(C) 2012 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “

(C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose/Objective(s): To determine if intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the post-operative setting for gastric cancer was associated with reduced toxicity compared to 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). Materials/Methods: This retrospective study includes 24 patients with stage IB-IIIB gastric cancer consecutively treated from 2001-2010. All underwent surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of 5-FU/leucovorin (n = 21), epirubicin/cisplatin/5FU (n =

Selleck BMS-777607 1), or none (n = 2). IMRT was utilized in 12 patients and 3DCRT in 12 patients. For both groups, the target volume included the tumor bed, anastomosis, gastric stump, and regional lymphatics. Results: Median follow-up for the entire cohort was 19 months (range 0.4-8.5 years), and 49 months (0.5-8.5 years) in surviving patients. The 3DCRT group received a median dose of 45 Gy, and the IMRT group received a median dose of 50.4 Gy (p = 0.0004). For the entire cohort, 3-year overall survival (OS) was 40% and 3-year disease free survival (DFS) was 41%. OS and DFS did not differ significantly between the groups. Acute toxicity was similar. Between 3DCRT and IMRT groups, during radiotherapy, median weight lost (3.2 vs. 3.3 kg, respectively; p = 0.47) and median percent weight loss were similar (5.0% vs. 4.3%, respectively; p = 0.43). Acute grade 2 toxicity was experienced by 8 patients

receiving 3DCRT and 11 receiving IMRT (p = 0.32); acute grade 3 toxicity occurred in 1 patient receiving AF 2838 3DCRT and none receiving IMRT (p = 1.0). No patients in either cohort experienced late grade 3 toxicity, including renal or gastrointestinal toxicity. At last follow up, the median increase in creatinine was 0.1 mg/dL in the IMRT group and 0.1 mg/dL in the 3DCRT group (p = 0.78). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that adjuvant chemoradiation for gastric cancer with IMRT to 50.4 Gy was well-tolerated and compared similarly in toxicity with 3DCRT to 45 Gy.”
“Supercooled liquids are proposed to be dynamically heterogeneous, with regions exhibiting

relaxation time scales that vary in space and time. Measurement of the distribution of such time scales could be an important test of various proposed Selleck Nutlin-3 theories of vitrification. Single molecule fluorescence experiments attempt to uncover this distribution, typically by embedding single molecule probes into these systems and monitoring their individual rotational relaxations from a computed autocorrelation function (ACF). These ACFs may exhibit stretched exponential decays, with the value of the stretching exponent assumed to report the set of dynamical environments explored by the probe. Here, we use simulated trajectories of rotation to investigate how the time scale of dynamic exchange relative to underlying relaxation time scales in the system affects probe ability to report the distribution relaxation of time scales present.

apis than A m mellifera and A m carnica larvae However due t

apis than A. m. mellifera and A. m. carnica larvae. However due to the limited number of colonies included and the high variation shown we cannot predict

that any A. m. ligustica colony is better adapted to cope with A. apis than colonies of A. m. carnica and A. m. mellifera.”
“This paper deals with www.selleckchem.com/products/Cyt387.html the version of Jung’s synchronicity in which correlation between mental processes of two different persons takes place not just in the case when at a certain moment of time the subjects are located at a distance from each other, but also in the case when both persons are alternately (and sequentially, one after the other) located in the same point of space. In this case, a certain period of time lapses between manifestation of mental process in one person and manifestation of mental process in the other person. Transmission of information from one person to the other via classical communication channel is ruled out. The author proposes a hypothesis, whereby such manifestation of synchronicity may become possible thanks to existence of quantum entanglement between the past and the future within the light cone. This hypothesis is based on the latest perception of the nature of quantum vacuum.”

The etiology of postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) remains to be determined. Anesthetic MI-503 chemical structure isoflurane, but not desflurane, may induce neurotoxicity. However, the functional consequences of these effects have not been assessed. We therefore performed a pilot study to determine the effects of isoflurane and desflurane on cognitive function in humans.\n\nMETHODS: The subjects included patients who had lower extremity or abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia alone (S, n = 15), spinal plus desflurane anesthesia (SD, n = 15), or spinal plus isoflurane

anesthesia (SI, n = 15) by randomization. Each of the subjects received cognitive tests immediately before and 1 week after anesthesia and surgery administered by an investigator who was blinded to the anesthesia regimen. POCD was defined selleck kinase inhibitor using the scores from each of these tests.\n\nRESULTS: We studied 45 subjects, 24 males and 21 females. The mean age of the subjects was 69.0 +/- 1.9 years. There was no significant difference in age and other characteristics among the treatment arms. The mean number of cognitive function declines in the S, SD, and SI groups was 1.13, 1.07, and 1.40, respectively. POCD incidence after SI (27%), but not SD (0%), anesthesia was higher than that after S (0%), P = 0.028 (3-way comparison).\n\nCONCLUSION: These findings from our pilot study suggest that isoflurane and desflurane may have different effects on postoperative cognitive function, and additional studies with a larger sample size and longer times of follow-up testing are needed.

