ConclusionThe sandwich technique via a right ventricle


ConclusionThe sandwich technique via a right ventricle

incision results in a low incidence FOX inhibitor of postoperative leak and good short- and mid-term survival.”
“Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is considered an important virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, while mannose caps have been reported to be responsible for various immunosuppressive activities of ManLAMobserved in vitro, there is conflicting evidence about their contribution to mycobacterial virulence in vivo. Therefore, we used Mycobacterium bovisBCG and M.tuberculosis mutants that lack the mannose cap of LAM to assess the role of ManLAM in the interaction of mycobacteria with the host cells, to evaluate vaccine-induced protection and to determine its importance in M.tuberculosis

virulence. Deletion of the mannose cap did not affect BCG survival and replication in macrophages, although the capless mutant induced a somewhat higher production of TNF. In dendritic cells, the capless mutant was able to induce the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the only difference we detected was the secretion of slightly higher amounts of IL-10 as compared to the wild type strain. In mice, capless BCG survived equally well and induced an immune response similar to the parental strain. Furthermore, the efficacy of vaccination against a M.tuberculosis challenge in low-dose aerosol infection models in mice and guinea pigs was not affected by the absence of the mannose caps in the BCG. Finally, the lack PF-03084014 in vitro of the mannose cap in M.tuberculosis did not affect

its virulence in mice nor its interaction with macrophages in vitro. Thus, these results do not support a major role for the mannose caps of LAM in determining mycobacterial virulence and immunogenicity in vivo in experimental animal models of infection, possibly because of redundancy of function.”
“Observers in relative motion or at different gravitational potentials measure disparate clock rates. These predictions of relativity have previously been observed with atomic clocks at high velocities and with large changes in elevation. We observed time dilation from relative speeds of less than 10 meters per second by comparing two optical atomic clocks Bafilomycin A1 inhibitor connected by a 75-meter length of optical fiber. We can now also detect time dilation due to a change in height near Earth’s surface of less than 1 meter. This technique may be extended to the field of geodesy, with applications in geophysics and hydrology as well as in space-based tests of fundamental physics.”
“To compare various screening methods for the early diagnosis of retinal dysfunction in patients with long-term chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment.\n\nTwenty patients with long-term CQ/HCQ treatment underwent ophthalmologic evaluation including visual acuity testing, ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, color vision tests, visual field and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG).

(C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“A series of po

(C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A series of potent piperidine-linked cytosine derivatives were prepared as inhibitors of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Compound 9h was discovered to be a potent inhibitor of dCK and shows a good combination of cellular potency and pharmacokinetic parameters. Compound 9h blocks the incorporation of radiolabeled cytosine into mouse T-cells in vitro, as well as in vivo in mice following a T-cell challenge. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Persistent infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to a high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

(HCC). HCV core protein plays important roles in HCV-related hepatocarcinogenesis, because mice carrying the core protein exhibit multicentric HCCs without CYT387 chemical structure hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, the precise mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in these transgenic mice remains unclear. To evaluate whether the core protein modulates hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis in vivo, we examined these parameters in 9- and 22-month-old transgenic mice. Although the numbers of apoptotic hepatocytes and hepatic

caspase 3 activities were similar between transgenic and nontransgenic mice, the numbers Copanlisib solubility dmso of proliferating hepatocytes and the levels of numerous proteins such as cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and c-Myc, were markedly increased in an age-dependent manner in the transgenic mice. This increase was correlated with the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). In these transgenic mice, spontaneous and persistent PPAR alpha activation occurred heterogeneously, which was different from that observed in mice treated with clofibrate, a potent peroxisome proliferator. We further demonstrated that stabilization of PPAR alpha through a possible interaction with HCV core protein and an increase in nonesterified fatty acids, PARP inhibitor which may serve as endogenous PPAR alpha ligands, in hepatocyte nuclei contributed to the core protein-specific PPAR alpha activation. In

conclusion, these results offer the first suggestion that HCV core protein induces spontaneous, persistent, age-dependent and heterogeneous activation of PPAR alpha in transgenic mice, which may contribute to the age-dependent and multicentric hepatocarcinogenesis mediated by the core protein. (C) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Coronary artery disease and cancer may sometimes co-exist in elderly patients. For patients who require surgery, treatment strategy is always an issue. Prompt attention to the cancer is a high priority, while implementing the least invasive way to treat both diseases, if possible. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman with gastric cancer and multi-vessel coronary artery disease, where gastric cancer was successfully treated with perioperative use of intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP), followed by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES).

