In Figure 1b, the bulk and surface XPS spectra of the HfO2 film i

8 eV without any shifts. In Figure 1b, the bulk and surface XPS spectra of the HfO2 film illustrate that the binding energies of the Hf 4f5/2 and 4f7/2 are at the EPZ5676 molecular weight positions of about 18.4 and 16.7 eV, respectively, with a 1.7-eV spin-orbit splitting. From the O 1s spectrum in Figure 1b, the

Hf-O bond is at 530 eV in the interior and at the surface of the HfO2 film [24]. However, from the surface XPS of O 1s in both Al2O3 and HfO2, the existence of -OH is observed with a peak at around 532 eV. This is either incorporated by residue water precursors during the process because of the high desorption energy of water at low temperatures or exposing the film check details to the atmosphere (CO2 and moisture) before XPS measurement [23]. The XPS qualification report shows that the ratios of the O/Al in the bulk of the Al2O3 film and the O/Hf in the bulk of the HfO2 are about 1.7 and 2, respectively, which means that our films obtained at low temperature are almost stoichiometric. Figure

1 The XPS spectra. (a) Al 2p and O 1s peaks at the surface and in the bulk of the Al2O3 film. (b) Hf 4f and O 1s peaks at the surface and in the bulk of HfO2 film. Typical I-V characteristics of the device are shown in Figure 2, which indicates a bipolar resistive switching. The initial resistance state of the TiN/HfO2/Al2O3/ITO flexible RRAM (schematically shown in the inset of Figure 2) device was found (curve 1) to be even lower than the low resistance state (LRS) of the device, and an excess negative voltage was applied to reset the device to high resistance state

(HRS). The initial reset voltage and current were −3 V and 10 mA, Everolimus purchase respectively. This phenomenon was not observed in RRAMs C1GALT1 grown at high temperatures, except in some cases after high-temperature annealing [25–27]. We attribute this phenomenon to the high density of defects in the film grown at low temperature. As with our low-temperature ALD processing using H2O as oxidant, it is inevitable that there will be some incomplete reactions during the process, such as residual -OH groups, fixed positive charges, and oxygen vacancies. It is considered that when the density of defects exceeds the percolation theory threshold value, the resistance of the insulating layer will be lower than the typical value [26, 28]. This large density of defects may be very suitable for RRAM applications which work dependently on the defects. After the initial reset operation, the set operation was achieved by sweeping a positive voltage from 0 to 1.5 V with 1 mA of current compliance to protect the device from a hard breakdown (curve 3). An abrupt increase of current was observed at 1 V, and the device was set to LRS (approximately 650 Ω). A negative bias was then applied to the device by a sweep from 0 to −1 V, and a sudden descent of current occurred at −0.6 V, indicating that the device was reset to HRS with a reset current in the same magnitude as the set current.

Thus, the best results were obtained when the final concentration

Thus, the best results were obtained when the final concentration of the three primer sets, MgCl2, and Taq polymerase was increased respectively to 0.8 μM, 3 mM and to 1.5 U and the m-PCR was check details carried

out in a final volume of 50 μl. The thermal cycler parameters of the m-PCR were similar to those of the individual PCR using 61°C as an optimal annealing temperature. Positive and negative control DNA samples were run in each experiment. PCR products were analyzed in 1.2% agarose gel electrophoresis, stained with ethidium bromide and visualised with ultraviolet transillumination. All PCR reactions assessing limits of detection or specifiCity were performed in duplicate. Sensitivity and specifiCity of the m-PCR Sensitivity of the PCR assay was checked using serial fold dilutions of bacterial suspension Akt inhibitor of references strains AB7, iB1 and Nine-Miles at 107 bacteria per ml. Simulated positive samples were also obtained by adding

50 μl of bacterial suspension dilution to 50 μl of bacteria-free vaginal swab extract or milk sample. These preparations were then submitted to extraction procedures and to simplex and m-PCR as described above. The specifiCity of the PCR was assessed on 20 strains of Cp. abortus, 5 strains of Cp. pecorum and, 4 strains of C. burnetii VEGFR inhibitor from our laboratory bacteria collection and on some isolates suspected to be present into tested clinical samples: Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenese, Salmonella abortus ovis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenese, Staphylococcus hominis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus ogalactiae, Mycobacterium avium, Legionella pneumophila. In addition, RFLP-PCR analysis was carried

