Nonetheless, other parameters could be adjusted to accommodate a

Nonetheless, other parameters could be adjusted to accommodate a change Abiraterone Sigma in one parameter, such as the fiber size, to obtain the desired properties of the final product. The samples made were reproducible as far as the size/geometry of the container where alginate fiber formation took place remained the same. The size/geometry of the container influenced how the fibers were compacted. The protocols for making the dressings described in this report produced dressings the size of 5.5 cm by 5 cm. Scaling up to 10 cm �� 10 cm, which is a size common for wound dressings, should be easily achieved with a slightly larger container. The characteristics of the scaled up dressings are not expected to change significantly.

Tensile elastic modulus It is important that a dressing be flexible and soft so that it conforms to the contour of the wound and keeps the patient comfortable. However, it is also important that the wound dressing be able to withstand manipulation in the application process without tearing. None of the samples made in this test were easily broken or torn during handling or while being examined for various properties. All of the fibrous samples exhibited a delayed split fracture mode because of the isotropic fiber alignment.21 During the tensile test, some fibers were fractured, while others were separated from one another. Hence, the tensile force (N) measured should be a combination of the strength of the fiber material and the adhesive strength between fibers. Compared with the control, the rest of the samples either had a lower degree of crosslinking (sample Ca) or a more loosely bound fiber structure (samples P, D and A).

The lack of calcium crosslinking reduced Young��s modulus of the alginate hydrogel,22,23 and the reduced binding between the fibers reduced the tensile stress the samples. The control thus had the highest elastic modulus of all samples (p < 0.05) (Fig. 3). Figure 3. Young��s modulus of the rehydrated samples. Data are presented as the mean �� SD (n = 6). *Indicates data significantly different from the control sample (p < 0.05). Chiu et al. reported that the commercial dressing Kaltostat? had a Young��s modulus of 1.2 MPa.24 Our wetspun fibrous samples were not as durable but were more flexible (Young��s moduli between 0.026�C0.148 MPa) compared with Kaltostat?. Hence, they were expected to conform better to the contours of the wound bed.

Swelling ratio The swelling ratios measured the capacity of water (exudate) absorbance of the wound dressing. Sample Ca had a significantly lower swelling ratio than the control (p < 0.05) (Fig. 4). This behavior was most likely due to sample Ca��s highly compact structure, which lowered the amount of surface area that was exposed to the aqueous solution. Samples P and Brefeldin_A D had loose structures, hence higher swelling ratios, compared with the control (p < 0.05). Sample A had a higher initial swelling ratio than the control (p < 0.


Patients Ganetespib mechanism were excluded if they fulfilled the following exclusion criteria: (i) had signs and symptoms that warrant early surgical intervention (caudaequina syndrome, severe motor deficits, hyperalgesia); (ii) had CT scan evidence of signs and symptoms from causes other than a herniated nucleus pulposus; (iii) had received any previous epidural corticosteroid injections for the present episode; (iv) had undergone lower back spinal surgery; (v) pregnant patients; (vi) had a known allergy to corticosteroid or butorphanol; or (vii) had a known bleeding disorder. Treatment The patients received epidural injections of either 80 mg (2 mL) of methylprednisolone acetate and 1 mg (1 mL) of butorphanol diluted with 7 mL of isotonic saline, or 80 mg (2 mL) of methylprednisolone acetate diluted with 8 mL of isotonic saline by a lumbar interlaminar approach under fluoroscopic guidance.

The injections were repeated on third and sixth weeks in the patients who continued to have scores higher than 30 mm on VAS. After the first injection, patients were supplied with paracetamol tablets (500 mg) for using as and when required basis. Blinding The doctors making the follow-up assessment were unaware of the treatment received, and none of the doctors who administered the injections carried out the follow-up evaluations. Thus both the patients and the assessing doctors were remained unaware of the treatment received throughout the trial. Follow-up and outcome measure The patients were re-evaluated as outpatients at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months after the first injection.

