Step 4 Calculate entropy weight of each dangerous goods transpor

Step 4. Calculate entropy weight of each dangerous goods transport enterprise. Standardize the matrix which covers all the factors that may affect the safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprises and then we can get the standardized matrix R. Now we can calculate entropy weight of all factors based on analysis of Table 4; the results are showed as in Table 5. Table 5 Entropy weights of evaluation indexes of compound library on 96 well plate dangerous goods transport enterprise security evaluation. Step 5. Introduce entropy weight into attribute matrix B′ and get B *; then we can, respectively, work

out the positive ideal point and negative ideal point: pi+=0.7408,1.3977,1.3977,1.7415,1.3736,1.1120,0.7408Tpi−=0.5556,0.9318,0.9318,1.1610,1.0302,0.8340,0.5556T. (21) Step 6. Calculate closeness of safety of each dangerous goods transport enterprise and rank the order; then we can get the preference order from expert 1 (see Table 6). Table 6 The order of closeness. Similarly, we can get the reference order from

other experts (see Tables ​Tables77 and ​and88). Table 7 The order of closeness. Table 8 The order of closeness. Step 7. Establish optimization model based on the relative entropy aggregation in group decision making, and we can work out the weight factors of experts 1, 2, and 3, respectively, which are 0.32, 0.36, and 0.32. Then we discuss the solution of nonlinear programming problems (P) and we can get the optimal solution as Xg∗=0.2649,0.2349,0.2090,0.1398,0.1416. (22) As we know, the value of x gj * in X g * reflects the safety level of dangerous goods transport enterprise. The big value

for x gj * indicates the enterprise j has more capability to make further development, but not vice versa. Therefore, the final order is as follows: Enterprise 1, Enterprise 2, Enterprise 3, Enterprise 5, and Enterprise 4. So energetic efforts should be put to regulate Enterprise 4. 5. Conclusions Considering the dynamic nature on index value of safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise and nonparity property of weight given by expert, we proposed the safety assessment model of multiobjective dangerous goods transport enterprise based on entropy and the safety assessment optimization model of dangerous GSK-3 goods transport enterprise based on the relative entropy aggregation in group decision making. Then we get the assessment result by discussing the solution. Finally, through assessing the safety of five dangerous goods transport enterprises in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, we can see that the improved method we proposed in this paper is practicable and can provide vital decision making basis for reorganizing the dangerous goods transport enterprises. Acknowledgments This work was financially supported by the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of Higher School of Science and Technology research projects (Project no. NJZC13030201025009) and the Inner Mongolia Natural Science Projects (Project no. 2014BS0501).

2 to 15 1; table 3) The least wealthy participant also had highe

2 to 15.1; table 3). The least wealthy participant also had higher odds of diagnosis (ORs 1.1–4.5) and either no different or relatively small odds of treatment (ORs 0.9–2.6; table 3 and figure 1). Table 3 Ivacaftor ic50 Illness burden, self-reported medical diagnosis and treatment of angina, cataract, depression, diabetes and osteoarthritis, comparing the least wealthy with the most wealthy: logistic regression Figure 1

Illness burden (in blue), self-reported medical diagnosis (in green) and treatment (in red) of angina, cataract, depression, diabetes and osteoarthritis, comparing the least wealthy with the most wealthy: Overall ORs (adjusted for age and sex) and 95% … For angina, the overall OR for meeting the criteria for ‘illness burden’ was 7.6, indicating that the hypothetically least wealthy individual was seven times more likely to have angina symptoms (defined by the Rose Angina scale) than the wealthiest. The OR for self-reported medical diagnosis was 4.5, suggesting that some less wealthy people with angina symptoms had not received a diagnosis of angina, as the expected OR for equitably distributed diagnosis would have been 7.6. The OR for treatment was

