In this study, the authors investigated

In this study, the authors investigated the lactate and glucose dynamics during a Greco-roman wrestling match in three different weight classes. The objective of this research was to determine whether there were significant differences in the measured concentrations of lactate and glucose before, during, and after a wrestling match between lightweight, middleweight, and heavyweight youth wrestlers. Material and Methods Subjects The study was conducted with 60 youth wrestlers, 15�C20 years old, who were junior and cadet (according to international wrestling rules) members from 13 Croatian wrestling clubs. Each of the subjects participated in the Croatian Greco-Roman wrestling championship for juniors or cadets and placed between the first and tenth place.

Wrestlers that placed below the tenth position were not considered for this study because some of them were beginners and it was unclear whether we could measure the impact of wrestling training. Differences in anaerobic energy production from glycolysis occur in later years ( Korhonen et al., 2005 ). Therefore, it is reasonable to observe these age categories as a group. The sample was divided into three weight categories: lightweight (n = 20; 57 �� 6 kg), middleweight (n = 20; 70 �� 2 kg) and heavyweight (n = 20; 88 �� 13 kg). The study protocol was approved by the ethical committee of the Faculty of Kinesiology in Split (Croatia) and written informed consent to participate in the study was signed by each subject or his parents prior to commencement.

Measures Ten physiological variables for each weight category were measured: Lactate concentration before the match��after the warm-up, Lactate concentration after the first bout, Lactate concentration after the second bout, Lactate concentration after the third bout, Lactate concentration in the 5th min of recovery, Glucose concentration before the match��after the warm-up, Glucose concentration after the first bout, Glucose concentration after the second bout, Glucose concentration after the third bout, Glucose concentration in the 5th min of recovery. Procedures The concentration of lactate in blood was measured using the Accutrend lactate device; the validity was established by Baldari ( Baldari et al., 2009 ). The amount of glucose in blood was determined using an Accu-Chek Active device, and validity was established by Freckmann ( Freckmann et al.

, 2010 ). Heart rate was measured using the Polar PE3000 Heart Rate Monitor (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland). For the purpose of calculating body mass index, the subjects�� body mass and height were measured. Body mass was measured with a medical scale and a Martin��s Anacetrapib anthropometer was used for measuring body height. Subjects were instructed to follow a normal lifestyle by maintaining daily habits and avoiding any medication, alcohol, and caffeine as well as vigorous exercise within 24 hours of the test.

Therefore, it is noteworthy that the main focus should be on the

Therefore, it is noteworthy that the main focus should be on the optimal interaction between stride length and stride frequency.
Adequate levels of strength and flexibility are important for the promotion selleck products and maintenance of health and functional autonomy, as well as safe and effective sports participation (ACSM, 1998; Sim?o et al., 2011). In this context, strength training (ST) is considered an integral component of a well-rounded exercise program, contributes to the treatment and prevention of injuries, and improves sports performance (ACSM, 2002; ACSM, 2009). The combinations of different types of stretching modes on athletic performance have been previously studied (Mikolajec et al., 2012; Shrier, 2004; Bacurau et al., 2009; Beckett et al., 2009; Little and Williams, 2006; Yamaguchi and Ishii, 2005; Behm et al.

, 2001; Dalrymple et al., 2010). All of these studies, with the exception of the study by Dalrymple et al. (2010), observed a decrease in explosive sport skills, such as sprinting and vertical jumps. However, Dalrymple et al. (2010) did not explain the influence of the two different stretching models (passive and dynamic stretching) on the countermovement jump. Gomes et al. (2010) observed a decrease in the capacity to maintain force on strength training exercises before proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). In this study, static stretching did not affect endurance or strength performance. Research has also demonstrated that a different inter-set rest interval length can produce different acute responses and chronic adaptations in neuromuscular and endocrine systems (Salles et al.

