8 eV without any shifts. In Figure 1b, the bulk and surface XPS spectra of the HfO2 film illustrate that the binding energies of the Hf 4f5/2 and 4f7/2 are at the EPZ5676 molecular weight positions of about 18.4 and 16.7 eV, respectively, with a 1.7-eV spin-orbit splitting. From the O 1s spectrum in Figure 1b, the
Hf-O bond is at 530 eV in the interior and at the surface of the HfO2 film . However, from the surface XPS of O 1s in both Al2O3 and HfO2, the existence of -OH is observed with a peak at around 532 eV. This is either incorporated by residue water precursors during the process because of the high desorption energy of water at low temperatures or exposing the film check details to the atmosphere (CO2 and moisture) before XPS measurement . The XPS qualification report shows that the ratios of the O/Al in the bulk of the Al2O3 film and the O/Hf in the bulk of the HfO2 are about 1.7 and 2, respectively, which means that our films obtained at low temperature are almost stoichiometric. Figure
1 The XPS spectra. (a) Al 2p and O 1s peaks at the surface and in the bulk of the Al2O3 film. (b) Hf 4f and O 1s peaks at the surface and in the bulk of HfO2 film. Typical I-V characteristics of the device are shown in Figure 2, which indicates a bipolar resistive switching. The initial resistance state of the TiN/HfO2/Al2O3/ITO flexible RRAM (schematically shown in the inset of Figure 2) device was found (curve 1) to be even lower than the low resistance state (LRS) of the device, and an excess negative voltage was applied to reset the device to high resistance state
(HRS). The initial reset voltage and current were −3 V and 10 mA, Everolimus purchase respectively. This phenomenon was not observed in RRAMs C1GALT1 grown at high temperatures, except in some cases after high-temperature annealing [25–27]. We attribute this phenomenon to the high density of defects in the film grown at low temperature. As with our low-temperature ALD processing using H2O as oxidant, it is inevitable that there will be some incomplete reactions during the process, such as residual -OH groups, fixed positive charges, and oxygen vacancies. It is considered that when the density of defects exceeds the percolation theory threshold value, the resistance of the insulating layer will be lower than the typical value [26, 28]. This large density of defects may be very suitable for RRAM applications which work dependently on the defects. After the initial reset operation, the set operation was achieved by sweeping a positive voltage from 0 to 1.5 V with 1 mA of current compliance to protect the device from a hard breakdown (curve 3). An abrupt increase of current was observed at 1 V, and the device was set to LRS (approximately 650 Ω). A negative bias was then applied to the device by a sweep from 0 to −1 V, and a sudden descent of current occurred at −0.6 V, indicating that the device was reset to HRS with a reset current in the same magnitude as the set current.