This operates, in part, via activation of the c-Jun amino termina

This operates, in part, via activation of the c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK) signaling

pathway. However, it is unknown whether inhibition of JNK signaling is effective once the proinflammatory response is established in the injured kidney. This study examined whether blockade of JNK signaling could halt disease check details progression, including crescent formation, in a model of severe crescentic anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. WKY rats were immunized with sheep IgG and then injected with sheep anti-GBM serum (day 0). Animals were treated with the JNK inhibitor, CC-401, vehicle alone, or no treatment from day 7 until being killed on day 24 of disease. Untreated animals at day 7 showed significant proteinuria, focal glomerular lesions, marked glomerular macrophage and T-cell accumulation, and upregulation of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-alpha, iNOS, MMP-12). Untreated and vehicle-treated groups displayed severe glomerulonephritis at day 24 with renal impairment and worsening proteinuria. These animals had severe glomerular lesions, with 60% of glomeruli exhibiting fibrocellular crescents, in association with increased macrophage and T-cell accumulation (including

macrophage giant cells) and a further increase in mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, iNOS, MMP-12, and TGF-beta 1. In contrast, CC-401 treatment prevented renal impairment, suppressed proteinuria, and prevented severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions, including crescent formation and granulomatous-like lesions. These protective effects were independent of glomerular macrophage and Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor T-cell accumulation, and of the humoral immune response. CC-401 treatment inhibited expression of both pro- and many antiinflammatory

molecules (interleukin-10 and heme oxygenase-1). In addition, IL-1 induced MMP- 12 and IL-10 production by cultured macrophages was found to be JNK dependent. In conclusion, blockade of JNK signaling provides substantial protection against the progression of crescentic anti-GBM glomerulonephritis, which may be, in part, due to inhibition of the macrophage proinflammatory response.”
“Gliomas arise through genetic and epigenetic alterations of normal brain cells, although the exact cell of origin for each glioma subtype is unknown. The alteration-induced changes in gene expression and protein function allow uncontrolled cell division, tumor expansion, and infiltration into surrounding normal brain parenchyma. The genetic and epigenetic alterations are tumor subtype and tumor-grade specific. Particular alterations predict tumor aggressiveness, tumor response to therapy, and patient survival. Genetic alterations include deletion, gain, amplification, mutation, and translocation, which result in oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation, or in some instances the alterations may simply be a consequence of tumorigenesis.

Active allothetic place avoidance (AAPA) is a task, in


Active allothetic place avoidance (AAPA) is a task, in

which animals are trained to avoid a room frame defined stable sector on a continuously rotating arena. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of the blockage of alpha] – and alpha2-adrenoceptors, using specific antagonists prazosin and idazoxan, on the locomotor activity and spatial behavior in the AAPA MK-4827 cost task. Both prazosin and idazoxan at the highest doses (4 and 6 mg/kg, respectively) were found to decrease the locomotor activity in the AAPA and they also impaired navigational performance. The results suggest that antagonizing alpha-adrenoceptors with systemically administered drugs affects locomotor activity together with avoidance behavior and does not cause a purely cognitive deficit in the AAPA task. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: The aims of this communication were to study characterization of serogroups Anlotinib among Salmonella isolates and the relationship of antimicrobial resistance to serogroups. Multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) was performed on 189 Salmonella enterica isolates associated with 38 different serovars that were recovered from poultry and four types of indigenous vegetables.

Methods and Results: Disc diffusion analysis was performed with a selection of 10 different antimicrobial agents. Isolates recovered from indigenous

vegetables showed 100% (134/134) resistant to erythromycin and followed by 42%, 34%, 19% for tetracycline, streptomycin and trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole respectively. In general, 90.1% (50/55) and 56.7% (76/134)

of Salmonella isolated from poultry and indigenous vegetables, respectively, exhibited MAR index more than 0.2.