Follow-up assessment of each patient was done by the same doctor throughout the trial. At each follow-up visit, the following information was recorded as outcome measures: (i) Information on the use of paracetamol; (ii) intensity of pain on a VAS ranging from 0 (no pain) to 100 mm (worst pain possible); (iii) Schober’s test (cm); (iv) SLR test; (v) neurological examination assessing sensory deficits, motor deficits, and reflex changes; and (vi) Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire.[18] Sample size We selected the visual analog pain score as the primary outcome measure at 3 months. We estimated that, in order to detect a 12 mm difference in the mean visual analog pain score (with a two-sided Entinostat alpha value of 5%, a statistical power of 80% and a standard deviation of 26, as estimated U0126 MAPK in an initial study of 50 patients with sciatica) between the 2 groups, at least 48 patients had to be recruited in each group. We therefore planned to enroll 60 patients in each group considering for an expected maximum withdrawal rate of 20%.

Lastly, in a recent paper, Hu and

Lastly, in a recent paper, Hu and selleck chem inhibitor colleagues [43] reported that, in mice with the familial AD-linked mutant APPswe/PS1DeltaE9, environmental enrichment enhanced neurogenesis and was accompanied by a significant reduction in levels of hyperphosphorylated tau and oligomeric A??. The authors concluded that ‘environmental modulation can rescue the impaired phenotype of the Alzheimer’s brain and that induction of brain plasticity may represent therapeutic and preventive avenues in AD’ [43]. 5. Biomarkers 5A. Structural brain changes Cognitive decline is associated with brain atrophy in cognitively normal persons Jack and colleagues [44] showed that in cognitively normal persons the change of brain atrophy over time is associated with a change in cognitive scores.

The authors looked at change in hippocampal, whole brain, and ventricle volumes in relationship to the Mini-Mental Status Examination [45], Dementia Rating Scale [46], Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [47] and the logical memory subtest of the Weschler Memory Scale [48] and, using the Spearman rank correlation, found a significant correlation between change in all volume measures and change in all test scores. Associations between cardiovascular fitness and brain volume Exercise improves certain cognitive tasks but are these related to structural brain measures? One of the first studies showing that exercise influences the structure of the brain was by Colcombe and colleagues [49], who reported on 59 older persons, half of whom underwent aerobic training and half of whom participated in toning and stretching.

The authors also measured maximal Dacomitinib oxygen uptake. They found on MRI that gray and white matter brain areas increased in the aerobic but not the control group and this was related to a function of fitness training. Burns and colleagues [8] showed that increased cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) is associated with increased brain volume, suggesting that increased fitness may be associated with decreased brain atrophy in AD. In a study involving both mice and humans, Pereira and colleagues [50] showed that, as exercise improves fitness, there may be neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, which in turn could improve learning. In mice, exercise-induced increases in dentate gyrus cerebral blood volume (CBV) were found exactly to correlate with postmortem measurements of neurogenesis. In humans, exercise was found to have a primary effect on dentate gyrus CBV and this selectively correlated with cardiopulmonary (fitness) and cognitive (learning) function. From this, the authors extrapolated that exercise may induce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, which in turn may improve learning.

Abbreviations AD: Alzheimer’s disease; AHRQ: Agency for Healthcar

Abbreviations AD: Alzheimer’s disease; AHRQ: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; ApoE: apolipoprotein E; BMI: body mass index; CAIDE: Cardiovascular selleck chem inhibitor Risk Factors: Aging and Incidence of Dementia; EDPI: European Dementia Prevention Initiative; FINGER: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability; HRT: hormone replacement therapy; MAPT: Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial; NIH: National Institutes of Health; NSAID: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PreDIVA: Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acid; RCT: randomized controlled trial; VaD: vascular dementia. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgements This study was supported by Karolinska Institutet (Sweden), the Swedish Research Council for Medical Research, the Academy of Finland, the La Carita Foundation of Finland, the Alzheimer’s Association (USA), and the Swedish Foundations of Ragnhild och Einar Lundstr?ms-Minne-Lindh??s, Stohnes-Stiftelse, and Gamla-Tj?narinnor. The funding sources did not play any role in the design or conduct of the study or in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of data or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. Editor Kimberly Kane revised the language in the manuscript.
Early reports [4] of decreased phospholipid content in AD white matter were soon followed by reports of decreased levels of the phospholipid precursor ethanolamine in AD brain [5,6], cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [7] and plasma [7] and increased brain levels of the degradation product glycerophosphoethanolamine [6].

