Exclusion criteria were as follows: diabetes mellitus determined by either self reported histories or evidence within the hospital case notes; primary lung disease including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; musculoskeletal http://www.selleckchem.com/products/PTC124.html diseases; uncontrolled hypertension of more than 170/110 mmHg; myocardial infarction or
unstable angina within previous 3 months; acute or chronic infection, inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, arthritis or systemic connective tissue disease; symptomatic peripheral vascular disease; alcohol abuse; serum creatinine 200 mmol/l; valvular cardiomyopathy or artificial heart valve; malignant disease, significant liver, thyroid, suprarenal gland or pituitary disease; cardiac cachexia defined as unintentional weight loss of 7.5% body weight over 6 months . Finally, we included 71 patients because 3 patients were characterised by occlusion of internal carotid artery, while vertebral artery was not visualised in 2 patients. The control group consisted of 20 healthy male volunteers aged 55 years and above, Y-27632 concentration who did not take medications. No previous medical illness was reported (including diabetes or any other cardiovascular disease). After the patient gave his written consent, the medical history was reviewed, including the
cause of heart failure, comorbidities and medical history. Each patient with CHF was categorised Urease according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) criteria . A physical exam was performed to assess CHF stability. The 6-min walk test was performed according to the standard protocol . All patients underwent a two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography examination (GE Vivid 7). Systolic function was quantified by measurement of LVEF using the Simpson method.
We also measured left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and left atrial volume (LAV) according to the ASE recommendation . During an initial 20 min of rest with the subjects in a supine position, the extracranial arteries, i.e., the common carotid arteries, internal carotid arteries (ICA) and the vertebral arteries (VA) of both sides were explored with a 7.0 MHz linear transducer of a computed sonography system (Toshiba PowerVision 6000). The examination followed a previously described protocol . CBF volume was determined as the sum of the flow volumes of the ICA and the VA of both sides. Resistance index, as a measure of cerebrovascular resistance, was calculated as follows: (peak systolic velocity end diastolic velocity)/peak systolic velocity .