, 2007, Dias et al , 2009 and Segantini et al , 2012) Although a

, 2007, Dias et al., 2009 and Segantini et al., 2012). Although a general trend is followed difference

in the origin of fruit samples makes a comparison difficult. Furthermore, these fruits and by-products should not be considered a rich source of carotenoids, where values as high as 161 mg/100 g d.b. for wine palm (Mauritia vinifera) one of the most important vitamin A precursors in the Brazilian flora has been reported ( Godoy and Rodriguez-Amaya, 1998 and Rufino et al., 2010). Lycopene is considered the carotenoid with the greatest capacity to eliminate selleck the singlet oxygen. Studies have demonstrated that lycopene protects lipid molecules, low-density lipoproteins, proteins, and DNA against free radical attack, playing an essential role in the protection against diseases (Agarwal et al., 2000 and Porrini et al., 2005). From the fruits evaluated only surinam cherry, papaya, sapodilla, guava and tamarind selleck kinase inhibitor pulps and surinam cherry, papaya, sapodilla and guava by-products showed detectable levels of lycopene in their content (Table 3). All of the pulps and byproducts analyzed had low concentrations of lycopene compared with tomatoes, a lycopene-rich fruit. Carvalho, Fonseca, Silva, Boiteux, and Giordano (2005) studied different tomato hybrids and concluded that the content of lycopene in the ripe fruit varies from 149.6 to 191.6 mg/100 g d.b.

Following the example of previous studies (Vasco, Ruales, & Kamal-Eldin, 2008) that tested fruits from Tropical regions for their polyphenol contents, we classified our fruits into three categories: low (<500 mg GAE/100 g d.b.), medium (500–2500 mg GAE/100 g d.b.) and high (>2500 mg GAE/100 g d.b.). Acerola pulp had the highest levels of total phenolic compounds followed by cashew apple, surinam cherry, and soursop (Table

4). For by-products, surinam cherry showed the highest levels (P < 0.05) of total phenolic compounds followed by acerola, cashew apple, and pineapple ( Table 4). These fruit pulps and by-products could therefore be categorized as having a high concentration of phenolic compounds, consequently an excellent source of phenolic compounds. All the other fruit pulps evaluated, except CHIR-99021 chemical structure for sapodilla pulp could be categorized as having a medium content of phenolic compounds, and consequently be considered as a good source of phenolic compounds. Similar observation could be done for fruit by-products, with exception of mango and passion fruit, all the other by-products could be considered as a good source (medium content) of phenolic compounds. Almeida et al. (2011) reported 445.6 mg GAE/100 g d.b. for papaya, 298.6 mg GAE/100 g d.b. for pineapple and 122.2 mg GAE/100 g d.b. for tamarind and these values are lower than the levels reported here. Similarly, Sousa, Pereira, Queiroz, Borges, and Carneiro (2012) found 1491.5 mg GAE/100 g d.b. for soursop. Bagetti et al. (2011) found 3026 mg GAE/100 g d.b.

Samples of each

Samples of each Selleckchem Crizotinib variety harvested in 2008 were supplied by different wineries (A, B and C) located in Videira, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Five samples of Cabernet Sauvignon and five samples of Merlot were collected at winery A, five samples of Bordeaux were collected at winery B and five samples of Isabel were collected at winery C. Videira has a wet temperate climate, with well-defined seasons and mean temperatures of 35 °C in summer and 0 °C in winter. The red wine vinification technique was conducted

with daily pumping and contact of the skins and seeds with the juice for 6 days, after which the must was pressed and the pomace samples collected. The general properties of the pomaces were maintained during transportation to the laboratory by keeping them in isothermal boxes containing ice. Once in laboratory, the pomace samples were lyophilised and stored at −37 °C before analysis. After powdering in liquid nitrogen, samples (1 g) were extracted with 50 mL of acidified (0.1% HCl) methanol Neratinib price in Turrax equipment (Metabo®, Nurthigen-Germany) for 1 h (4 × 15 min) in an ice bath (∼4 °C) and under penumbra conditions.