Conclusions: Characterization of Salmonella Cell press isolates based on the MAR results indicated that poultry still remains as the main reservoir for multi-drug-resistant Salmonella. Four isolates from the indigenous vegetables showed the highest MAR index in this study. Further investigations need to be conducted to determine if Salmonella isolates recovered from indigenous vegetables were gaining more antimicrobial resistance.

Significance and Impact of the Study: The study enabled us to determine antimicrobial patterns and trends in Salmonella from poultry and indigenous vegetables in Malaysia.”
“A general correlation exists between brain weight and higher cognitive ability in birds and mammals. In birds this relationship is especially evident in corvids. These animals are well-known for their flexible behavior and problem-solving abilities, and have relatively large brains associated with a pallial enlargement. At the behavioral level, New Caledonian crows stand out amongst corvids because of their impressive object manipulation skills both in the wild and in the laboratory. However, nothing is known about the relative size of their brains.

The fact that insular thinning is already present at early phases

The fact that insular thinning is already present at early phases of the illness and is independent of intervening variables offers evidence for the potential of these changes to be a biological marker of the illness. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a major role during the

development of the central nervous system (CNS). Ca2+ influx via VGCCs regulates axonal growth and neuronal migration as well as synaptic plasticity. Specifically, L-type VGCCs have been well characterized Bucladesine in vivo to be involved in the formation and refinement of the connections within the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The majority of the growth, formation, and refinement in the CNS occurs during the third trimester of human pregnancy. An equivalent developmental time period in rodents occurs during the first 2 weeks of post-natal life, and the expression pattern of L-type VGCCs during this time period has not been well characterized. In this study,

we show that Ca(v)1.2 channels are more highly expressed during this developmental period compared to adolescence (post-natal day 30) and that L-type VGCCs significantly contribute to the overall Ca2+ MX69 supplier currents. These findings suggest that L-type VGCCs are functionally expressed during the crucial developmental period. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of the present study was to investigate whether volumetric abnormalities of the caudate nuclei predate the onset of

psychotic illness. Caudate nuclei volume (CNVs), excluding the tail, were measured using region-of-interest (ROI) tracing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired on a 1.5 T scanner. Subjects included 39 individuals deemed at ultra-high risk of psychosis who converted to psychosis (UHR-P) after initial MRI scanning; 39 matched individuals at ultra-high risk who did not convert to psychosis (UHR-NP); and 39 matched BX-795 healthy controls. All subjects were neuroleptic-naive. After adjusting CNVs for intracranial volume (ICV), univariate analyses of variance and repeated measures analyses of variance were undertaken to examine the relationship of CNVs to psychosis transition and to family history of psychosis. Pearson’s correlations were used to investigate the relationship of psychopathological scores to CNVs. CNVs did not differ significantly between UHR individuals and healthy controls, and there was no significant difference between converters and non-converters to psychosis. In the UHR group, presence of family history of psychosis was not related to CNVs. There was no correlation between CNVs and either positive or negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Significant associations were found between larger CNV and increased errors on a spatial working memory task but better verbal fluency performance.

Randomization of treatment was performed at the end of the resect

Randomization of treatment was performed at the end of the resection on the first side. Air leak was assessed semiquantitatively by use of a severity score (0 5 no leak; 4 5 continuous severe leak) by two investigators Staurosporine datasheet blinded to the treatment.

Result: Mean value of the total

severity scores for the first 48 hours postoperative was significantly lower in the treated group (4.7 +/- 7.7) than in the control group (16.0 +/- 10.1) (P < .001), independently of the length of the resection. Prolonged air leak and mean duration of drainage were also significantly reduced after application of the sealant (4.5% and 2.8 +/- 1.9 days versus 31.8% and 5.9 +/- 2.9 days) (P = .03 and P < .001).