“Today the Internet plays a role in the lives

of n

“Today the Internet plays a role in the lives

of nearly 40% of the world’s population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges,

but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.”
“Age-related thymic involution causes a decreased output of thymocytes from the thymus, thereby resulting in impairment of T cell-mediated immunity. While alterations in the T cell and non-haematopoietic stromal compartments have been described, the effects of thymic involution on thymic find more dendritic cells (DC) are not clearly known. Thymic DC play an essential role in shaping T cell-mediated immune responses by deleting

self-reactive thymocytes to establish central tolerance and by inducing regulatory T-cell (Treg) development. It is therefore important to assess the prevalence of and alterations to thymic DC with age, as this may impact on their function. We assessed the numbers and proportions of the three distinct subsets of thymic DC in ageing mice, and showed that these subsets are differentially regulated. This is expected as thymic DC subsets have different origins of development. We further assessed the responses of thymic DC in a regenerative environment, such as that induced by sex-steroid ablation (SSA), and clearly showed that, consistent with global thymus regrowth, selleckchem all three DC populations increased in numbers and regained their relative proportions to thymocytes after an initial lag period. These findings are important for the clinical translation of thymic regenerative approaches, and indicate that SSA facilitates the maintenance of critical processes such as negative selection and Treg induction through promoting thymic DC regeneration. Cellular & Molecular Immunology (2010) 7, 108-115; doi: 10.1038/cmi.2009.114; published online 1 February 2010″
“Background: CsA measurements are routinely used to allow adequate CsA dosage adjustments. CsA assays routinely require EDTA anticoagulated whole blood; EDTA has been preferred due to differences seen when using heparinized blood in the past.

After 1 week, 5 7 mg/kg body weight N-15-LU was administered toge

After 1 week, 5.7 mg/kg body weight N-15-LU was administered together with breakfast. A venous blood sample was taken after 6 h. Urine and faeces were collected over a period of 48 and 72 h, respectively. The N-15 abundances were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.\n\nResults: The mean renal N-15-excretion differed significantly between the supplementation of FP and no treatment (32.5 versus 46.3%, P = 0.034), FP and LC1 (32.5 versus 51.6%, P = 0.001), and WPS and LC1 (38.5 versus 51.6%, P = 0.048). The mean faecal N-15-excretion amounted to 42.7% (no treatment), 59.7% (FP), 41.8% (WPS) and 44.0% (LC1). In comparison with no treatment, the urinary (NH3)-N-15-enrichment was significantly

decreased at 16 h after FP supplementation.\n\nConclusion: The prebiotic intake of FP and WPS lowered the colonic selleck generation and the renal excretion of toxic (NH3)-N-15, respectively,

when using N-15-LU as a xenobiotic marker. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64, 1215-1221; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.120; published online 4 August 2010″
“Ethanopharmacological relevance: Consortium of yeasts sourced from traditionally used Woodfordia fruticosa flowers proved to be beneficial for fermenting Ashvagandharishta. It resulted in faster fermentation, acceptable organoleptic properties and demonstrable hepatoprotective potential in CCl4 induced find more hepatotoxicity. To formulate Ashvagandharishta using consortium of yeasts and to investigate its physiochemical parameters. Standardize the

formulation with the help of standard withaferin-A and withanolide-A and to evaluate its hepatoprotective potential in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in the rat model.\n\nMaterial and methods: Ashvagandharishta was prepared using a 5% consortium of yeasts and ascertained its quality through physiochemical and phytochemical investigation. Withaferin-A and withanolide-A was simultaneously estimated by HPLC for standardization. Hepatoprotective potential was evaluated by administering 2.31 and 1.15 ml/kg doses while considering biochemical parameters like serum AST, ALT, ALP and lipid profile. Gene expression study was carried out for the expression P5091 clinical trial of antioxidant and inflammatory genes such as CAT, GPx and proinflammatory gene IL-6. Histopathology of liver was also studied with the help of H&E staining.\n\nResults: Ashvagandharishta was found organolepticaly acceptable with optimized physiochemical parameters. Withaferin-A and withanolide-A in Ashvagandharishta estimated as 0.3711, 0.7426 (%w/v), respectively. In the CCl4 induced hepato-toxicity model, Ashvagandharishta-2.31 ml/kg dose showed significant decrease in elevated hepatic level of AST(p<0.001), ALT(p<0.01) and ALP(p<0.001). Both doses of Ashvagandharishta showed significant reduction of TG, Cholesterol, VLDL and LDL in serum, with corresponding reduction of (p<0.001) serum-HDL. Ashvagandharishta also showed increased serum protein (p<0.05) and albumin (p<0.