The homogenate was filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter papers and analysed for total phenolic compounds content, and total monomeric anthocyanins contents, as well as for antioxidant activity. The extraction yield was determined as dry weight after dying in an oven at 105 °C until constant Paclitaxel chemical structure weight. To determine the individual phenolic compounds by HPLC, the filtered

extracts were evaporated under vacuum at 40 °C in a rotatory evaporator and made up to 10 mL with ultrapure water. An aliquot of 5 mL of the extract was added to a 1 g polyamide SC6 column (Macherey–Nagel Gmbh and Co., Düren, Germany) preconditioned with methanol (20 mL) and water (60 mL). The column was washed with water (20 mL) and further eluted with methanol (50 mL) to elute the neutral flavonoids, and with methanol/ammonia (99.5:0.5) to elute the acidic flavonoids. These fractions were evaporated to dryness under pressure at 40 °C, redissolved in methanol (1 mL), filtered through 0.22 μm PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) filters (Millipore Ltd., Bedford, MA) and analysed by HPLC. The total phenolic content of each extract was determined spectrophotometrically (Hewlett–Packard 8452 A Spectrophotometer) according to the Folin–Ciocalteau method (Singleton & Rossi, 1965). Absorbance was read at 765 nm and results were expressed, in dry weight (dw) of pomace, as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Total anthocyanins content was determined by the pH-differential method (Giusti & Wrolstad, 2001). Absorbance was read at 520 and 700 nm. Results were expressed (on a dw basis) as concentration of monomeric pigments (mg/g) of malvidin-3-glucoside equivalent (molar extinction coefficient of 28.000 L/cm/mol and molecular weight of 463.3 g/mol).

0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, New York), and a

2-sided probability

0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, New York), and a

2-sided probability value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. The Tayside Research and Ethics Doxorubicin supplier Committee approved the research protocol, and all study participants provided written informed consent. The baseline characteristics of all 50 patients (mean age 64 years, 64% male) are shown in Online Tables 1 and 2. The primary risk factor was hypertension in 43 of 50 (86%) of patients, whereas 31 of 50 (62%) had a history of dyslipidemia. On average all patients had received treatment for their primary risk factor for greater than 3 years at the time of recruitment and were clinically stable with no overt cardiac symptoms. The majority of the patients were on antihypertensive therapy and greater than two-thirds (39 of 50) received either an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor

blocker (ARB). Baseline BP assessment by ambulatory BP recording revealed good BP control (mean BP 119/72 mm Hg), whereas 56% (28 of 50) of the study patients also received a statin. Online Table 2 also shows that the 50 patients without target organ damage who received a CMR were virtually identical to the 148 patients in our index study who also had no target organ damage at baseline and did not undergo CMR at follow-up (1). Fifty patients completed the follow-up CMR scan, and mean follow-up was 36.3 ± 0.9 months. The average LVM at baseline was 105 ± 24 g and 55 ± 9 g/m2 when indexed to body surface area. At follow-up, LVM measured lower than baseline (mean Δ –4.9 ± 2.8 g) in 52% (26 of 50), whereas Selleckchem ZD6474 an increase (mean Δ 4.7 ± 3.5 g) in LVM was seen in 48% (24 of 50) patients. Clinical characteristics of patients with a reduction and an increase in LVM are shown in Table 1, and the change in LV data on CMR are summarized in Table 2. Not surprisingly, LV filling (LV end-diastolic volume) was reduced in those whose LVM increased with time. No significant differences were noticed in demographics and prevalence of underlying primary risk factor(s) between the 2 groups except that the patients in whom

an increase in LVM was observed were significantly more likely to be active smokers (41% vs. 12%, p = 0.02) or have higher cholesterol levels (5.5 ± 0.8 vs. Dichloromethane dehalogenase 4.5 ± 1.0, p < 0.01). No significant differences were noticed in baseline BP as assessed by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, underlying renal function, or baseline pharmacotherapy, and baseline LVM was also similar in both groups at baseline (Table 1). The baseline diastolic parameters on 2-dimensional echocardiography, including the ratio of the early diastolic transmitral flow velocity (E) to the mitral annular velocity (e′), or transmitral E/e′, were not statistically different between those with or without a future rise in LVM. Both BNP (mean BNP 21 vs. 7.9 pg/ml) and hs-TnT (mean hs-TnT 6.9 vs. 4.9 ng/l) levels at baseline were significantly higher in patients whose LVM increased with time (Table 1).

