic species have been introduced (Alves et al. 2008; Sakalidis et al. 2011). By combining EF1-α and β-tubulin genes with ITS, Phillips et al. (2005, 2008) reinstated the genus Neodeightonia in the Diplodia/Lasiodiplodia complex and also showed that the latter asexual genera are morphologically and phylogenetically distinct. ITS gene sequence data have been used
to distinguish the species within the genera of Botryosphaeriales (Denman et al. 2000, 2003; Denman et al. 2003; Alves et al. 2004; Barber et al. 2005). However, it has not been possible to apply ITS alone in resolving species in this study, because Botryosphaeriaceae Pyruvate dehydrogenase embodies species complexes. It is evident that at the generic level, the combined EF1-α and β-tubulin gene analysis is best for delimiting genera of Botryosphaeriaceae, as well as the species in several genera of Botryosphaeriales. It has also been recommended that the RPB2 gene should be considered in similar multi-combined genes analyses of genus and species levels of Botryosphaeriales (Pavlic et al. 2009a, b) and that some new approaches might be used for complex groups, such as Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI), which has been used to resolve the asexual morph of Neofusicoccum (Sakalidis et al. 2011). Maximum Parsimonious (MP), Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) and Mr. Bayes are models for generating phylogenetic trees and were used in this study. Most phylograms were similar when using different models, however the bootstrap values differed. RAxML and Mr. Bayes have been shown to be suitable models for phylogeny at higher taxonomic levels (class, order and family) and large data analysis (Hibbett et al. 2007; Schoch et al. 2009a, b; Suetrong et al. 2009; Liu et al.