was used for all tests RE1 silencing transcription factor is a t

was used for all tests. RE1 silencing transcription factor is a transcrip selleck chem inhibitor tional repressor that regulates the expression of approxi mately 2,000 neuronal genes in neural and non neural tissues, including embryonic and neural stem cells. In development, loss of REST function is an integral step in NSC differentiation, and inappropriate maintenance of REST function has been found to prevent differentiation of NSC into neurons. In neoplasia, heightened REST function in medulloblastoma tumor cells contributes to their tumorigenicity in mouse models of the disease, in part by preventing their differentiation. Accordingly, many human medulloblastoma tumors show significantly higher REST protein levels than adjacent normal brain tissue. Increased REST levels also correlated with lower overall and event free survival.

Glioblastomas are the most common central nervous system neoplasia in adults, with 9,000 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries cases in the US an nually. Regardless of whether gliomas arise from astrocytes or oligodendrocytes, they carry with them a uniformly poor prognosis. Glioblastoma multiformae, the most aggressive glioma subtype, has an 18% one year survival rate, and 3% two year survival rate. Recently, a role for REST was suggested in glioma with REST up regulation able to drive cell proliferation and suppress differentiation. Elegant work from Conti et al and Kamal et al showed increased REST protein in glioblastoma samples versus control brain tissue and knockdown of REST in glioblastoma cell lines reduced proliferation Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries rate and promoted differentiation.

How ever, how REST levels corresponded to patient outcome was not described. In this work, we will describe an ag gressive Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries subtype of gliomas with enhanced REST func tion, termed REST Enhanced Malignancies. We compare disease outcomes between tumors based on REST status and treatment regimen, and describe down stream targets of REST that may contribute to the decreased benefits observed with high dose chemother apy in REM tumors. Results and discussion To evaluate REST function in gliomas we utilized a 24 gene REST gene signature which has been demonstrated to be a reliable reporter of REST function in tumors. Using this gene signature, we evaluated REST function in a data set of 176 neural tissue samples, including non neoplastic brain tissue as well as oligodendromas and astrocytomas Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of varying grades.

Both the oligodendromas and astrocytomas showed a statistically significant decrease in REST target gene expression with respect to their non neoplastic counterparts. Intriguingly, both glioma subtypes showed significant decreases in mean REST target gene GSK-3 expression with increasing tumor grade, suggesting that heightened REST function selleck catalog may be associated with more ag gressive disease. We also evaluated REST function in these tumors using gene set enrichment analysis, which measures the relative enrichment of a given geneset in one tumor population over another in a statistically rigorous manner. Using GSEA, we compared

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