Bacterial gene copy number per ng of DNA isolated from phage part

Bacterial gene copy number per ng of DNA isolated from phage particles ranged between 1.05×102 for the tetK plasmid gene and 3.86×105 for the SaPI1 integrase gene. The new and crucial finding that serogroup B bacteriophages can package concurrently ccrA1 (1.16×104) and mecA (1.26×104) located at SCCmec type I into their capsids indicates that generalized CA4P in vitro transduction plays an important role in the evolution and emergence of new methicillin-resistant clones.”
“Background and

objective The purpose of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress and liver monooxygenase function in patients with coronary heart disease and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.\n\nMethods Twenty-seven Autophagy Compound Library chemical structure patients with multiple organ dysfunction and 38 patients with an uneventful postoperative period were studied. Oxidative stress was quantified with malon dialdehyde, coupled trienes,

hepatocuprein and catalase activity. Liver monooxygenase function was evaluated with antipyrine pharmacokinetics data.\n\nResults On the first postoperative day patients with multiple organ dysfunction were characterized by high lipid peroxidation (conjugated trienes: +84.7%) and significant decrease in liver monooxygenase function (clearance of antipyrine: -38%), whereas control patients had a mild oxidative stress and a slight depression in liver monooxygenase function. On the third to fourth postoperative day in both groups Ganetespib a considerable intensity of lipid peroxidation and increase in liver metabolism was seen. The major difference was observed on postoperative days 10-12. In both groups oxidative stress intensity decreased (conjugated trienes: +34.7%; +12.9%). In the main group liver monooxygenase function was markedly depressed (clearance of antipyrine:

-35.6%), whereas in the control group liver metabolism did not deviate from the baseline. The correlation analysis showed a negative relationship between liver monooxygenase function and oxidative stress parameters.\n\nConclusion Patients with multiple organ dysfunction have considerably more oxidative stress and greater decrease in liver monooxygenase function (one and a half times) than those with an uneventful postoperative period. Lipid peroxidation is one of the main causes of depression of liver monooxygenase function. Slowdown of liver metabolism might change the pharmacokinetic response in patients with coronary heart disease. Eur J Anaesthesiol 26:140-146 (c) 2009 European Society of Anaesthesiology.”
“In this study, we investigated what environmental factors mainly influence the pattern of zooplankton communities in the regulated Nakdong River. Fifteen years of data (N = 629, 1994 to 2008) were used to analyze the patterns by means of self-organizing map (SOM), that is capable of extracting information through competitive and adaptive properties.

A revised ANXA5 ‘protective shield’ model is emphasized, where de

A revised ANXA5 ‘protective shield’ model is emphasized, where decreased coverage resulting of M2 carriage at placental villi could lead directly to the observed pathology and on the other hand through exposing of antiphospholipid antigenic determinants, to the development of antiphospholipid

antibodies (aPL). The aPL then can further disrupt the ANXA5 protective shield. Available and prospective evidence for this revised model is discussed. Conclusions are made about the diagnostic implications of M2 carriage and possible therapeutic strategies with anticoagulants, LY2090314 mouse proven successful in obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) treatment. Lupus (2012) 21, 796-798.”
“The isolation of human embryonic stem cells (ESC) in 1998 has created the hope that stem cells will one day be used to regenerate tissues and organs, even though it is obvious that a AG-014699 supplier number of hurdles will

need to be overcome for such therapies to become reality. The cloning of “Dolly” in 1997, more than 40 years after the first frogs were cloned, combined with the very fast progress made in our understanding of the molecular processes that govern the pluripotency of ESC has lead to the ability of scientists to recreate a pluripotent state in fibroblasts and other cells from mouse, rat and man, named induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). This feat makes it theoretically possible to create patient specific pluripotent stem cells whose differentiated check details progeny could be used in an autologous manner obviating the need for immunesuppression that would be needed to use allogeneic

ESC-derived differentiated cells. In addition, the ability to generate custom made pluripotent stem cells will no doubt lead to the development of protein or small molecule drugs that can induce differentiation not only of iPSC or ESC to mature tissue cells, but also endogenous tissue stem cells. Moreover, it allows scientists to create models of human diseases and may aid the pharmaceutical industry in testing more rigorously toxicity of drugs for human differentiated cells. Thus, there is little doubt that progress in stein cell biology will change many aspects of medicine as we know it in the next one to two decades. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1(MEN1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome. Although thymic carcinoid tumor is recognized as a part of MEN1 syndrome but functioning thymic carcinoid tumor as the first presentation of the MEN1 seems to be very rare. In this report, we present a 29-year-old male who developed ectopic Cushing syndrome secondary to thymic carcinoid tumor and was diagnosed as MEN1 syndrome 2 years later. Further evaluation revealed the presence of carcinoid tumor and other MEN 1 manifestations in several other member of family.

