01) ( Fig. 1). Moreover, the data again demonstrate that inclusion of the antagonist in the prime, and not the booster, was essential for the generation of high avidity T cells (FPV-HIV/VV-HIV vs. FPV-HIV-IL-4C118/VV-HIV) (p = 0.025), as inclusion of the Akt inhibitor IL-4R antagonist in the booster induced KdGag197–205-specific CTL that were of similar avidity to control vaccination ( Fig. 1). These results are similar to that of IL-13Rα2 adjuvanted vaccine data observed previously . Next we evaluated
the number of KdGag197–205 tetramer reactive cells induced by the IL-4C118 antagonist vaccination. Data indicated that i.n. FPV-HIV-IL-4C118/i.m. VV-HIV-IL-4C118 prime-boost immunisation induced significantly greater numbers of KdGag197–205 tetramer reactive systemic CD8+ T cells (∼average 20%) (Fig. 2), compared to the control FPV-HIV/VV-HIV prime-boost immunisation (∼average 7%) (p = 0.0001). Interestingly, when the adjuvant was delivered only in the prime ( Table 1 strategy 2) the magnitude of systemic KdGag197–205-specific tetramer reactive cells were see more very similar to the control vaccination ( Fig. 2). However, when the IL-4C118 adjuvant was only delivered in the booster vaccination ( Table 1 strategy 3) even though
significantly elevated numbers of KdGag197–205 tetramer-specific T cells were detected compared to the control or the prime only groups ( Fig. 2) (p = 0.0001, and p = 0.018, respectively), the KdGag197–205-specific T cell avidity of i.n. FPV-HIV/i.m. VV-HIV-IL-4C118 prime-boost immunised group was comparable to that of the control vaccine strategy ( Fig. 1). These results were similar to what was observed with IL-13Rα2 adjuvanted vaccine strategy . Furthermore, the ability of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells to produce IFN-γ following KdGag197–205 stimulation were Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase evaluated both in systemic (splenic) and mucosal compartments (iliac or genito-rectal nodes) (Fig. 3A and
B). Data indicated that i.n. FPV-HIV-IL-4C118/i.m. VV-HIV-IL-4C118 prime-boost immunisation strategy also induced elevated numbers of splenic effector CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells (∼18%) compared to the control vaccine strategy (∼6%) (Fig. 3A and C) measured by ICS. The splenic IFN-γ ICS response pattern was highly consistent with the tetramer data observed in Fig. 2. Our data clearly indicated that our novel IL-4R antagonist vaccine strategy can also induce elevated mucosal HIV-specific CD8+IFN-γ+ T-cell numbers compared to control vaccination (Fig. 3B). Polyfunctional CD8+ T cells are known to correlate with protective immunity, therefore we next assessed the ability of CD8+ T cells to express IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2. Interestingly, the data indicated that number of polyfunctional HIV-specific T cells; IFN-γ and TNF-α (p = 0.021) ( Fig. 3D) and IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 (p = 0.005) ( Fig.