3.2, and again the expected ORs for equitably distributed treatment would have been 7.6. For depression, the overall OR for illness burden was 6.4, for medical diagnosis was 3.3 and for treatment was 2.6, again suggesting that some poorer people with symptoms of depression were less likely to have received a diagnosis or indicated healthcare, as the expected ORs for equitably distributed treatment would have been 6.4. For diabetes, the overall OR for illness burden was 4.2 and 4.0 for diagnosis, suggesting that for diabetes, diagnosis was distributed equitably. However, the OR for treatment was 0.9 and not statistically significantly different from 1, again suggesting that some less wealthy people with medically diagnosed diabetes had not received treatment, as the expected OR for equitably distributed treatment would have been 4.2. The subsidiary analysis calculated the OR of receiving a diagnosis by a subsequent

wave only for those who had met the criteria for ‘illness burden’ for the relevant long-term condition in a previous wave, and then the likelihood of receiving Cilengitide treatment only for those who had received a medical diagnosis in a previous wave. The substantial inequalities in the illness burden of conditions by wealth are identical to table 3, as expected, and subsequently the numbers of eligible participants dwindle rapidly due to the nested nature of the analysis, with some wide CI and 9 out of 10 results not statistically significant (see online supplemental file 1). Discussion We found that while there were strong inverse associations between wealth and the burden of illness (based on validated scales, symptoms and biomarker) of a long-term condition, there were smaller or absent inequalities in receipt of self-reported medical diagnosis or treatment for the conditions considered.

ELSA is a unique single source of detailed data on socioeconomic

ELSA is a unique single source of detailed data on socioeconomic status and health, and this is the first study to compare inequalities in illness burden, self-reported medical diagnosis and treatment of long-term conditions in a EGFR phosphorylation panel study over time. ELSA used robust measures of individual socioeconomic position, and standardised scales and blood biomarker to assess health status. This exploratory study has some limitations and the results should be interpreted with caution and tested in subsequent research. While standardised measures were used to estimate

the illness burden of depression, angina and diabetes, symptoms alone were

used for osteoarthritis and cataract, and the attributed symptoms were not specific for osteoarthritis and cataract. However, this lack of specificity is unlikely to vary with wealth, and so is not likely to be an important source of bias. Self-reported data may be a source of bias if self-report varies by factors other than objective health status, such as wealth or social experience. This is a recognised problem with some self-reported morbidity data, but is less of a problem with sensory assessment for pain, which is essentially self-perceived, and where self-report is the best means of assessment.26 We have not adjusted for health-related factors that are also more prevalent in poorer populations, such as smoking, obesity and comorbidity, because none of these are a reason for not making a diagnosis. Comorbid conditions are commoner in those with lower socioeconomic status, but there is no evidence that comorbidities make a new diagnosis less likely. On the contrary, a higher number of comorbid conditions in older people may be associated with higher quality of care.27 We found different patterns in different conditions, which fits with other research showing that wealth acts differently in different conditions, Brefeldin_A and for example, has no

association with referral for postmenopausal bleeding.28 Major national policy interventions such as the Quality and Outcomes Framework payment for performance scheme in primary care29 have been associated with improved healthcare for included conditions such as angina and diabetes, more than for excluded conditions such osteoarthritis and poor vision.30–32 The serial cross-sectional analysis of four waves of ELSA included all eligible participants in each wave in order to maximise the sample size. This approach meant that some participants with a diagnosed condition would no longer have had symptoms or raised biomarkers, if they were being successfully treated.

11 Hyperuricaemia was defined as UA ≥416 μmol/L in men and 357 μm

11 Hyperuricaemia was defined as UA ≥416 μmol/L in men and 357 μmol/L in women. (3) Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI) 24–27.9 kg/m2 and BMI selleck chemicals llc ≥28 kg/m2 according to Chinese criteria.12 (4) The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of each participant was estimated using the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation adapted for the Chinese13 as: eGFR=186×Scr−1.154×age−0.203×0.742 (female)×1.233 (Chinese). Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science software release V.16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA). Continuous variables are presented as mean (SD) or median (IQR) as appropriate. Categorical

variables are expressed as percentages. After testing for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, continuous variables were compared using a t test or the Mann-Whitney U test, and categorical variables were compared by χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate predictive factors for prehypertension. Individuals with optimal BP were used as the reference group. Multicollinearity (strong correlations among independent variables) was examined by collinearity diagnostic statistics.