ProFT showed increased expression in ‘Carnival’ leaves during

ProFT showed increased expression in ‘Carnival’ leaves during

October (13 h light/11 h dark; average daily temperature of 17 A degrees C) at the time that floral organs were being pre-formed in the meristem. ProFT expression was fivefold higher in florally determined buds compared to that in leaves, and low levels were present in the vegetative meristems analysed. These results suggest that ProFT may act as a seasonally regulated floral inducer in ‘Carnival’, but based on spatial expression, data is also likely to play a role in inflorescence development and selleck chemicals llc growth architecture.”
“The deformation-induced martensite variant selection in a supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) has been examined in the temperature range from -60 A degrees C to 150 A degrees C, using in-situ tensile testing in combination with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In Napabucasin the as-received (i.e., intercritically annealed) condition, the base material contains about 40 vol pct of

retained austenite. At each testing temperature, this austenite transforms back to martensite during plastic deformation at a rate which is controlled by the accumulated plastic strain in the material. On the other hand, the applied strain rate and crystallographic orientations of the prior austenite grains do not affect the

overall transformation rate. Moreover, the subsequent Schmid factor analysis reveals that the martensite variant selection is independent of the local slip activity within the austenite. Therefore, no new martensite variants, besides those already present in the parent steel, develop during the phase transformation. At the same time, their individual intensities remain approximately constant within each prior austenite grain. This means that the deformation-induced martensite variants nucleate from the CP-868596 order same sites as those that are operative in the intercritically-annealed base material. Thus, the observed variant selection is another example of the inherent reversible nature of the martensite transformation.”
“Vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) is an autophagy-related protein and identified as a key regulator of autophagy in recent years. In pancreatic cell lines, VMP1-dependent autophagy has been linked to positive regulation of apoptosis. However, there are no published reports on the role of VMP1 in autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancers. Therefore, to address this gap of knowledge, we decided to interrogate regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by VMP1. We have studied the induction of autophagy by starvation and rapamycin treatment in colorectal cell lines using electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting.

Determine the prevalence mid

clinical significance of dee

Determine the prevalence mid

clinical significance of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the asymptomatic Selleckchem Compound C contralateral extremity of patients referred to the vascular laboratory with unilateral symptoms and DVT confirmed by duplex scan.\n\nMethod: From December 2003 to October 2006, a total of 4813 patients were referred to our vascular laboratory for unilateral venous duplex scans. We prospectively studied 239 patients who were found to have acute DVT and had unilateral symptoms. Contralateral examinations were performed and demographic data, including risk factors for DVT, were entered into a computerized database.\n\nResults: Of the 239 patients, 133 (55.6%) had a major DVT (popliteal vein or above) and 106 (44.4%) had a calf vein DVT. The majority were outpatients (195, 81.6%) and the rest were

inpatients (44, 18.4%). The contralateral leg was normal in 192 (80.3%) patients, whereas 47 (19.7%) patients had some evidence of venous thrombosis. These thromboses consisted of acute major DVT (18/47, 38.3%), acute calf vein DVT (14/47, 29.8%), and less clinically significant chronic or superficial thrombus (15/47 (31.9%). All 18 patients with major contralateral AZD5363 cell line DVT had underlying risk factor for thrombosis: active malignancy (12/18), recent surgery (4/18), or trauma (2/18). Patients with asymptomatic contralateral calf vein involvement often had thrombotic risk factors (10/14) but occasionally did not (4/14). Patients

with an active malignancy were significantly more likely to have DVT in the asymptomatic leg (18/47, 38.3%) than were patients without cancer (23/192, 12%; both P<.0001). Inpatients were much more likely to have contralateral asymptomatic thrombosis (15/44, 34.1%) than outpatients (31/195, 15.9%; both P<.006). If treatment had been based on the findings in the symptomatic leg, all but 2 of the 239 patients would have been adequately treated. These two patients had multiple thrombotic risk factors that should have precluded ordering of a unilateral selleck chemicals examination.\n\nConclusions: Inpatients have a very high incidence of clinically silent contralateral thrombosis (34%) and should usually undergo bilateral examinations. Patients with active malignancy have a 38% incidence of asymptomatic contralateral clot and should always have a bilateral study. Outpatients with unilateral symptoms and no associated risk factors for thrombosis can safely undergo unilateral examinations and should be adequately treated according to the unilateral findings.