Conclusions: Autologous fibrin sealant for reinforcement of the staple lines after lung volume reduction surgery significantly reduces prolonged air leak and duration of chest tube drainage.”
“Evidence has accumulated for the involvement of Ca(2+) in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Elevations in both resting and stimulated intracellular Ca(2+), levels in patients with affective disorders have been reported. The role of PU-H71 in vivo inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs), which allow mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores, was, then, investigated in the mouse forced swimming test. InsP3R antagonists (heparin, xestospongin Q as well as an inositol monophosphatase inhibitor selleck products (LiCl)


an antidepressant activity of intensity comparable to clinically used antidepressants. InsP3R1, InsP3R2 and InsP3R3 knockdown mice were obtained to investigate the role of InsP3R isoforms. We generated mice carrying a cerebral knockdown of InsP3R1, InsP3R2 and InsP3R3 proteins by administering antisense oligonucleotides complementary to the sequence of InsP3R1, InsP3R2 and InsP3R3. These antisense-treated mice showed a specific InsP3R protein level reduction in the mouse cerebral cortex and hippocampus, demonstrated by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry experiments. Knockdown mice for each InsP3R isoforms showed an antidepressant behaviour and the induced phenotype was reversible disappearing 7 days after the end of the treatment. The absence of impairment of locomotor activity and spontaneous mobility in InsP3R knockdown mice was revealed. These results indicate the involvement of the InsP3R-mediated pathway in the modulation of depressive conditions and may be useful for the development of new therapeutical strategies for the treatment of mood disorders. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This study aimed to evaluate in situ tissue- engineered esophagus in a canine model after experimental resection and replacement of a full circumferential defect of the intrathoracic esophagus.

Methods: Two types of scaffolding were fabricated.

5 or pS promoter for comparison In primary or cultured cells, EG

5 or pS promoter for comparison. In primary or cultured cells, EGFP expression under the control of pHyb was detected within 30 min, as an immediate-early protein, and remained higher over the first 6 h of infection than p7.5- or pS-driven EGFP expression. Repeated immunizations of mice with recombinant MVA expressing OVA under the control of the pHyb promoter

led to superior acute and memory CD8 T-cell responses compared to those to p7.5- and pS-driven OVA. Moreover, OVA expressed under the control of pHyb replaced the MVA-derived B8R protein as the immunodominant CD8 see more T-cell antigen after three or more immunizations. This is the first demonstration of an immediate-early neoantigen expressed by a poxviral vector resulting in superior induction of neoantigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses.”
“BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in evaluating acute spinal cord injury. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values

obtained by diffusion-weighted imaging can differentiate cytotoxic edema from vasogenic edema through microscopic motion of water protons.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ADC values in the cervical spinal cord match neurological grades and thus predict functional recovery in patients suffering from cervical spinal cord injury.

METHODS: Diffusion-weighted images were obtained using 15 axial slices covering the cervical spinal cord from 16 consecutive patients. ADC values were determined for both gray and white matter. All patients were treated surgically. Akt inhibitor Patient neurological status was evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with the Frankel classification

and neurosurgical cervical spine scale. One patient had complete spinal cord injury and showed no recovery. Using 15 patients with incomplete injury, we analyzed correlations between preoperative ADC values and neurological grading, degree of check details postoperative recovery, or cavity formation in follow-up magnetic resonance images. For comparison, ADC values of 11 healthy volunteers were also calculated.

RESULTS: There was significant correlation between ADC values and degree of postoperative recovery (P = .02). ADC values of patients showing cavity formation were significantly lower than those of patients without cavity formation (0.70 vs 0.96 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; P = .01). The cutoff ADC value of 0.80 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s resulted in 75% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity for predicting cavity formation.

CONCLUSION: Low ADC values in acute spinal cord injury may indicate postoperative cavity formation in the injured spinal cord and predict poor functional recovery.”
“Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum protein that plays an important role in host defenses as an opsonin and through activation of the complement system.