Variance inflation factor values >2.5 or tolerance <0.4 may indicate concern for multicollinearity in logistic regression models.14 A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Prevalence of prehypertension Of the 5362 cases (aged ≥35 years) initially reviewed, 651 were excluded because of missing data. Finally, 4711 cases (2674 men, 2037 women) were analysed. The proportions of optimal BP, prehypertension and hypertension were 39.1% (1842 cases), 38.6% (1819 cases) and 22.3% (1050 cases), respectively. The prevalence of prehypertension

was higher in men than in women (43.5% vs 32.2%, p<0.001). There was an increasing trend of prehypertension prevalence associated with age (table 1). Table 1 Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension by sex and age group Risk factors clustering in different blood pressure statuses The average age, proportion of male sex, family history of hypertension, overweight, IFG, dyslipidaemia, hyperuricaemia, levels of FPG, TC, TG, BMI and UA were significantly higher in the prehypertension and hypertension groups than in the optimal BP group (all p<0.05). The proportions of DM, obesity and level of LDL-C were also higher in the hypertension group than in the optimal Dacomitinib BP group (all p<0.05); however, the differences were not significant in the prehypertension group compared with that in the optimal BP group (table 2). Table 2 Cardiovascular risk factors in different blood pressure statuses Cardiovascular risk factors in different subranges of prehypertension To explore the heterogeneity within the prehypertension category, patients with prehypertension were further classified into low-range and high-range subgroups.

Figure 2 Key points: impact of community-based education on stude

Figure 2 Key points: impact of community-based education on students. CBE also had an impact on participating doctors, staff,

patients and medical schools. A summary of this is shown in figure 3. Figure 3 Key points: impact of community-based education selleckchem Bosutinib (CBE) on other participants in CBE. Impact on students: learning outcomes Implementation of CBE in medical schools had a significant positive impact on medical students’ learning outcomes. The following results provide evidence of the strong educational value among students: 11 studies showed that medical students gained insight into patient-centred medicine and continuity of care, which were learning outcomes that students viewed as important in their education.10 13 17 19–21 23 25 26 28 32 This was measured quantitatively through questionnaires that were administered to students, supplemented by quantitative feedback gathered from focus groups and interviews. Students’ appreciation and understanding of the role of primary care was found in four studies.20 21

28 32 This was revealed through questionnaires, where students rated the extent of their understanding of primary care and its relationship with other levels of care. Two studies reported the benefit of community placements in broadening the student’s awareness of teamwork in multidisciplinary teams.19 30 Another study reported the positive finding of successfully exposing students to a broad and varied range of clinical problems in a community setting.33 In comparison to hospital-based

teaching, improved confidence in clinical skills and competencies was found to be a favourable outcome of CBE in four studies.10 12 19 20 This finding was derived from questionnaires and focus group interviews from students who had experienced CBE. Two studies found no difference in academic performance between students under CBE and ‘traditional’ hospital-based teaching.17 20 One study of students who undertook a specialty placement in Obstetrics and Gynaecology also found that there was no difference in clinical performance as rated by their tutors, and no statistically significant Carfilzomib difference in student final clerkship grades.34 Although most evaluations produced consistent evidence on the benefits of community teaching, two studies highlighted the lack of in-depth knowledge of specialist teaching when conducted by GP tutors: the significance of this finding was measured qualitatively through student interviews,27 and quantitatively through academic scores for the respective specialty modules.34 Impact on students: behavioural changes to primary care Two studies found that the implementation of CBE resulted in a reversal of negative attitudes towards primary care, and an increase of interest in general practice as a career option among students.

In this

In this study, the all-cause mortality was higher among men than women; however, the number of deaths in women was few and the increased mortality was not statistically significant. Considering the differences in genders, Roerecke and Rehm2 state that the RR for men was lower than that for women with AUD, and this was also consistent with previous meta-analysis.1 In an Icelandic study, included in the meta-analyses,2 3 Thorarinsson found a mortality ratio of 2.24 for alcoholic males17 and our HR of 1.88 (CI 1.44 to 2.47) for men does not contradict that finding

since different methods were used in identifying the exposed groups. Parlesak et al18 and Kinney19 suggested an explanation for the differences between genders—how women’s bodies are more susceptible to alcohol. Our results indicated that men in the AUD group are more likely to die from most causes of death than men in the comparison group. Women in the AUD group are more likely than women in the comparison group to die from alcohol-related

diseases such as AUD, mental and behavioural disorders, diseases of the circulatory system and from events of undetermined intent. However, there were too few women in this study to allow us to generalise due to the small amount of data. Population-based studies on AUDs and mortality among women seem to be lacking,2 so this study has a unique position, however, small. Alcohol is a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide20 and our results are certainly in agreement: the