In contrast, the neutral Au NPs, which had 20 mol % PMMA in the P

In contrast, the neutral Au NPs, which had 20 mol % PMMA in the P(MMA-r-S) block, were localized at the interface between the PS and PMMA[A blocks of the PS-b-PMMA. When these Au NPs were incorporated into PS-b-PMMA thin films, these different locations of Au NPs resulted in a remarkable difference in orientation of the block domains. When the selective Au NPs were added and were located in the PMMA domains, the microdomains were oriented parallel to the substrate. In contrast, when the neutral Au NPs that localize at the block copolymer interfaces were added, they induced a transition in the orientation

of microdomains from parallel to perpendicular to the substrate. The lateral MK2206 and vertical location of the Au NPs in the film was investigated by top-view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, we employed self-consistent mean field theory (SCFT) simulations to explain our experimental results.”
“Viscoelastic properties of the myocardium are important for normal cardiac function and may be altered by disease. Thus, quantification of these properties may aid with evaluation of the health of the heart. Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV) is a shear wave-based method that uses wave velocity dispersion to measure the underlying viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue

with plate-like geometries. We tested this method in eight pigs in an open-chest preparation. A mechanical U0126 in vitro actuator was used to create harmonic, propagating mechanical waves in the myocardial CHIR98014 in vivo wall. The motion was tracked using a high frame rate acquisition sequence, typically 2500 Hz. The velocities of wave propagation were measured over the 50-400 Hz frequency range in 50 Hz increments. Data were acquired over several cardiac cycles. Dispersion curves were fit with a viscoelastic, anti-symmetric Lamb wave model to obtain estimates of the shear

elasticity, mu(1), and viscosity, mu(2) as defined by the Kelvin-Voigt rheological model. The sensitivity of the Lamb wave model was also studied using simulated data. We demonstrated that wave velocity measurements and Lamb wave theory allow one to estimate the variation of viscoelastic moduli of the myocardial walls in vivo throughout the course of the cardiac cycle.”
“The aim of this study was to validate the FibroScan system compared with liver histology and serum markers for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. We also tried to determine the cut-off levels and assess the feasibility of using FibroScan values to predict the fibrosis stage.\n\nIn 44 patients with HCV infection, liver stiffness was evaluated by FibroScan, serum fibrosis markers and a liver biopsy. Associations between these indices were also analyzed.\n\nFibroScan values showed a good correlation with serum levels of type IV collagen, hyaluronic acid and procollagen-III-peptide, and with the platelet count.

What’s more, the litter size in the Duroc breed was also signific

What’s more, the litter size in the Duroc breed was also significantly dependent (P<0.05) on polymorphism in intron3 (g.3838-3839 AICAR cell line sTGCAG). Sows with NN genotype had more

piglets per litter than those of MM or/and MN genotypes. A similar relation (though not significant) was observed in remaining breeds tested. It is concluded that ZAR1 gene might be a potential important candidate gene related to litter size in pigs.”
“Exercise improves the central nervous system (CNS) functions and is widely recommended for neurological patients with, e.g., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, exercise-induced neuroprotection is an open discussion. Here, the intranasal administration of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 65 mg/kg) caused death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and depletion of dopamine in the striatum of C57BL/6 mice. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, the active metabolite of MPTP, also inhibited complex-I activity of mitochondria isolated from the CNS of mice. However, 6 weeks of exercise on voluntary running wheels did not protect against nigrostriatal neurodegeneration or

mitochondrial inhibition, suggesting that benefits of exercise for PD may not be associated with neuroprotection. The literature presents other candidates, such as neurotrophins or increased CYT387 datasheet antioxidant defenses.”
“Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by phosphorylation is thought to mediate anti-inflammatory responses to CNS injury. Several studies have reported

an increase in phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) in peripheral T cells and monocytes from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) during relapses, suggesting that pSTAT3 might represent an inflammatory marker. Here, we examined immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 in brain tissue samples from MS patients and controls. Phosphorylated STAT3 immunoreactivity was sparse within lesions, with PLX3397 clinical trial no difference between active and inactive lesions. It was, however, significantly greater in white matter (WM) adjacent to active and inactive lesions; moreover, it was significantly greater in WM adjacent to active versus inactive lesions. Phosphorylated STAT3-positive cells were identified as astrocytes and macrophages/microglia. Phosphorylated STAT3 expression was also detected by Western blotting in WM of patients with MS. In comparison, pSTAT3 immunoreactivity was either rare or found focally in brain tissue samples from patients with other neurologic diseases. Our findings show that pSTAT3 does not correlate with inflammatory activity in MS lesions, but that it may play an important role in regulating reactive changes proximal to MS lesions.”
“The inflammatory environment within the atherosclerotic lesion stimulates the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, leading to the biosynthesis of the potent lipid inflammatory mediators leukotrienes.