out as a confirmatory test for the PCR reaction specifiCity. Thus, 10 μl of amplification products obtained from naturally infected clinical samples and those obtained from 102 genomic DNA templates of the reference strains AB7, IB 1, Nine Miles were subjected to 5 units DOCK10 of AluI restriction enzyme (Promega, Charbonnières-Les-Bains, France) in a 20 μl final volume for 3 hours at 37°C. The digested products were examined by using 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide and viewed under UV illumination. In addition, PCR products amplified from clinical samples were purified with a QIAquick PCR purification Kit (Qiagen, Courtaboeuf, France) and directly sequenced with an ABI PRISM 310 genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems). Isolation of Chlamydophila and Coxiella strains Pathogen isolation was performed to confirm the presence of the involved bacteria, on 20-different PCR positive samples showing high ethidium bromide intensity on agarose gel. Chlamydophila strains isolation were performed using both plaque assays and blind passages on McCoy monolayer cell cultures [27].

The enrollment period was from

The enrollment period was from see more July 2003 to June 2006, and the study finished in June 2009. All patients who underwent hip fracture surgery at the participating institutions and were discharged during the enrollment period were tentatively enrolled by uploading data to a web page. The enrollment items were sex, age, height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), presence/absence of osteoporosis, presence/absence of vertebral fracture, site of hip fracture surgery, date of injury, date of hospitalization, treatment of the fracture, address at the time of injury, postoperative period, independence rating before injury, independence rating at discharge, drug

treatment for osteoporosis at discharge, past history at discharge, complications at discharge, BMD, and possibility/impossibility of outpatient follow-up. The attending physician explained the purpose and methods of this study to each patient. We specified Japanese criteria for the diagnosis of osteoporosis according to the diagnostic standard for primary osteoporosis (2000 revised edition) of the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research [19]. The exclusion

criteria were as follows: (1) no diagnosis of primary osteoporosis according to the above criteria, (2) bilateral hip fracture, (3) prior history of hip fracture, (4) patients CA4P ic50 discharged death, and (5) patients who could not be followed-up after discharge. Out of the preliminary enrolled patients, those treated with risedronate at the approved Japanese dose of 2.5 mg/day (Benet® 2.5 mg; Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Osaka, Japan) at the initial visit after 4SC-202 discharge on the judgment of the physician

in charge were included in the administration group. Following the initial outpatient visit after discharge from hospital, patients were enrolled by uploading the required data to the web page. After enrollment of patients in the group receiving BCKDHA risedronate, the patient enrollment center selected all of the matching patients as candidates for the control group. The demographic data and other items used for matching the groups are listed in Appendix 1. Patients in the control group were not being treated with any bisphosphonate preparation and the required data was uploaded as the control group to the web page (Fig. 1). Fig. 1 Disposition of the patients. Of the 2,051 patients who underwent preliminary enrollment, 1,142 patients were ineligible, and 280 patients were excluded from enrollment for several reasons. Among the rest, 184 patients were taking risedronate at the initial outpatient visit after discharge. Four hundred forty-five patients were matched with patients with taking risedronate.

The correct spelling is Rossbeevera T Lebel

& Orihara ge

The correct spelling is Rossbeevera T. Lebel

& Orihara gen. nov. A list of the species names follows. Rossbeevera bispora (B.C.Zhang & Y.N.Yu) T.Lebel & Orihara comb. nov. Rossbeevera eucyanea Orihara sp. nov. Rossbeevera griseovelutina Orihara sp. nov. Rossbeevera mucosa (Petri) T.Lebel comb. nov. Rossbeevera vittatispora (G.W.Beaton, Pegler & T.W.K.Young) T.Lebel comb. nov. Rossbeevera westraliensis T. Lebel sp. nov.”
“Introduction Graphidaceae (including Thelotremataceae; Mangold et al. 2008) is the second largest family Selleckchem MEK162 of lichenized fungi, next to Parmeliaceae, and the most important element of lichen communities in tropical regions, with over 1500 species (Staiger 2002; Frisch et al. 2006; Archer 2006, 2007, 2009; Lücking and Rivas Plata 2008; Rivas Plata et al. 2008; Lücking et al. 2008, 2009; PS-341 ic50 Mangold et al. 2009). For a long time, family and generic concepts in this group were based on apothecia and ascospore types, separating the bulk of taxa into four genera with rounded (Thelotremataceae: Ocellularia, Thelotrema, Phaeotrema, Leptotrema), four genera with lirellate (Graphidaceae: Graphis, Graphina, Phaeographis, Phaeographina), and four genera with stromatic ascomata (Graphidaceae: Glyphis, Medusulina, Sarcographa, Sarcographina). Genera within each morphotype were separated based on whether