HRs for chronic liver disease and alcohol liver disease were 14.69 and 19.06, respectively. In this study, HR for AUD (ICD-10 code F10) is almost 50-fold. Unfortunately, this cause of death was not reported in recent meta-analysis.3 According to McDonald et al12 and Shultz et al,21 AUDs are classified as alcohol-related diagnosis with alcohol-attributable fraction 1. In this study, high ratios were found for suicide, accidental poisoning Brefeldin_A and events of undetermined intent. Previous studies have found an association between alcohol use and suicide.2 6 Mental disorders are also associated with suicide.6 7 22 Our findings show that patients in the AUD group are frequent users of the ED. A previous study from Stockholm, Sweden on AUD patients similarly showed that these patients were frequent users of ED.9 A recent study from Boston, Massachusetts showed that frequent users of the ED had alcohol-related visits and symptoms.10 A study from UK found that alcohol users are not only frequent users of medical services like EDs, but are also underusers of preventative services.23 Studies on unspecified frequent users of EDs indicate that they have poor physical and mental health, lack social support and are in socioeconomic distress.

The remaining 794 participants (385 in the T2DM group and 409 in

The remaining 794 participants (385 in the T2DM group and 409 in the non-T2DM group) completed the survey. Region-wise recruitment was as follows: north region (n=160), east region (n=180), south region (n=158), west region (n=116), and central

region (n=180). The demographic characteristics of the analysed participants are summarised in table 1. The mean (SD) age of the T2DM group was 53.4 (11.16) years and of the non-T2DM group was 42.5 (12.55) years. Of the 794 participants, 195 (50.6%) and 175 (42.8%) male participants were from T2DM and non-T2DM groups, respectively. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes (years) was 8.7 (5.95). The mean (SD) body mass index (BMI; kg/m2, mean (SD)) in T2DM and non-T2DM groups was 26.4 (4.4) and 26.7 (5), respectively. The region-wise BMI (kg/m2, mean (SD)) was 25.06 (3.7) and 25.22 (3.53) for the east region, 26.15 (4.4) and 30.87 (7.1) for the west region, 26.79 (4.3) and 25.9 (3.8) for the north region, 26.61 (3.5)

and 25.66 (3.6) for the south region, and 26.87 (5.0) and 26.25 (4.4) for the central region in the T2DM and non-T2DM groups, respectively. The diet in T2DM and non-T2DM groups was composed of nearly equal (±5%) distribution of vegetarian and mixed diet (vegetarian plus non-vegetarian). In T2DM (n=385) and non-T2DM groups (n=409), 248 (64.4%) and 176 (43%) participants were doing exercise. Among them, 228 (91.9%; n=248) and 150 (85.2%; n=176) were reported to be doing exercise regularly in T2DM and non-T2DM groups, respectively; 40.3% (n=155) and 59.2% (n=228, data not available for two participants) in the T2DM group reported active and sedentary lifestyles, respectively. Table 1 Demographic characteristics of T2DM and non-T2DM groups (n=794) Primary and secondary outcomes In the T2DM group (n=385), the mean (SD) percentage of total energy intake as total CHO was 64.1±8.3 (95% CI 63.3 to 64.9), as complex CHO was 57.0±11.0 (95% CI 55.9 to 58.1) and as simple CHO was 7.1±10.8 (95% CI 6.0 to 8.2). The mean (SD) percentage of complex CHO intake from total

CHO was 89.5±15.3 (95% CI 88.0 to 91.1). The overall summary and comparative analysis of T2DM and non-T2DM participants is presented in table 2. The region-wise mean CHO intake (%, mean (SD)) is summarised Brefeldin_A in table 3. Table 2 Secondary outcome: summary and comparative analysis of dietary content of T2DM and non-T2DM groups Table 3 Region-wise mean CHO (in %, mean (SD) and g/day) intake in the T2DM group In the non-T2DM group (n=409), the mean (SD) percentage of total energy intake as total CHO was 66.8 (9.1, 95% CI), as complex CHO was 52.9 (13.3, 95% CI 51.6 to 54.2), and as simple CHO was 13.9 (13.8, 95% CI 12.6 to 15.2). The region-wise CHO intake (in %, mean (SD)) is summarised in table 4.