Results: Among the 323 non-ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae iden

Results: Among the 323 non-ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae identified in community-onset UTIs, 50 isolates were phenotypically positive for AmpC. Escherichia coli was the most common AmpC-producing organism (60%), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (8%), and Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus mirabilis (6% for each species). The independent risk factors for acquisition of AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae included prior history of cerebral vascular accident [odds ratio (OR) = 2.014; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.007-4.031; HSP990 p = 0.0048], and prior use of fluoroquinolones

(OR = 4.049; 95% CI = 1.759-9.319; p = 0.001) and cephamycin (OR = 9.683; 95% CI = 2.007-45.135; p = 0.004). AmpC-producing isolates were multidrug resistant. Carbapenems, cefepime, and piperacillin/tazobactam had the best in vitro efficacy. The most commonly identified plasmid-mediated AmpC gene was bla(CIT), followed by bla(DHA)/bla(EBC), and bla(MOx). Conclusion: PKC412 For and prior use of antimicrobials. To treat these multiple-resistant isolates, carbapenems, cefepime, and piperacillin/tazobactam may be considered. Copyright (C) 2013, Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights

“The classical prion diseases (e.g. scrapie of sheep and goats and bovine spongiform encephalopathy of cattle) are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal forms of the prion protein (PrP), usually recognized by their relative resistance to proteolysis compared with the physiological cellular forms of PrP. However,

novel prion diseases have been detected in sheep, cattle and man, in which the abnormal PrP has less resistance to proteolysis than identified previously. These more subtle differences between abnormal and normal forms of PrP can be problematic in routine diagnostic tests and raise questions in respect of the range of PrP disorders. Abnormal accumulations of PrP in atypical and classical prion diseases can be recognized by immunohistochemistry. To determine whether altered PrP expression or trafficking might occur in nosological Tariquidar entities not previously connected with prion disease, the brains of sheep affected with diverse neurological conditions were examined for evidence of altered PrP labelling. Such altered immunolabelling was detected in association with either basic lesions or specific diseases. Some reactive glial cells and degenerate neurons found in several different recognized disorders and non-specific inflammatory processes were associated with abnormal PrP labelling, which was absent from brains of healthy, age-matched sheep. The results agree with previous indications that normal PrP function may be linked with the oxidative stress response, but the data also suggest that PrP functions are more extensive than simple protective responses against stress insults. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

gov as NCT00714324 Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96: 1000-7 “
“We pro

gov as NCT00714324. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96: 1000-7.”
“We propose a new criterion for confounder selection when the underlying causal structure is unknown and only limited knowledge is available. We assume all covariates being considered are pretreatment variables and that for each covariate it is known (i) whether the covariate is a cause of treatment, and (ii) whether the covariate

is a cause of the outcome. The causal relationships the covariates have with one another is assumed unknown. We propose that control be made for any covariate that is either a cause of treatment or of the outcome or both. We show that irrespective of the actual underlying causal structure, if any subset of the observed covariates suffices to control for confounding then the set of covariates chosen by our criterion will also suffice. We show that other, commonly used, criteria for confounding control do not Selleck NCT-501 have this property. We use formal theory concerning causal diagrams to prove our result but the application of the result does not rely on familiarity with causal diagrams. An investigator simply need ask, Is the covariate a cause of the treatment? and Is the covariate a cause of the

outcome? If the answer to either question is yes then the covariate is included for confounder control. We discuss some additional covariate selection results that preserve unconfoundedness and that may be of interest when used with our criterion.”
“Many biological processes and systems can be described by a set of differential equation (DE) models. However, literature in statistical learn more inference for DE models is very sparse. We propose LCL161 statistical estimation, model selection, and multimodel averaging methods for HIV viral fitness experiments in vitro

that can be described by a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE). The parameter identifiability of the ODE models is also addressed. We apply the proposed methods and techniques to experimental data of viral fitness for HIV-1 mutant 103N. We expect that the proposed modeling and inference approaches for the DE models can be widely used for a variety of biomedical studies.”
“Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune disorder defined by the presence of an antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) and the occurrence of at least one associated clinical condition that includes venous thrombosis, arterial thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity. The aPL detected in APS have long been thought to have a direct prothrombotic effect in vivo. However, the pathophysiology underlying their coagulopathic effect has not been defined. Emerging data suggest a role for the procoagulant protein tissue factor (TF). In this review we provide an overview of TF, describe mouse models used in the evaluation of the role of TF in thrombosis, as well as summarize recent work on TF and APS. Lupus (2010) 19, 370-378.