ascospores were transversely septate or muriform and hyaline or pigmented (Müller Argoviensis 1887; Hale 1974, 1978; Wirth and Hale 1963; 1978; Staiger 2002; Frisch et al. 2006). Salisbury (1971, 1972, 1978) and Hale (1980) challenged this schematic genus concept in the former Thelotremataceae, but rather than splitting the artificial ascospore genera into smaller units, Hale (1980) proposed

a more inclusive concept, with only three genera based on excipular structures: carbonized lacking periphysoids (Ocellularia), non-carbonized lacking periphysoids (Myriotrema), and non-carbonized with periphysoids (Thelotrema). This concept was subsequently applied to the treatment of Thelotremataceae for Montelukast Sodium Sri Lanka (Hale 1981). While Hale’s classification delimited two largely natural groups later recognized as supported clades in phylogenetic studies, the Ocellularia clade (including Ocellularia sensu Hale p.p. and Myriotrema sensu Hale p.p.) and the Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor Thelotrema clade (including Thelotrema sensu Hale and some species of Myriotrema sensu Hale), the delimitation of large genera with well over 300 species each and the problems with generic assignment of aberrant taxa made this concept unsatisfactory. In addition, no comparable solution was proposed for lirellate and stromatic species classified in the supposed sister family Graphidaceae, which was treated until most recently using concepts established in the 19th century (Archer 1999; 2000; 2001a; b; c; d; 2002).

This suggests that a) the SSTRs

This suggests that a) the SSTRs expression is found along the B cell differentiation stages b) SSTRs expression is not modulated during this process b) SSTRs expression pattern

is not a marker for B cell differentiation. Sst and its analogs have been demonstrated to negatively regulate tumor cell proliferation (see for review [42]) and have been used in inoperable patients where neuroendocrine tumours stabilization or shrinkage can be obtained Staurosporine solubility dmso [43]. However, in other cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma, the SIS3 molecular weight clinical benefit of Oct is not evidenced even in positive Oct scintigraphy patients [44]. To our knowledge, only one study examined the effects of Sst and Oct in MM cell lines and showed a strong decrease of viable cells after 48 h Oct exposure [41]. This is in marked contrast with our data since either Sst or Oct were unable to affect

cell proliferation of the U266 cell line. Such discrepancies should be explained by the use of different clones of the U266. We can also hypothesize that our U266 cells would express SSTRs with opposite effects on proliferation. SSTR2 and 5 were reported to inhibit cell proliferation by phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activation and inhibition of calcium channels, respectively [42, 45]. In contrast, SSTR4 were shown to activate the MAPK cascade and promoting proliferation [46]. So, no effect on proliferation would be observed upon co-activation of those SSTRs. Discrepancies between our study and the one of Georgii-Hemming and collaborators [41] about Bortezomib manufacturer Chlormezanone cellular viability should also be due to the presence or the absence of serum in the culture medium. However, we can rule out such explanation since we observed no effect upon SSTR agonists when experiments were conducted in serum-free culture medium (data not shown). Anti-tumoral activity of Sst or its analogs are also due to pro-apoptotic effects (see for review [47]). In two MM cell lines U266 (current study) and LP-1 (data not shown), we observed that neither Sst nor Oct promote apoptosis in our experimental

conditions. This was illustrated by the lack of sub-G1 peak in cell cycle assay and the absence of labelling in annexin V/PI experiments. In contrast, Georgii-Hemming et al. showed that in three MM cells (HL-407L, HL-407E and U-1958) Oct induced a weak increase in annexin V/PI staining suggesting that SSTRs could promote apoptosis [41] but the U266 cell line was not investigated. Sharma et al. first described the role of SSTR3 in apoptosis when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and demonstrated that Oct promotes dephosphorylation of wild-type p53 which leads to DNA fragmentation [35]. Even in the absence of apoptosis, we can not rule out that SSTRs are not coupled to apoptotic pathways since U266 was shown to express the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 [48].