, 2009). However, little research has focused on the activity performed during these recovery periods (Caruso and Coday, 2008; Garcia-Lopez et al., 2010). It is common to see lifters performing ST inter-set stretching to improve the muscular recovery in sports or recreational-related exercises (Garcia-Lopez et al., 2010). Additionally, it has been suggested that inter-set stretching influences the time under tension and associated neuromuscular, metabolic, and/or hormonal systems. Recent data have shown that ST inter-set static stretching negatively affected the bench press acute kinematic profile compared with inter-set ballistic stretching and non-stretching conditions (Garcia-Lopez et al., 2010).

In a chronic manner, static stretching performed before ST sessions resulted in similar strength gains to ST alone, suggesting that strength and stretching can be prescribed together to achieve optimal improvements in flexibility (Sim?o et al., 2011). Based on these results, the performance of inter-set static stretching may lead to additional improvements in flexibility levels and muscular recovery without additional time expended Brefeldin_A in the gym. However, to date, only Sim?o et al. (2011) have observed the chronic effects of ST inter-set stretching on flexibility.

, 2000 ) From a control perspective, it can be stated that chang

, 2000 ). From a control perspective, it can be stated that changes in central commands did selleck chem not lead to changes in APA time in the analyzed motor task. Therefore, one should remember that it was a rapid movement which differs from cyclic ones. However, Winstein et al. (1997) found that in classical tapping tasks, when more precise targeting independent of task difficulty was required, a cortical-subcortical loop composed of the contralateral motor cortex, intraparietal sulcus and caudate was much more activated. They showed, with a use of positron emission tomography (PET), that greater effort in performing a difficult task (smaller targets) recruits more motor planning areas. Recent studies showed that there is a specific modulation of neural network associated with the availability of time to plan the upcoming movement and motor difficulty.

One of them used brain-imaging (fMRI) to examine a simple motor task – moving a mouse cursor on a screen ( Boyd et al., 2009 ). Another examined step initiation in patients with Parkinson��s disease ( Jacobs et al., 2009 ). The same concerns the study by Bartucco and Cesari (2010) described earlier, which focused on motion capture experiments on ballet movements. It looks like in these experiments subjects used distinct control of APA duration and APA magnitude according to Fitts�� law. It is one of the limitation of our study that we did not observe changes in the central nervous system. An additional limitation is that we did not record muscle activity.

It is hard to estimate information processing but it can be guessed that the commands do not concern speed manifested in the velocity of a dart but the accuracy of aiming. Concentrating on accuracy does not have to lead to changes in force recruitment. That hypothesis is partly supported by Smits-Engelsman et al. (2002) who suggest fundamental differences in cyclic and discrete movements. They also claim that cyclic movements make a more cost-effective use of the recruited force, use less information-processing capacity and less change in force, then discrete ( Smits-Engelsman et al., 2002 ). This interesting hypothesis is worth considering and examining in future research. Whenever we optimize the speed-accuracy trade-off in specific movement by repetitions we can create a motor skill and perform the movement better and better. Then we start to act effortless and automatic.

Unfortunately, there is a lack of data concerning some applications of Fitts�� law in sports training. It is simply impossible to say if it is better to Batimastat differentiate a distance or a target size during the process of gradual mastering of specific motor skills with repeated performance. From a physics point of view, controlling velocity seems to be the simplest way to perform a motor task. It may be more effective to change spatial constraints to achieve better results in high-performance sport.

According to Barbosa et al (2009), the use of aquatic cycling ha

According to Barbosa et al. (2009), the use of aquatic cycling has been reported in literature for three decades, though its findings are still contradictory. Alberton et al. (2010) suggest that HR in the water could be similar or higher as compared with dry land measurements. Barbosa et al. (2010) analyzed the relationships enough between musical cadence and the physiological adaptations to basic head-out aquatic exercises. The study included an intermittent and progressive protocol and the main conclusion was that increasing musical cadence imposed an increase in the physiological response. In this context, several physiologic indicators have been used in order to quantify the intensity of exertion in those environments, such as: the HR (Sheldahl et al., 1984; Reilly et al., 2003); double product (Veloso et al.