Further experiments, including nucleotide sequencing of the TS2 7

Further experiments, including nucleotide sequencing of the TS2.7 genome and reverse genetics, showed that a Y1338H substitution at residue

193 of NS2 resulted in the temperature-dependent attenuation of cytopathogenicity despite high levels of infectious virus production. Interestingly, TS2.7 and the reconstructed mutant CP7-Y1338H produced NS3 in addition to NS2-3 throughout infection. Compared to the parent CP7, NS2-3 processing was slightly decreased at both temperatures. Quantification of viral RNAs that were accumulated at 10 h postinfection demonstrated that attenuation of the cytopathogenicity of the ts mutants at 39.5 degrees C correlated with reduced amounts of viral RNA, while the efficiency of viral RNA synthesis at 33 C was not affected. Taken together, the results of this study show that a mutation in BVDV NS2 attenuates viral RNA replication and suppresses viral cytopathogenicity at high temperature without altering NS3 expression MK-0518 mouse and infectious virus production in a temperature-dependent manner.”

Because of the rapid change in lifestyle in China, there is concern that diabetes may become epidemic. We conducted a national study from June 2007 through May 2008 to estimate the prevalence of diabetes among Chinese adults.


A nationally representative sample of 46,239 adults, 20 years of age or older, from 14 provinces and municipalities

participated in the study. After an overnight fast, participants underwent an oral glucose-tolerance test, and fasting and 2-hour glucose levels were measured to identify undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes (i.e., impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance). Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report.


The age-standardized prevalences of total diabetes ( which included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes) and prediabetes were

9.7% (10.6% among men and 8.8% among women) and 15.5% (16.1% among men and 14.9% among women), respectively, accounting for 92.4 million adults with diabetes (50.2 million men and 42.2 million women) and 148.2 million adults with prediabetes (76.1 million men and 72.1 million women). The prevalence of diabetes increased with increasing age (3.2%, 11.5%, and 20.4% among persons who were 20 to 39, 40 to 59, and >= 60 years of age, respectively) and with increasing weight (4.5%, 7.6%, 12.8%, and 18.5% among persons with a body-mass index [ the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters] of <18.5, 18.5 to 24.9, 25.0 to 29.9, and >= 30.0, respectively). The prevalence of diabetes was higher among urban residents than among rural residents (11.4% vs. 8.2%). The prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance was higher than that of isolated impaired fasting glucose (11.0% vs. 3.2% among men and 10.9% vs. 2.2% among women).

In the second phase of data collection (June 2011 through January

In the second phase of data collection (June 2011 through January 2012) treating surgeons also documented reasons for not administering intravesical chemotherapy. We defined patients with 1 to 2 clinical stage Ta/T1, completely resected, papillary tumor(s) as ideal candidates for treatment

with immediate intravesical chemotherapy. For ideal and nonideal patients we examined baseline use of intravesical chemotherapy across WZB117 concentration Urological Surgery Quality Collaborative practices as well as reasons for not administering therapy among ideal patients.

Results: Among 1,931 patients 37.2% met criteria as ideal cases for intravesical chemotherapy administration. We observed significant variation in the use of intravesical chemotherapy across Urological Surgery Quality Collaborative practices for ideal (range 27% to 50%) and nonideal cases (9% to 24%) (p <0.001). Reasons for not treating ideal candidates included lack of confirmation of malignancy (4, 2.8%), uncertainty regarding the benefits of intravesical chemotherapy (28, 19.6%) and logistic factors such as the unavailability of medication (34, 23.8%).

Conclusions: Use of immediate intravesical chemotherapy by Urological Surgery Quality Collaborative practices is higher

than reported elsewhere selleck chemical but still varies widely, even among ideal candidates. Efforts to optimize use will be aided by disseminating evidence supporting indications and benefits of intravesical chemotherapy, and by addressing local logistic factors that limit access to this evidence-based therapy.”
“A 29-year-old man was seen in an outpatient clinic because of abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Testing for HIV antibodies was positive, and the CD4 T-lymphocyte count Blasticidin S research buy was 10 per cubic millimeter. Chest imaging revealed tiny nodules in both lungs. Presentation of CaseDr. Nosheen Reza (Medicine): A 29-year-old man was seen in an outpatient clinic affiliated with this hospital because of abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. The patient was reportedly well until unintentional weight loss occurred

