t we employed to transform MSC, suggesting that this mechanism for Nrf2 regulation is not restricted to adult MSC. Ne t we used chemical inhibitors sellectchem to address whether Nrf2 e pression is transcriptionally regulated via ERK or PI3K Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries AKT pathways in the breast cancer cell lines MDA MB 231 and MCF 7. While cell survival was not affected by the concentration of inhibitors used in this assay, treatment with the ERK inhibitor U0126 led to a significant increase in the transcription of Nrf2 and NQO1. How ever, inhibition of AKT with GSK690693, or PI3K with LY294002 and wortmannin did not induce e pression of Nrf2 nor NQO1. The effect of these in hibitors on ERK and PI3K AKT pathways is shown in Figure 3E, where a modest but consistent activation of the Nrf2 pathway could be detected following only 16 hours treatment with U0126.
Overall our data indicate that the RAS RAF ERK pathway mediates Nrf2 repres sion in these cancer cells. Nrf2 activity Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries was found suppressed in tumor cells due to increased e pression of the ubiquitin ligase Cul3 that, together with Keap1, targets Nrf2 for degradation by the proteasome. However, e pression of Keap1 and Cul3 did not increase in transformed MSC. Nrf2 protein stabilization by means of tert butylhydroquinone impairs MSC transformation To investigate whether Nrf2 down regulation contributes to increased ROS, we induced Nrf2 in tMSC by TBHQ, a chemical that stabilizes Nrf2 protein by impairing its pro teasomal degradation. Treatment with TBHQ sta bilized Nrf2, induced antio idants and reduced Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries ROS levels in tMSC.
We ne t tested whether ROS scavenging by TBHQ affected the transforming capabilities of tMSC. TBHQ significantly impaired the growth of tMSC, but not that of immortal MSC3. Furthermore, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries treatment with TBHQ decreased anchorage independent growth of both tMSC and tHMEC measured by soft agarose colony formation. These results suggest that loss of Nrf2 e pression contri butes to both accumulation of intracellular ROS, and to MSC in vitro transformation. Restoration of Nrf2 e pression in tMSC induces the cellular antio idant response and impairs in vivo tumor growth To validate the observed effect of TBHQ in our model, we genetically over e pressed Nrf2 in transformed MSC. tMSC over e pressing Nrf2 e hibited increased transcrip tion of ARE containing genes and antio idant enzymes.
Activation of the Nrf2 pathway was con firmed by increased e pression of Nrf2 Batimastat and NQO1 pro teins. Furthermore, tMSC over e pressing Nrf2 showed an increase in the pool of reduced gluta thione and Enzastaurin a decrease in intracellular ROS. Ne t, we investigated how Nrf2 mediated reduction in ROS levels affected the transformation capability of tMSC. Over e pression of Nrf2 led to a slight, but significant reduction in tMSC viability and soft agarose growth when compared with tMSC e pressing empty vector. Ne t we questioned whether these cells could respond differentially when they encounter physiological conditions in vivo. Hence we inoculated tMSC over