The first descriptions of decrements in ethanolamine plasmalogens (PlsEtns), relative to phosphatidylethanolamines in AD brain, were published in 1995 [8]. Plasmalogens are a subclass of glycerophospholipids that possess a vinyl ether fatty alcohol substituent at sn-1 of the glycerol backbone (Figure ?(Figure1).1). The ether linkage at sn-1 is achieved by addition of a fatty alcohol to the glycerol backbone and is conducted solely in peroxisomes (Figure ?(Figure2).2). Subsequent desaturation to form the vinyl ether linkage takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum (Figure ?(Figure2).2).

Decrements in PlsEtns were shown to be disease specific since they were not measured in Huntington’s Anacetrapib caudate nucleus or Parkinson’s substantia nigra and demonstrated anatomic specificity, being marked in the mid- temporal cortex but not the cerebellum [8,9]. These deficiencies in a major structural phospholipid pool were rapidly validated by other research groups and quantification of individual PlsEtns by tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated that white matter PlsEtns (that is, oleic or linoleic acid at sn-2; Figure ?Figure1)1) were decreased by up to 40% early in the disease Imatinib Mesylate purchase process [9,10].

Treatment with oral thiamine is ineffective because it does not a

Treatment with oral thiamine is ineffective because it does not achieve an adequate plasma scientific research concentration [67]. Furthermore, alcohol directly interferes with thiamine uptake [67]. While there is no consensus as to the optimum dose, frequency, route, and duration of thiamine treatment, the EFNS recommends that in cases of suspected WE, thiamine be given in doses of 200 mg three times daily, preferably intravenously. This treatment should be continued until no further improvement in signs and symptoms is evident [19]. Thirdly, assessment of cognitive status should be conducted on an ongoing basis as this will allow any improvement, stabilization, or deterioration to be detected. Acute intoxication and withdrawal may exacerbate cognitive deficits, so assessment following this period (which usually lasts no longer than 2 weeks) may allow a more accurate baseline to be established.

Fourthly, key characteristics associated with alcohol-related cognitive disorders may assist with differentiation from neurodegenerative conditions. These typically involve stabilization or improvement in cognition with abstinence; a cognitive profile involving executive, visuospatial, and memory difficulties with spared language function; and neurological symptoms such as ataxia. Neuroimaging may suggest atrophy in the mammillary bodies, thalamus and cerebellum, and ventricular enlargement, although this may vary from case to case. Patients with ARD and WKS have shown cognitive improvement following treatment with memantine, although these findings require replication [68,69].

Finally, these socially isolated patients are often hospitalized for another health condition and this presents an ideal opportunity for screening, identification, Batimastat and intervention. Conclusions The evidence reflects significant commonality between ARD and WKS. Neuropsychological studies have largely attempted to differentiate these syndromes by limiting individuals with more global cognitive impairment from WKS investigations and by excluding individuals with past symptoms of WKS from ARD studies. However, the validity of this distinction is now being brought into question. While attention has been given to the notion that ARD is likely related to underlying WKS pathology, it appears strange that more credence has not been given to whether WKS may clinically be a form of dementia, given that it typically entails multiple domains of cognitive impairment alongside functional deficits.

While ‘dementia’ in current neurological settings is typically used to describe a progressive disease of the brain, it perhaps more accurately encompasses a deterioration of intellectual or cognitive function that may or may not be progressive in nature [70]. Debate over the utility of the term ARD in selleck chemicals llc the clinical setting ensues [4].

2,3 In the case of anchorage-dependent cells, protein adsorption

2,3 In the case of anchorage-dependent cells, protein adsorption studies involving cell-adhesive proteins such as fibronectin (FN) or laminin are particularly useful to predict and explain cell response to biomaterials, such as cell adhesion and cytoskeletal reorganization, as well as other cellular events triggered by else integrin signaling. Although protein adsorption onto biomaterial surfaces has been assessed using a wide range of techniques, the quantification of protein adsorption onto porous scaffolds is still a challenging and controversial issue, namely due to the difficulty in distinguishing adsorbed from non-adsorbed protein present in the inner part of the scaffolds. With the emergence of tissue engineering and the increasing need of three-dimensional (3-D) porous scaffolds, protocols for the quantitative assessment of protein adsorption to porous scaffolds need to be established.