The study is sponsored by the University Of Nottingham; neither t

The study is sponsored by the University Of Nottingham; neither the sponsor nor the funders will be involved in the analysis of study data

or report writing. QbTech will provide QbTest reports to the study team, which will be analysed by BG, from the University Of Nottingham. Only the research team will have access to the study data, data generated from the trial will be available for inspection by the ethics and R&D committees on request. Changes to the protocol will be communicated to the ethics committee by the lead research fellow (CLH). The process for obtaining participant informed consent or assent and parent/guardian informed consent will be in accordance with the ethical guidance, and Good Clinical Practice. The investigator or their nominee and the participant or other legally authorised representative (such as the child’s parent) shall sign and date the informed consent forms (see online

supplementary appendix A and B) before the person can participate in the study. Written consent will be required from young people aged 16 years and above and their parents. If the young person is under 16 years of age, parental consent will be required, with the young person’s written or verbal assent. Individual participant medical information obtained as a result of this study are considered confidential and disclosure to third parties is prohibited unless warranted by an adverse event. Participant confidentiality will be further ensured by utilising identification code numbers to correspond to treatment data in the computer files. No post-trial care is required. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether using QbTest in routine NHS settings can accelerate time to correct diagnosis, with a secondary aim of examining whether the QbTest can improve patient outcome. Currently, there are few trials conducted in routine NHS settings with the aim of improving the ADHD care pathway, despite evidence to suggest suboptimal care standards and rising socioeconomic burdens. The findings of this study will help to demonstrate whether the QbTest is clinically useful and financially viable in

standard care. The findings of the trial will be submitted for publication in appropriate journals regardless of outcome (in accordance with the recommendations of CONSORT) and to members of the Batimastat public. Supplementary Material Author’s manuscript: Click here to view.(3.1M, pdf) Reviewer comments: Click here to view.(62K, pdf) Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the site Principle Investigators: Adrian Williams (Alder Hey), Dr Kim Selby (Medway), Dr Samina Holsgrove (Central Manchester), Dr Ify Omeneka (Warrington), Dr Ann-Marie Skarstam (Sussex, Hastings), Dr Sarah Curran (Sussex, Maidstone), Dr Neeta Kulkarni (Leicester), Dr Julie Clarke (Lincoln), Dr Maria Moldavsky and Dr Dilip Nathan (Nottingham) for their support.

27 33 54 60 However, results from two studies of moderate to high

27 33 54 60 However, results from two studies of moderate to high methodological study quality indicated a trend for a greater risk of burning or painful urination with FGM/C (RR=2.56, 95% CI 0.80 to 8.22; RR=1.66, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.85).33 60 Menstrual problems

were reported in five studies (n=6564).30 31 33 54 64 They showed find more information a trend towards a greater risk of menstrual problems with FGM/C: dysmenorrhoea (RR=1.44, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.86), difficulty in menstruation (RR=1.02, 95% CI 0.06 to 16.28), menstrual problems (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.97), irregular menses (RR=2.56, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.45) and difficulty in passing menstrual blood (RR=1.75, 95% CI 0.78 to 3.93). Ten comparative studies (n=28 940) reported results concerning long-term genitourinary infections.21 29 30 37 43 46 54 55 64 65 Owing to few studies and the low number of events, the findings were inconclusive for the following outcomes:

chronic pelvic infections, reproductive tract infections, genital infections and vaginitis. However, in adjusted analyses, two studies of low to moderate methodological quality found a statistically higher risk of reproductive tract infections (AOR=1.54, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.21) and genital infections (AOR=1.72, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.92) with FGM/C.37 43 Meta-analyses showed a greater risk of urinary tract infections (RR=3.01, 95% CI 1.42 to 6.38; GRADE: very low; figure 3)21 29 30 64 65 and bacterial vaginosis (AOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.22; GRADE: very low) with FGM/C (figure 4).46 54 Painful sexual intercourse Dyspareunia (painful sexual intercourse) was reported in six studies (n=6204).31 33 54 58 60 64 The meta-analysis, presented in figure 3, showed an increased risk of dyspareunia with FGM/C (RR=1.53, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.97; GRADE: very low). Correspondingly, results from two nationally representative studies from Eritrea (n=12 540) indicated a ‘dose–response’ relationship, with a lower risk of problems during sexual relations with FGM/C types I–II relative to type III (RR=0.19, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.24; RR=0.44, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.72).34 35 HIV and sexually transmitted infections HIV and sexually transmitted infections

(STIs) were clinically examined in one case–control study and 10 cross-sectional AV-951 studies (n=12 912).26 32 39 44 46 52 54 55 62 63 71 The case–control study could not establish a difference between FGM/C and no FGM/C regarding STIs (AOR=1.13, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.77).32 Similarly, the meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies failed to establish a difference (RR=1.07, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.53; GRADE: very low; figure 3).54 55 71 As shown in figure 4, also the meta-analysis for HIV, based on four studies which presented adjusted data, failed to establish a difference relative to FGM/C (AOR=0.95, 95% CI=0.54 to 1.67; GRADE: very low).44 46 62 71 Infertility Twelve studies presented data on infertility (n=36 473).20 23 40 41 46 47 48 50 54 64 Two case–control studies of high methodological quality examined whether FGM/C was a predictor for infertility.

Recently, it has been shown that antitumour necrosis factor drugs

Recently, it has been shown that antitumour necrosis factor drugs such as infliximab and adalimumab are successful in treating PG associated with IBD [9, 10]. In our study, only 1 patient received such therapy, 33-year-old female patient who was on multiple systemic immunosuppressive agents including prednisolone, MMF,

azathioprine, and adalimumab. Her response to the drugs was less than satisfactory and she had six readmissions in nine months for exacerbations of lower limb PG. Surgical intervention can worsen PG through pathergy [2, 19, 20]. Therefore, surgical intervention such as SSG should only be performed in conjunction with immunosuppression. Mild debridement of necrotic tissue may prevent bacterial infections. All our patients who underwent SSG or debridement while on immunosuppressive therapy did not have any documented evidence of postoperative exacerbation of the skin disease. 4.5. Patient Outcomes A literature search revealed little information on the prognosis of patients who were admitted for treatment of PG. Our study revealed that patients had lengthy hospital admissions (mean LOS: 47 days), high death (21.7%), and recurrence rates (39%). Patients who were admitted to hospital for treatment tended to have severe and aggressive PG. There are some factors

which can affect the prognosis of PG. Reichrath et al. suggested that the type and severity of the associated systemic disease can affect the prognosis of PG [8]. Unresponsiveness of the associated disease to treatment resulted in a poorer prognosis. This is consistent with our findings in which 80% of the patients who died in our study had an associated systemic disease. Age is also a strong prognostic factor. The mean age of patients who died in our study was 78.8 years, 16 years older than the mean age of patients recruited for our study. In addition, the patients who died in subsequent readmissions were also old, with a mean age of 68 years at time of diagnosis of PG. Our results also suggest a possible correlation between infected PG wounds and poorer prognosis which has never Carfilzomib been reported in the

literature. All the patients who died in our study had findings suggestive of infected lower limb PG and the cause of death was sepsis in 80% of the cases. We noted that patients with infected PG also had prolonged hospital stays. Infected PG requires urgent treatment with antibiotics and continuation of immunosuppressive medications. Reichrath et al. reported the use of topical treatments such as antiseptic or occlusive dressings in preventing wound infections [8]. However, none of these topical treatments have been used on our study patients. Ulcerative variant of PG is more likely to be associated with poorer prognosis than other variants [3]. In our study, 80% of patients who died during initial admission had ulcerative PG. Corticosteroids remain the primary immunosuppressive treatment [7, 8].