We conclude that types I and II of IncA/C plasmids originated fro

We conclude that types I and II of IncA/C plasmids originated from a common ancestor and that the insertion and deletion of DNA stretches have shaped their evolutionary Dorsomorphin cell line histories.”
“This paper is devoted to the preparation of thermoplastic nanocomposites of polypropylene (PP) and different amounts of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in the range 0.252 wt %. The effect of SWNT content on the dynamic mechanical behavior, thermal degradation, crystalline structure, and the kinetic crystallizability of PP were studied. The results obtained from dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) showed that the maximum storage modulus

was achieved when 1 wt % SWNT was added into the pristine polymer. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites was measured by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). From the TGA results, it was found that the weight fraction of PP which was located at the interface for the nanocomposite containing 0.5% SWNT was about 60%, and this value did not change much with the addition of higher amounts of SWNT. Moreover, the thickness of the interface between PP and SWNT was estimated to be of the order of 101 nm which is very close to the radii of gyration of PP molecular

chains. Wide angle X-ray diffractometer (WAXD) was used to explore the crystalline structure of water and slow-cooled samples. It was found that screening assay the crystallization of PP in 040 lattice plane increased for the nanocomposites compared with PP for both cooling rates studied. It was also found that the kinetic crystallizability values were nearly the same for PP and the nanocomposites. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym

Sci, 2012″
“The present study investigates neural responses to musical phrase boundaries in subjects without formal musical training, with special emphasis on the issue of cultural familiarity (i.e., the relation between the enculturation of the subjects and the cultural style of the presented music). AG-881 German and Chinese non-musicians listened to Western and Chinese melodies which contained manipulated phrase boundaries while event-related potentials (ERP) were measured. The behavioral data clearly showed that melodic phrase boundary perception is influenced by cultural familiarity. The ERP revealed a series of positive and negative peaks with latencies between 40 ms and 550 ms relative to the phrase boundary offset, all of which were influenced by the phrase melodic structure type. In contrast, cultural familiarity only influenced phrase boundary processing at longer latencies, reflected by a P3-like component peaking at 280 ms.\n\nAt about 450-600 ms post phrase boundary offset, we observed a slightly right-lateralized music closure positive shift (CPS), which has been reported as a marker for phrase boundary processing in musicians in earlier studies.

Methods: We conducted a large-scale, case-control study invol

\n\nMethods: We conducted a large-scale, case-control study involving 3938 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 1700 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed

with peripheral blood DNA for MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Statistical significance was estimated by logistic regression analysis.\n\nResults: The MTHFR C677T frequencies of CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 34.5%, 48.5%, and 17% among lung cancer patients, and 31.8%, 50.7%, and 17.5% in the controls, respectively. The GSK2126458 MTHFR 677CT and TT genotype showed a weak protection against lung cancer compared with the homozygous CC genotype, although the results did not reach statistical significance. The age-and gender-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of overall lung cancer was 0.90 (95% confidence

interval (CI), 0.77-1.04) for MTHFR 677 CT and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.71-1.07) for MTHFR 677TT. However, after stratification analysis by histological type, the MTHFR 677CT genotype showed a significantly decreased risk for squamous cell carcinoma (age-and gender-adjusted OR, 0.78; selleck chemicals 95% CI, 0.64-0.96). The combination of 677 TT homozygous with 677 CT heterozygous also appeared to have a protection effect on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. We observed no significant interaction between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and age and gender or smoking habit.\n\nConclusions: This is the first reported study focusing on the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and the risk of lung cancer in a Korean population. The T allele was found to provide a weak protective association with lung squamous cell

“Pyrimidine analogues such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are widely used in adjuvant and palliative treatment of various solid tumours. However, their administration may be associated with severe adverse events such as myelosuppression, mucositis JQ1 in vitro or cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a relatively rare event but its fatal outcomes occur at a rate of 2.2-13.3%. Since 5-fluorouracil is widely used in medical oncology, cardiotoxicity associated with its administration may significantly impair treatment of patients with cancers sensitive to pyrimidine analogues. This article reviews fluoropyrimidine-associated cardiotoxicity and presents a case report of a young woman who experienced this complication during 5-fluorouracil treatment.”
“Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of HIV infection. Eicosanoids reflect inflammation, oxidant stress, and vascular health and vary by sex and metabolic parameters. Raltegravir (RAL) is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor that may have limited metabolic effects. We assessed urinary F-2-isoprostanes (F-2 -IsoPs), prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-M), prostacyclin (PGI-M), and thromboxane B-2 (TxB(2)) in HIV-infected women switching to RAL-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART).