For the two

For the two training sessions with 1000 m interval runs × 15 that were performed

on the first and the last days of the training camp on February 15 (the temperature and humidity were 2°C and EPZ004777 price 38%, respectively) and 22 (the temperature and humidity were 3°C and 35%, respectively) of 2008, 16 subjects were assigned to 3 teams (A-C) according to ability. The number of the subjects was 4 in team A, 6 in team B, and 6 in team C and each team included the same number of CT or P group. Each 1000 m interval run was followed by a 200 m jog. Team A ran 1000 m in 3 min 15 s × 5, 3 min 10 s × 5, 3 min 5 s × 4, and then ran the last 1000 m interval at full speed (average run time: 3 min 5 s). Team B ran 1000 m in 3 min 20 s × 5, 3 min

15 s × 5, 3 min 10 s × 4, and then ran the last one at full speed (average run time: 3 min 9 s). Team C ran 1000 m in 3 min 25 s × 5, 3 min 20 s × 5, 3 min 15 s × 4, and then ran the last one at full speed (average run time: 3 min 16 s). The interval runs were performed so that the load of exercise was comparable regardless of the runners’ abilities. Test schedule and analysis items Blood and saliva samples were collected before and after the 1000-m interval runs × 15 performed in the early morning on 15 and 22 February 2008 on the first and last day of the training camp, respectively. The CRT0066101 cell line above samples were collected immediately after the subjects woke up in the early morning at 6 AM, before breakfast and before they engaged in any Momelotinib physical activities. After blood and saliva samples were collected, 1000-m interval runs × 15 training

was performed from 7 AM, and blood and saliva samples were collected Amylase again after the training without any massage or pressure to the skeletal muscle. Nineteen ml of blood was collected from the antecubital vein by the standard procedure using a blood collection tube. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were measured using blood samples as part of a general peripheral blood test. In addition, blood levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), myoglobin (Mb) and IL-6 were included in the general biochemical examination and cortisol was measured in a saliva test. All analyses were performed in a biomedical clinical laboratory (Health Sciences Research Institute, Inc., Japan). Statistical analysis Data are shown as the means ± SEM.

5 million species estimate revisited Mycol Res 105:422–1432Cross

5 million species estimate revisited. Mycol Res 105:422–1432CrossRef Henkel TW, Meszaros R, Aime MC, Kennedy A (2005) New Clavulina species from the Pakaraima mountains GDC-0941 mouse of Guyana. Mycol. Progr. 4:343–350CrossRef Holdridge LR (1982) Ecología basada en zonas de vida. Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricoles, San José Holdridge LR, Grenke WC, Hatheway WH, Liang T, Tosi JA (1971) Forest environmenst in Tropical life Zones: a pilot study. Pergamon Press, Oxford

Hoorn C, Wesselingh FP, Ter Steege H et al (2010) Amazonia through time: Andean uplift, climate change, landscape evolution, and biodiversity. Science 330:927–931PubMedCrossRef Houbraken J, López Quintero CA, Frisvad JC, Boekhout T, Theelen B, Franco-Molano AE, Samson RA (2011) Five new Penicillium species, P. I BET 762 araracuarense, P.

elleniae, P. penarojense, P. vanderhammenii and P. wotroi, from Colombian leaf litter. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:1462–1475PubMedCrossRef Hyde KD (2001) Where are the missing fungi? Does Hong Kong have the answers? Mycol Res 105:1514–1518CrossRef Hyde KD, Bussaban B, Paulus B et al (2007) Diversity of saprobic microfungi. Biodivers Conserv 16:7–35CrossRef PU-H71 concentration Jiménez-Valverde A, Hortal J (2003) Las curvas de acumulación de especies y la necesidad de evaluar la calidad de los inventarios biológicos. Revista Iberica de Aracnologia 8:151–161 Kark S (2007) Effects of ecotones on biodiversity. In: Levin S (ed) Encyclopedia of biodiversity. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 1–10CrossRef Kauserud H, Stige LC, Vik JO et al (2008) Mushroom fruiting and climate change. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 105:3811–3814PubMedCrossRef Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008) Ainsworth & Bisby’s dictionary of the fungi, 10th edn. Cabi International, Wallingford Köppen W (1936) Das geographische System der Klimate, vol. 1, part C. In: Köppen W, Geiger R (eds), Handbuch der Klimatologie. Borntraeger, Berlin, Germany Kreft H, Jetz W (2007) Global patterns and determinants of vascular plant diversity. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 104:5925–5930PubMedCrossRef Largent DL (1986) How to identify mushrooms to genus (I) macroscopic features. Mad River