approximately 6 weeks before presentation. Three weeks before presentation, upper abdominal pain developed that the patient rated at 8 on a scale of 0 to 10, with 10 indicating the most severe pain. The pain radiated to his throat, increased after eating and drinking, and did not diminish with ibuprofen. At the outpatient clinic, the patient reported nausea, occasional vomiting, decreased food …”
“Purpose: Perioperative intravesical chemotherapy following transurethral resection of bladder tumor has been underused despite level 1 evidence supporting its performance. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the economic and humanistic consequences associated with preventable recurrences in patients initially diagnosed with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.

The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluorid

The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures

from fluoride toxicity effects.”
“This study investigated the relationship between the five common polymorphisms (rs2242446, rs5568, rs5569, rs998424, and rs1616905) in the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene and the OROS-methylphenidate response in a medication-naive Korean attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) sample. One hundred thirty-seven patients with ADHD were recruited from the child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient units. The trial was an eight-week, open-label study of OROS-methylphenidate monotherapy,

and treatment outcomes were measured using the Korean version of the ADHD Rating Scales-IV (K-ARS) for the parents, the Clinician Global Impression Severity Scale (CGI-S) and R406 mouse the Clinician Global Impression Improvement VE-821 in vitro Scale (CGI-I). Associations between the five NET polymorphisms and the drug response were analyzed using genotype and allele frequencies at each locus. There was no significant difference in genotype and allele distribution for each NET polymorphism between responders and non-responders (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in change of the K-ARS score, change of CGI-S scores or CGI-I scores at 8 weeks among each genotype and allele of five NET polymorphisms (P>0.05). Although there were no significant positive results, our findings may have several implications and offer direction for future studies. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aldosterone exerts Sclareol direct effects on the vascular system by inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, hypertrophic remodeling, fibrosis, and endothelial dysfunction. Aldosterone exerts its effects through genomic and nongenomic pathways in a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent or independent manner. Other aldosterone receptors such as GPR30 have been identified. A tight relation exists between the aldosterone and angiotensin II pathways, as well as with the endothelin-1 system. There is a correlation between

plasma levels of aldosterone and cardiovascular risk. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has underlined the importance of aldosterone in cardiovascular complications associated with the metabolic syndrome, such as arterial remodeling and endothelial dysfunction. Blockade of MR is an increasingly used evidence-based therapy for many forms of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Several studies have tested for the association between polymorphisms in the ADRA2A gene and childhood ADHD. A meta-analysis of these results, however, has pointed towards a significant heterogeneity, raising the need for explanatory studies.

In the mouse conditioned avoidance response (CAR) assay, BuTAC ex

In the mouse conditioned avoidance response (CAR) assay, BuTAC exhibits an atypical antipsychotic-like profile by selectively decreasing avoidance responses at doses that do not induce escape failures. CAR results using M2(-/-), M4(-/-), and M2/M4 (M2/M4(-/-)) mice found that the effects of BuTAC were near completely lost in M2/M4(-/-) double-knockout mice and potency of BuTAC was right-shifted in M4(-/-) as compared with wild-type and M2(-/-) mice. The M2/M4(-/-) mice showed no altered sensitivity to the antipsychotic effects of either haloperidol or clozapine, suggesting that these compounds mediate their actions in CAR via a non-mAChR-mediated mechanism. These

data support a role for the M4AChR subtype in mediating the antipsychotic-like activity of BuTAC and implicate M4AChR agonism as a potential novel therapeutic mechanism Ro 61-8048 for ameliorating symptoms associated with schizophrenia.”

Selleck Selonsertib In an effort to expand the cardiac donor pool, we tested the hypothesis that hemoadsorption of cytokines attenuates brain death-induced ventricular dysfunction.