Table 1 provides an overview of the main methodologies that have been used for the quantitative analysis of protein adsorption to porous biomaterials. Their main advantages and limitations are briefly described. Table 1. Methodologies used for the quantitative analysis of protein adsorption in porous biomaterials Radiolabelling is considered the gold standard of the methodologies available to follow protein adsorption, as it is a straightforward and sensitive quantitative technique. Iodine radioisotopes are usually used, as iodine readily binds to the tyrosine residues of proteins and the signals emitted are directly proportional to protein amount.

2 125I-radiolabelling can be used to quantify protein adsorption from single protein solutions or from complex mixtures of proteins, such as serum-containing media and blood plasma.2 The retention, desorption, as well as the exchangeability of the adsorbed protein by other proteins can also be easily determined, which makes radiolabelling a powerful tool to provide insights into protein adsorption phenomena occurring at the interface of biomaterials with the biological milieu.4,5 This sensitive technique has been widely explored to follow protein adsorption onto polymeric surfaces.6,7 Nevertheless, only a few authors have used this technique to measure protein adsorption onto porous scaffolds.

In an attempt to develop a pre-vascularized scaffold for use in cell-based regenerative therapies, we have shown AV-951 that the endothelialisation of chitosan porous scaffolds could be successfully achieved by prior incubation of the porous matrices in a 40 ��g/mL FN solution. In that study physiadsorption of FN was shown to be effective in promoting endothelial (EC) adhesion and proliferation on CH scaffolds with retention of the EC phenotype and angiogenic ability.8 However, the effectiveness of the FN treatment was found to be dependent on the degree of acetylation (DA) of CH, a parameter influencing directly CH susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, in vivo.

Raw data were filtered using Quintic Spline functions based on Wo

Raw data were filtered using Quintic Spline functions based on Woltring��s CGV method for calculating the smoothing factor (Woltring, 1986). Procedures After a specific warm-up, 15 Ivacaftor 873054-44-5 left trials and 15 right trials at their natural speed were randomly captured from the subject. If the participant did not introduce the ball into the goal area, the trial was rejected. The ball was placed by the subject approximately 1.5 to 2 metres away from the centre of the calibrated area. The drag-flick movement commenced 20 frames before the right foot contacted the floor and continued until 20 frames after the ball release. The ball velocity at release was obtained. The pelvis, upper trunk, and stick angles were calculated considering the line of the double foot contact as the Y-axis, the X-axis 90�� from the Y-axis to the right and the Z-axis as the vertical axis.

Angular velocities at clockwise were considered as negatives, and those at anticlockwise were considered positives (Figure 1). The angles were computed with the line formed by the upper trunk (shoulder line), pelvis (hip line), and stick with the X-axis on the XY plane. The knee flexion angle was registered for the front leg only. Some kinematic events of the drag-flick were identified, with the corresponding time periods: T1 (front foot heel contact), T2 (maximum angular velocity of the pelvis), T3 (minimum angular velocity of the stick), T4 (maximum angular velocity of the upper trunk), T5 (maximum angular velocity of the stick), T6 (release of the ball) and T7 (maximum velocity of the ball).

The event times were normalised considering T1 as 0% and T6 as 100%. The stance width, drag-flick length, front foot-ball distance at T1 and T6, and hip line midpoint-shaft head distance at T1, T3 and T6 were obtained and normalised to the player��s body height. Figure 1 Y-axis and X-axis location in the experimental space of the Biomechanics Laboratory Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v.15 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States). Means and standard deviations of the study were calculated. Comparison of means between independent groups (right and left trials) was used (U Mann-Whitney). The effect size was calculated using Cliff��s Delta test (Macbeth et al., 2011). The alpha level of significance was set at p<0.05 for all statistical tests.