Press, Eureka Lodge DJ (1997) Factors related to diversity of decomposer fungi in tropical forests. Biodivers Alectinib concentration Conserv 6:681–688CrossRef Lodge DJ, Cantrell S (1995) Fungal communities in wet tropical forests: variation in time and space. Can J Bot 73:1391–1398CrossRef Lodge DJ, Chapela I, Samuels et al. (1995) A survey of patterns of diversity in non-lichenized fungi. Mitt Eidgenöss Forsch.anst Wald Schnee Landsch 70(1):157-173 Lodge DJ, Ammirati JF, O’Dell TE et al (2004) Terrestrial and lignicolous macrofungi. In: Mueller GM, Bills GF, Foster MS (eds) Biodiversity of fungi. Inventory and monitoring methods. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 127–172 Londoño AC (2011) Flora and dynamics of an upland and a floodplain forest in Peña Roja, Colombia Amazon. PhD Thesis University of Amsterdam.

The three groups of children under study were matched by age cons

The three groups of children under study were matched by age considering the variability of the composition of human microbiota during the first years of life. Total Gram-positive bacterial populations were the highest in healthy controls and the lowest in untreated CD patients, while it reached intermediate values in treated CD. These differences were statistically significant (P = 0.004) between untreated CD patients and controls (Figure 2A). Gram-positive bacterial levels did not normalize completely after a check details long-term GFD in treated CD patients, although the differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.203) when

compared with controls. FG-4592 supplier Total Gram-negative bacteria reached similar values (ranging from 27.5 to 32.7%) in faeces from the three population groups (P = 0.323-0.650; Figure 2A).

The ratio of total Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria was the highest in healthy controls and significantly reduced in treated CD patients (P = 0.045) and even more in untreated CD patients (P = 0.006). Figure 2 General composition of the faecal microbiota of untreated (white bars) and treated CD patients (grey bars) and healthy controls (black bars) as assessed by FISH and FCM. Data are expressed as proportions of bacterial cells hybridising with group-specific probes to total bacteria hybridising with EUB probe 338. Total Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria were Epigenetics inhibitor calculated by adding the relative proportions of the corresponding groups detected by using group-specific probes. Median values and ranges are Endonuclease given. *Significant differences were established at P < 0.05 by

applying the Mann-Whitney U-test. Table 1 Faecal microbiota composition of untreated and treated CD patients and age-matched healthy controls assessed by FISH and FCM Microbial groups Specific group-probed cells/EUB-388 cells (%)1   Untreated CD (n = 24) Treated CD (n = 18) Control (n = 20)   Median Range Median Range Median Range Bifidobacterium 7.73 22.08-3.27 9.20 33.82-1.58 12.54 33.68-6.94 C. histolyticum 5.26 27.61-0.71 9.41 39.60-2.95 11.61 35.69-0.16 C. lituseburense 3.23 27.24-0.17 4.41 29.85-0.28 6.83 19.56-1.05 Lactobacillus-Enterococcus 1.94 10.93-0.14 1.12 9.30-0.22 1.76 16.47-0.25 Staphylococcus 10.36 37.38-0.89 16.49 42.91-0.51 18.04 41.32-0.19 Bacteroides-Prevotella 3.54 20.85-0.80 2.61 15.07-0.25 2.32 5.53-0.33 E. coli 5.20 23.42-0.48 6.39 28.77-0.55 7.32 28.26-1.10 F. prausnitzii 6.03 37.50-1.07 11.09 37.84-2.95 13.88 37.08-2.32 Sulphate-reducing bacteria 9.58 38.02-2.84 9.82 41.74-2.09 10.02 36.92-2.92 1 Data were expressed as proportions of bacterial cells hybridising with group-specific probes to total bacteria hybridising with EUB probe 338. * Statistical significant differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test and established at P < 0.050.