Methods: Eighteen Yorkshire pigs (50-60 kg) were instrumented with a left ventricular conductance catheter. Cytokine expression, preload recruitable stroke work, and the diastolic relaxation constant tau were measured at baseline and at hourly intervals for 6 hours after induction of brain death by intracranial balloon inflation (brain death, n = 6) or sham operation (control, n 6). In a third group (brain death + hemoadsorption, n 6), 3 hours after induction of brain death, animals were placed on an extracorporeal circuit containing a cytokine-hemoadsorption device for the remaining 3 hours of the experiment. Myocardial water content was measured after the animals were killed.

Results: Six hours after induction of brain death, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 were highest in the brain death group (106 +/- 13.1 pg/mL and 301 +/- 181 pg/mL, respectively), lowest in controls (68.3 +/- 8.55 pg/mL and 37.8 +/- 11 pg/mL, respectively), and intermediate in the

brain death + hemoadsorption group (81.2 +/- 35.2 pg/mL and 94.6 +/- 20 pg/mL, respectively). Compared GSK126 nmr with controls, preload recruitable stroke work was significantly reduced in the brain death group 4 hours after the induction of brain death and was 50% of baseline by 5 hours. In the brain death + hemoadsorption group, preload recruitable stroke work was relatively preserved at 80% of baseline at similar time points. Tau remained unchanged in the control and brain death + hemoadsorption groups, whereas in the brain death group it was significantly elevated versus baseline 5 (139.3% +/- 21.5%) and 6 (172% +/- 16.1%) hours after induction of brain death. Myocardial water content was significantly greater in the brain death group than in the other 2 groups.

As in human models of T-cell activation, stimulation had been att

As in human models of T-cell activation, stimulation had been attempted using an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (MAb) (UCHT1; isotype IgG1), but despite efficient binding, UCHT1 failed to activate chimpanzee T cells, an activation block that could be partially overcome by MAb-induced Siglec-5 internalization. We herein demonstrate that anti-CD3 MAb-mediated chimpanzee T-cell activation is a function of the anti-CD3 MAb isotype and is

not governed by Siglec expression. Angiogenesis inhibitor While IgG1 anti-CD3 MAbs fail to stimulate chimpanzee T cells, IgG2a anti-CD3 MAbs activate chimpanzee T cells in the absence of Siglec manipulations. Our results thus imply that prior to studying possible differences between human and chimpanzee T-cell activation, a relevant model of chimpanzee T cell activation 4-Hydroxytamoxifen molecular weight needs to be established.”
“The influence of oscillatory activity in the motor system on the generation of voluntary

movement has been previously studied by revealing temporal Coupling between voluntary movements and associated physiological or pathological tremor. The present study aims to investigate whether there is any temporal correlation between the onset of a rapid reactive movement and the action tremor at the wrist in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

In 13 MS patients, their reactive wrist movements and tremor were simultaneously recorded during a visually cued simple reaction time task. Significant correlation was found between the tremor-related and non-tremor-related measurements of the wrist movement. The onset of reactive movement was unevenly distributed

over the tremor see more cycle peaking at 177, in the direction opposite to the reactive movement, suggesting a temporal coupling between the reactive movements and tremor. No significant difference in reaction time was found between voluntary flexion and extension movements, and no significant differences in the mean values or the standard deviations of the reaction time between the movements in-phase and out-of-phase with tremor were detected, suggesting that entrainment of the spinal motor neurons is not influenced by tremor activity.

In conclusion, in MS action tremor, the timing of the initiation of a rapid voluntary movement may be influenced by the pathological oscillator at a supra-spinal level. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The GDVII strain of Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus ( TMEV) causes an acute fatal polioencephalomyelitis in mice. Infection of susceptible mice with the DA strain of TMEV results in an acute polioencephalomyelitis followed by chronic immune-mediated demyelination with virus persistence in the central nervous system (CNS); DA virus infection is used as an animal model for multiple sclerosis. CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells can contribute to viral clearance and regulation of autoimmune responses.