HSP60 is also known to interact with HSP10 In the last decade, H

HSP60 is also known to interact with HSP10. In the last decade, HSP60 has been detected in the cytosol, the cell surface, the extracellular space, and biological fluids. HSP60

elicits potent proinflammatory response in cells of the innate immune system and serves as a danger signal of stressed or damaged cells. As cytosolic Cyclosporin A purchase HSP60 levels gradually increase or decrease during carcinogenesis in various organs, HSP60 can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries on the important roles of HSP60 in various diseases ranging from autoimmune diseases to tumors. Furthermore, small molecules targeting HSP60, which were the target

of intensive investigations in the last few years, are also summarized. The possibility of utilizing HSP60 as a new drug target for the treatment of certain diseases is examined.”
“Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents the leading cause of death in young individuals. It triggers the accumulation of harmful mediators, leading to secondary damage, yet protective mechanisms are also set in motion. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system consists of ligands, such as IPI-145 manufacturer anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), receptors (e. g. CB1, CB2), transporters and enzymes, which are responsible for the ‘on-demand’ synthesis and degradation of these lipid mediators. There is a large body of evidence showing that eCB are markedly increased in response to pathogenic events. This fact, as well as numerous studies on experimental models of brain toxicity, neuroinflammation and trauma supports the notion that the eCB are part of the brain’s compensatory or repair mechanisms. These are mediated via CB receptors signalling pathways that are linked to neuronal survival and repair. The levels

of 2-AG, the most highly abundant eCB, are significantly elevated after TBI and when administered to TBI mice, 2-AG decreases brain oedema, inflammation and infarct volume and improves clinical recovery. The role of CB1 in LB-100 solubility dmso mediating these effects was demonstrated using selective antagonists or CB1 knockout mice. CB2 were shown in other models of brain insults to reduce white blood cell rolling and adhesion, to reduce infarct size and to improve motor function. This review is focused on the role the eCB system plays as a self-neuroprotective mechanism and its potential as a basis for the development of novel therapeutic modality for the treatment of CNS pathologies with special emphasis on TBI.”
“We have recently reported the new concept of temperature-responsive capillary electrochromatography (CEC) using a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted capillary column.

23 mg/dL, 95% CI 0 04 to 0 42) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (12

23 mg/dL, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.42) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (12 studies, 2551 participants; MD 56 pg/mL, MDV3100 inhibitor 95% CI 26 to 84) but a significant increase in the risk of hypercalcaemia (12 studies, 1144 participants: RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.59) with calcium-based agents compared to sevelamer hydrochloride. There was a significant increase in the risk of adverse gastrointestinal

events with sevelamer hydrochloride in comparison to calcium salts (5 studies, 498 participants: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.25). Compared with calcium-based agents, lanthanum significantly reduced serum calcium (2 studies, 122 participants: MD -0.30 mg/dL, 95% CI -0.64 to -0.25) and the Ca x P product, but not serum phosphorus levels. The effects of calcium acetate on biochemical end-points were similar to those of calcium carbonate. The phosphorus lowering effects of novel agents such as ferric citrate, colestilan and niacinamide

were only reported in a few studies.\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nAvailable phosphate-binding agents have been shown to learn more reduce phosphorus levels in comparison to placebo. However, there are insufficient data to establish the comparative superiority of novel non-calcium binding agents over calcium-containing phosphate binders for patient-level outcomes such as all-cause mortality and cardiovascular end-points in CKD.”
“BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a leading cause of total and fatal ischemic MS-275 molecular weight stroke. Stroke risk after AF ablation appears to be favorably affected; however, it is largely unknown whether the benefit extends to all stroke CHADS2 risk profiles of AF patients.\n\nOBJECTIVE To determine if ablation