Viability of the trophozoites after treatment was evaluated, leav

Viability of the trophozoites after treatment was evaluated, leaving the cultures for ten days and analyzing the adherent living cells. Descriptive statistics included the calculation of the means and S.D. of the control and experimental groups. Average counts were compared between Ab treatments for statistical differences using the independent GSK621 molecular weight samples Student’s t-test from the SPSS Statistic program. Results and

discussion Polyclonal antibodies against WB trophozoites are also reactive against GS trophozoites Antibodies against variable specific-surface proteins (VSPs) as well as metabolic enzymes were found in patients infected with Giardia in both an endemic region (León, Nicaragua) and in a non-endemic area during a waterborne outbreak (Sälen, Sweden). There was also strong immunoreaction to antigens associated with the cytoskeleton, including giardins learn more [31, 32]. Therefore, to produce mAbs against giardins, we purified a fraction enriched in cytoskeletal proteins from a lysate of G.

lamblia trophozoites of the WB strain. After subcellular fractionation, each fraction was analyzed, using mAbs against VSP9B10 (non-cytoskeletal proteins) and tubulin (cytoskeletal protein), by dot-blotting (Figure 1A). The VSP9B10 mAb recognized a VSP that is expressed in WB trophozites, Selleckchem ZIETDFMK labeling the surface of the trophozoites, including the flagella [33]. The P1a to P1c fractions were collected, and used as the antigen for mouse immunization. Figure 1 Polyclonal antibody production. (A) Dot-blotting of the subcellular fractionation of WB trophozoites

shows that surface proteins localized mainly in fractions P3 (samples e-g) and weakly in fraction P1 (samples c-e), while cytoskeleton proteins were found in P1 (samples a-c). P1, P2, and P3 corresponded to the fractions of pellet centrifuged at 1,000 × g, 20,000 × g, and 105,000 × g, respectively. (B) Antibody reactivity. Western blotting of a total WB, GS and Portland-1 Giardia lysate incubated with the pre-immune (PI) or the immune polyclonal (pAb) serum. Lane 1: standards of the indicated molecular weights. (C) Reactivity of polyclonal antibodies Ureohydrolase determined by indirect immunofluorescence in WB, GS and Portland-1 trophozoites. PI: control with pre-immune serum. Scale bar: 10 μm. The screening of the polyclonal serum was performed by Western blot and immunofluorescence, in G. lamblia WB and Portland-1(assemblage A) and GS (assemblage B) trophozoites. Western blotting showed several bands in WB and Portland-1, but fewer in GS trophozoites (Figure 1B), with the main band of about 30 kDa found in all samples possibly representing the common immunoreactive protein that has been repeatedly identified in natural Giardia infections [18, 34–36].

The ratio χ 1/χ 0 = O(c 2 u 2) < < 1, therefore, the nonlinear pa

The ratio χ 1/χ 0 = O(c 2 u 2) < < 1, therefore, the nonlinear parameter χ 1 can be neglected. The

buy GSK126 statement about linearity of the ST-force agrees also with our simulations and the micromagnetic simulations performed in [12, 19]. The coefficient λ(J) describes nonlinearity of the system and decreases smoothly with the current J increasing. Numerical method We have simulated the vortex motion in a single permalloy (Fe20Ni80 alloy, Py) circular nanodot under the influence of a spin-polarized dc current flowing through it. Micromagnetic simulations of the spin-torque-induced magnetization dynamics in this system were carried out with the micromagnetic simulation package MicroMagus (General BYL719 Numerics Research Lab, Jena, Germany) [28]. This package solves numerically the LLG equation of the magnetization motion using the optimized version of the adaptive (i.e., with the time step control) Runge-Kutta method. this website Thermal fluctuations have been neglected in our modeling, so that the simulated dynamics corresponds to T = 0. Material parameters for Py are as follows: exchange stiffness constant A = 10-6

erg/cm, saturation magnetization M s = 800 G, and the damping constant used in the LLG equation α G  = 0.01. Permalloy dot with the radius R = 100 nm and thickness L = 5, 7, and 10 nm was discretized in-plane into 100 × 100 cells. No additional discretization was performed in the direction perpendicular TCL to the dot plane, so that the discretization cell size was 2 × 2 × L nm3. In order to obtain the vortex core with a desired polarity (spin polarization direction of dc current and vortex core polarity should have opposite directions in order to ensure the steady-state vortex precession) and to displace the vortex core from its equilibrium position in the nanodot

center, we have initially applied a short magnetic field pulse with the out-of-plane projection of 200 Oe, the in-plane projection H x  = 10 Oe, and the duration Δt = 3 ns. Simulations were carried out for the physical time t = 200 to 3,000 ns depending on the applied dc current because for currents close to the threshold current J c1, the time for establishing the vortex steady-state precession regime was much larger than for higher currents (see Equation 8 below). Results and discussion Calculated analytically, the vortex core steady orbit radius in circular dot u 0(J) as a function of current J is compared with the simulations (see Figure 1). There is no fitting except only taking the critical current J c1 value from simulations.