Results The ball velocity at release did not differ between the right (22.20 �� Drug_discovery 0.80 m/s) and left drag-flicks (22.49 �� 0.68 m/s). During the front heel contact with the floor, as shown in Table 1, the stick position of the right drag-flicks was significantly behind (Z=2.06; p<0.05) the stick position of the left ones. Table 1 Significant Differences between Right and Left Drag-Flicks (Mean �� Standard Deviations) At double foot contact (T1), the distance between the front foot and the ball, and the distance normalised to the player��s body height, were significantly longer (Z=2.34; p<0.

, g ~�� ?1, which can occur if the scattering cells are actively

, g ~�� ?1, which can occur if the scattering cells are actively secrete enzymes to degrade selleck chemicals llc the surrounding matrix. Under this condition, we cannot use the adiabatic approximation (i.e., Eqn. 12). Instead, we have to perform mode analysis with csc(k) = c0(k) exp[��(k)t] and y(k) = y0(k) exp[��(k)t] on Eqns. 10 and 11, to obtain the dispersion relation: �Ǧ�2(k2)+[��(g+Dck2)+Tk2]��(k2)+Tk2(g+Dck2?G’f'T)=0.(16) Compared with Eqns. 4 and 14, Eqn. 16 also suggests that the tubule surface is marginally stable. Similar to Eqn. 14, Instability occurs when Tg < f��G��. The wavenumber with the maximal growth rate is then obtained by solving d��(k2)/dk2 = 0: kmax=gDc(A12+A2A0?A1A2), with (17) A0=(f'G'g��Dc+1)(f'G'Tg?1), A1=2f'G'g��Dc+1?T��Dc, A2=(1?T��Dc)2. Comparing the numerical results from Eqns.

(15) and (17), we find that the approximated solutions (Eqn. (15)) for the spacing asymptotically reach the exact solutions (Eqn. (17)) in the high tension region, regardless of the viscosity �� (Fig. 4D). Conclusion In this article, we discuss how mechanical forces propagating along biomaterials such as ECM can create tension to facilitate long-range coordination of cell morphology and phenotype, and propose quantitative models to address how branching patterns can spontaneously emerge by the counterbalance between tension and other mechano-chemical based processes. We also provide quantitative predictions that can be tested by experiments. The effect of mechanical force on biological materials differs from that of chemical force in that it depends both on the force-molecular interactions and the structure of underlying substrate.

This opens a door for using biomaterials and cell mechanics to control and/or engineer tissue-scale structures by changing the topology and structure of the environment. Further, the difference of time scales in force propagation and chemical signaling enables future engineering and control of patterning cues by combining synthetic biology and the fabrication/manipulation of biomaterials. There are several advantages of using physical vs. chemical forces to control the response of biological materials. For example, mechanical force is nonspecific, which does not depend on the type of molecules, cells, and tissues involved. Thus, the effect and design principle is universal.

Entinostat Further, unlike specific chemical signaling, the non-specificity of mechanical forces allows them to be directly combined, providing a simple computation law for the programming of mechanics-based patterning processes. These features, along with the relatively simple processes required in generating mechanical processes, make mechanical force a promising tool to control and manipulate tissue morphologies. Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges Ellison Medical Foundation and Western Heavens Fund for the support. Footnotes Previously published online: www.

2011) The influence of selection effects is further supported by

2011). The influence of selection effects is further supported by findings that simply wanting to work long hours is associated with heavier AOD use. This is true regardless of actual hours spent working, and especially among those who do not work (Bachman et al. 2003; Staff et overnight delivery al. 2010). Religiosity and Community Attachment Numerous studies found that religiosity tends to be negatively correlated with AOD use during adolescence (Brown et al. 2001; Wallace et al. 2003, 2007; Wray-Lake et al. 2012). This is true for both African American and White youth. In fact, religiosity does not explain race differences in substance use (Wallace et al. 2003). Religiosity tends to operate at both the individual and contextual levels, because highly religious adolescents attending highly religious schools have lower alcohol use compared with highly religious adolescents attending non�Chighly religious schools (Wallace et al.