of atrial fibrillation reduces stroke rates in all risk groups.\n\nMETHODS A total of 4212 consecutive patients who underwent AF ablation were compared (1:4) with 16,848 age-/sex-matched controls with AF (no ablation) and to 16,848 age-/sex-matched controls without AF. Patients were enrolled from the large ongoing prospective Intermountain Atrial Fibrillation Study and were followed for at Least 3 years.\n\nRESULTS Of the 37,908 patients, the mean age was 65.0 +/- 13 years and 4.4% (no AF), 6.3% (AF, no ablation), and 4.5% (AF ablation) patients had a prior stroke (P < .0001). The profile of CHADS2 scores between comparative groups was similar: 0-1 (69.3%, no AF; 62.3%, AF, no ablation; 63.6%, AF ablation), 2-3 (26.5%, no AF; 29.7%, AF, no ablation; 28.7%, AF ablation), and >= 4 (4.3%, no AF; 8.0%, AF, no ablation; 7.7%, AF ablation). A total of 1296 (3.4%) patients had a stroke over the follow-up period. Across all CHADS2 profiles and ages, AF patients with ablation had a Lower long-term risk of stroke compared to patients without ablation. Furthermore, AF ablation patients had similar Long-term risks of stroke across all CHADS2 profiles and ages compared to patients with no history of AF.

Adenine-induced CRF rats were characterized by the increase of ph

Adenine-induced CRF rats were characterized by the increase of phytosphingosine, ATM/ATR cancer adrenosterone, tryptophan, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, creatinine, and dihydrosphingosine together with the decrease of N-acetylleucine, 3-O-methyldopa, ethyl-N2-acetyl-L-argininate, dopamine, phenylalanine and kynurenic acid in urine. The altered metabolites demonstrated perturbations of amino acids metabolism, phospholipids metabolism and creatinine metabolism in CRF rats.\n\nConclusion: This work shows that metabonomics method is a valuable tool in CRF mechanism study and assists in clinical diagnosis of CRF. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

World Health Organization recommends establishing that human papillomavirus vaccination is cost-effective before vaccine introduction. We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to 1 April 2012 for economic evaluations of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries. We found 25 articles, but almost all low income Bromosporine supplier countries and many middle income countries

lacked country-specific studies. Methods, assumptions and consequently results varied widely, even for studies conducted for the same country. Despite the heterogeneity, most studies conclude that vaccination is likely to be cost-effective and possibly even cost saving, particularly in settings without organized cervical screening programmes. However, study uncertainty could be reduced by clarity about vaccine prices and vaccine delivery costs. The review supports

extending vaccination to low income settings where vaccine prices are competitive, Daporinad mw donor funding is available, cervical cancer burden is high and screening options are limited. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D) structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol.\n\nDescription: PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families.

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the treatment were anal

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the treatment were analyzed for immunological responses.\n\nMeasurements and Main Results: Administration of dendritic cells pulsed with autologous tumor lysate in patients with mesothelioma was safe with moderate fever as the only side effect. There were no grade 3 or 4 toxicities associated with the vaccines or any evidence of autoimmunity. Local accumulations of infiltrating T cells were found at the site of vaccination. The vaccinations induced distinct immunological responses to KLH, both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, after RG-7112 manufacturer three vaccinations, cytotoxic activity against autologous

tumor cells was detected in a subgroup of patients.\n\nConclusions: This study demonstrated that autologous tumor lysatepulsed dendritic cell-based therapy is feasible, well-tolerated, and capable of inducing immunological response to tumor cells in mesothelioma patients.”
“Long-term neurological sequela is common among herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) survivors. Animal models for HSE are used to investigate mechanisms of acute disease, but little has been done to model chronic manifestations of HSE. The current study presents a detailed, systematic analysis of chronic neuropathology, including characterization of topography

and sequential progression of degenerative lesions and inflammation. Subsequent to intranasal HSV-1 infection, inflammatory responses that were temporally and spatially distinct persisted in infected P005091 research buy cortical and brain stem regions. Neutrophils were present exclusively within the olfactory bulb and brain stem regions during the acute phase of infection, while the chronic inflammation was marked by plasma cells, lymphocytes and activated microglia. The chronic lymphocytic infiltrate, cytokine production, and activated microglia were associated with the loss of cortical neuropile in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Animals

surviving the acute infection showed a spectrum of chronic lesions from decreased brain volume, neuronal loss, activated GSI-IX astrocytes, and glial scar formation to severe atrophy and cavitations of the cortex. These lesions were also associated with severe spatial memory deficits in surviving animals. Taken together, this model can be utilized to further investigate the mechanisms of neurological defects that follow in the wake of HSE.”
“Fungal hydrophobins are amphipathic, highly surface-active, and self-assembling proteins. The class I hydrophobin Vmh2 from the basidiomycete fungus Pleurotus ostreatus seems to be the most hydrophobic hydrophobin characterized so far. Structural and functional properties of the protein as a function of the environmental conditions have been determined.