, 2003), and blood lactate concentration (Di Masi et al., 2007). In water, resting or exercising induces different physiological responses when compared with those achieved in dry-land conditions (Shono et al., 2000; Reilly et al., 2003) and are affected by a number of factors, such as buoyancy, thermal conductivity of the water (Choukroun and Varene, 2000), hydrostatic pressure (Goodall and Howatson, 2008), among others. Those responses depend also on the body positioning in the water (Millet et al., 2002; Ega?a et al., 2006) and on the type of exercise (Barbosa et al., 2009). Kang et al. (2005) compared the responses of HR between intermittent (130 �� 2 bpm) and continuous cycling (127 �� 2 bpm) on land and did not found significant differences between both methods.

The lactate concentration was significantly higher at the end of the intermittent exercise with a mean value above 7 mmol in the final stage of the IP. Contrarily, Sabapathy et al. (2004), have examined the physiological responses in 10 subjects who performed a continuous and intermittent land cycling protocol and observed that the intermittent protocol was associated to significantly lower values of HR. Unfortunately, no previous study examined the type of physiological response induce by continue or intermittent exercise in water environment. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that the type of exercise (continuous vs. intermittent) would affect the physiological response and the perception of effort during aquatic cycling. Methods Participants Ten women (values are mean �� SD: age=32.

8 �� 4.8 years; height=1.62 �� 0.05 cm; body mass=61.60 �� 5.19 kg; estimated body fat=27.13 �� 4.92%) of low risk, practicing regular classes of cycling in water for at least six months, participated in the study. All of them signed a written informed consent to participate in Entinostat the study and in accordance with the norms for accomplishment of research with humans established in the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. The experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institution.

Figure 4 Post-orthodontic treatment photographs and X-rays Trea

Figure 4. Post-orthodontic treatment photographs and X-rays. Treatment results The active orthodontic treatment utilizing fixed appliances in both dental arches lasted 11 months. Superimposition of the initial and final tracings of the lateral cephalometric X-rays indicated that slight labial proclination of the upper and lower incisors occurred post-treatment (Figure 5). Prosthodontic rehabilitation of the partially edentulous right mandibular dental arch region was achieved through the placement of two implants and two crowns, respectively (Figure 6). Figure 5. Overall superimposition of initial and final lateral cephalometric tracings. Figure 6. Post-treatment photographs. DISCUSSION Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor arising from the residual epithelial components of tooth development.

It is a slow growing, locally aggressive tumor capable of causing facial deformity, with a high recurrence rate due its capacity to infiltrate trabecular bone. The treatment of ameloblastoma varies from curettage to en block resection. Bone grafts replace the surgically removed bone, with autologous bone grafting being the most desirable. It is typically harvested from intraoral sources (e.g., chin) or extraoral sources (e.g., iliac crest, fibula, calvarial bone). The most commonly used graft material for alveolar ridge reconstruction is free autogenous iliac bone.12 In this case, however, autologous calvarial bone grafts were used to reconstruct the missing mandibular bone following the surgical resection of the tumor and the removal of three teeth in the region.

The advantages of calvarial bone grafting include good integration, absence of pain from the donor site, and no visible scar. These advantages, however, are not applicable in the case of thin calvaria bone with a thickness of less than 5 mm.12 Recent reports on the use of calvarial bone grafting for the reconstruction and subsequent placement of dental implants have presented good clinical outcomes, with low rates of graft resorption and high implant survival rates.13�C16 The results of these studies have showed that calvarial bone grafting appears to be less prone to resorption than iliac grafts are. In this case, complete functional rehabilitation of the patient included the replacement of the lost three teeth. This goal could have been achieved by the placement of two implants and a bridge, replacing all three teeth.

However, this treatment plan would not have addressed the patient��s chief complaint, nor would it result in optimum functionality and esthetics. Accordingly, the placement of the two implants was decided in relation to the orthodontic treatment plan, aiming for an optimum result. The two implants were placed in the posterior region of the edentulous area, hence replacing only Anacetrapib two of the missing teeth, with the extra space being used to correct crowding and to improve dental occlusion.