2007). More broadly, community attachments, including religiosity as well as social trust and social responsibility, tend to be negatively correlated with AOD use during adolescence (Wray-Lake et al. 2012). Exercise and Sports Participation Whereas exercise correlates negatively with alcohol use, participating in team sports correlates positively with alcohol use during high school (Terry-McElrath et al. 2011). This is especially true for males (Dever et al. 2012). Externalizing Behaviors and Other Drug Use As part of a broader set of problem behaviors, it is not surprising that alcohol use is associated with externalizing behaviors as well as cigarette smoking and illicit drug use during adolescence.

In the MTF study, externalizing behaviors overall, and aggressive behavior and theft/property damage in particular, correlated with AOD use during adolescence (Bachman et al. 2008; Brown et al. 2001; Maslowsky and Schulenberg, in press; Patrick and Schulenberg 2010). Disentangling causal connections is difficult, however, and it is likely that alcohol use both contributes to and is caused by externalizing behaviors (Osgood et al. 1988), particularly if these behaviors involve spending unsupervised time with peers (Osgood et al. 1996). Cigarette smoking and other illicit drug use also tend to be highly correlated with alcohol use during adolescence (Patrick and Schulenberg 2010).

Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking The willingness to take risks and high levels of sensation seeking also both correlate with higher levels of AOD use (Dever et al. 2012; Patrick and Schulenberg 2010; Pilgrim et al. 2006; Schulenberg et al. 1996). Among 8th graders and 10th graders, the impact of risk taking on substance use (including alcohol) was partly mediated Dacomitinib through school bonding (which negatively affected AOD use) and time with friends (which positively affected AOD use); these effects were largely invariant across race/ethnicity and gender (Pilgrim et al. 2006).

2 7 Size and Enumeration of Recovered Islets Individual mouse is

2.7. Size and Enumeration of Recovered Islets Individual mouse islets may range from smaller reference 4 than 50 to over 400 microns in size (Figure 2). For the purpose of this study, islets larger than 50 microns were counted by direct enumeration. Islets smaller than 50 microns were counted by combining 2�C4 islets depending on size, and counting them as 1 islet. The number and size of islets recovered varies with strain and age of the animal with retired female breeders having Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the largest and most per animal. The adult animals used in this study generally had islets in the same proportionate size ranges. In general, the size range of the individual islets Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries are approximately 20% less than 50��m, 30% between 50 and 100��m, 35% between 100 and 250��m, and 15% greater than 250��m.

On average, this isolation method reliably recovers 150�C300 islets Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries from an adult mouse (25g body weight or larger). Islets were counted immediately after isolation. For transplantation experiments, islets of size 100�C200��m were used to assure uniform islet mass between recipients. Figure 2 Normal mouse pancreatic Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries islets after collagenase digestion and Ficoll separation with further purification by handpicking. Islets were stained with dithizone (red). The left panel shows islets isolated with BSA; the right panel shows islets isolated without … 2.8. Islet Functional Assessment-Perifusion Assay Insulin release in response to changing glucose conditions was determined with a perifusion assay for at least three different islet preparations [6].

For the assay, 75 islets of similar size from each of the BSA and non-BSA-treated islet groups Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries were handpicked and cultured identically overnight in complete medium at 37��C and 5% CO2. After a 30 minute preincubation period, the islets were perifused for 30 minutes with KRB containing a subphysiological (low) glucose concentration (2.8mmol/l) followed by a 30 minute exposure to high-glucose conditions (20mmol/l) and returned to subphysiologic conditions for a 30 minute recovery period. Elution samples were taken once per minute for 90 minutes. Insulin concentration of the elution samples was determined by mouse insulin ELISA (Alpco, Windham, NH, USA). 2.9. Viability Assay Calcein-AM (1��L) (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) and propidium iodide (PI, 10��L) (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA)are added to 1mL PBS and protected from light.

Islets are added to the mixture and incubated at 37��C for 25 minutes. Islets are examined by fluorescent microscopy immediately following incubation. Carfilzomib Image analysis of the percentage of dead cells (PI stained red) to live cells (Calcien-AM stained green) is calculated using Metaphor Image Analysis software (Molecular Devices, Downingtown PA, USA). The area of PI positive stain to the total area of the islets is measured. Results are expressed as the percentage of dead cells in the islet group. 2.10. Antibody Staining of Islets Islets are cytospun onto gelatin-coated slides.