We estimate the value of using different sets of survey


We estimate the value of using different sets of survey

information to prioritize and select retention trees to achieve a given level of biodiversity conservation. The value of information is the difference in the cost of a random selection of retention trees without observing tree attributes and a prioritized selection of retention trees based on a set of observed tree attributes. The value of information provides an upper limit for how much time can be spent examining tree attributes and prioritizing trees. Our conservation goal is representation of epiphytic lichens (growing on trees). There are more than 2400 lichen species in Sweden (Gärdenfors 2010) which are symbiotic associations between a fungus and a photobiont (green algae or cyanobacteria). It is a species-rich and well-studied species group with several species considered sensitive to forestry operations BMS754807 (Gärdenfors 2010). Epiphytic species http://www.selleckchem.com/products/abt-199.html are often used for measuring biodiversity response to retained trees (Rosenvald and Lõhmus, 2008). The fieldwork was carried out in the summer and autumn of 2009 in the eastern part of the counties of Jämtland and Västernorrland in boreal mid

Sweden. The selection of study clearcuts was made from all recently cut stands (between 2005 and 2009) by the forest company SCA and some smaller private forest owners in the region. We selected 12 clearcuts that were harvested 0–4 years earlier and had at least 30 retained living aspen trees (breast height diameter >10 cm) (Table 1). Within each of these clearcuts, 30 aspens (>5 m apart) were randomly

selected (from a total number often greatly exceeding 30 aspens per clearcut), using transects with randomly selected Bay 11-7085 starting points, yielding a total of 360 trees. On each tree, all epiphytic lichens on the stem up to a height of 2 m were recorded (presence only) (for data on lichens, see Lundström et al. 2013). The following tree attributes were also recorded on each tree, using a simple and coarse scale from 1 to 3: diameter at breast height, tree age, bark crevice depth, speckled appearance of the bark, black-colored bark, cover of epiphytic bryophytes, tree inclination, size and width of tree crown, branch size, slow tree growth (as evaluated by ocular inspection e.g. of the relationship between diameter and bark texture), and bark damage. For calculation of the economic value of each tree, we also measured the diameter in centimeters, the height of each tree with a digital clinometer, and the amount of wood rot by coring each tree with an increment borer. Aspen wood in this region of Sweden is generally used for pulp, so when calculating the economic value of each tree we used a current price list for pulpwood from the local forest owners association Norrskog, with a price of 236 SEK/m3.

niger, which has been

niger, which has been LY294002 in vitro generally regarded as safe by the Food and Drug Administration. Ginsenosides Rb1, Rd, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rh2, and CK were purchased from Vitrosys, Inc.

(Yeongju, Korea). Ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, 20(S)-Rg3, and 20(R)-Rg3. ρ-Nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG), ρ-nitrophenol (PNP), and β-glucosidase from almond were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St Louis, MO, USA). Potato dextrose broth was purchased from Difco (Miller, Becton Dickinson, and Co., Sparks, MD, USA). Celluclast 1.5L and Cellulase 12T were purchased from Novozymes (Bagsværd, Denmark) and Bioland Co. (Chungnam, Korea), respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; Agilent 1100 series; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) was conducted using a UV/vis detector and a gradient pump. All solvents used in chromatography were of HPLC grade and all other chemicals were of analytical reagent grade. A. niger KCCM 11239 was purchased

from the Korean Culture Center of Microorganisms selleck chemicals llc (KCCM, Seoul, Korea). The fungus was cultured on potato dextrose agar at 30°C for 4 d, and the stock cultures were maintained at 4°C. Erlenmeyer flasks were filled to 20% of their volume with potato dextrose broth, and subsequently inoculated with 5-d cultures. The cultures were grown for 16 d under shaking conditions at 200 rpm at 30°C. During the shake flask culturing, a few glass beads were added to prevent mycelial clumping and thus to achieve homogeneous growth. After incubation, the culture broth was centrifuged at 9,000 × g at 4°C for 10 min, and a crude enzyme was obtained by precipitation with 70% of (NH4)2SO4 of the supernatant. The specific activity of crude enzyme was detected to 91 U/mg. Beta-glucosidase activity was evaluated via a colorimetric method using PNPG as a substrate. The reaction mixture, which contained 1 mL of 5 mM PNPG and 100 μL of enzyme solution, was incubated at 50°C for 10 min. The reaction

was subsequently terminated via the addition Histidine ammonia-lyase of 1 mL of 0.5 M NaOH, and the absorption of the released PNP was measured at 400 nm. One unit of β-glucosidase activity was defined as the quantity of enzyme required to liberate 1 μM of PNP/min under standard conditions [23]. Microbial transformation was conducted via a modified Cheng’s method [24]. In brief, suspensions of the 5 d-old cultures were mixed with an equal volume of 1 mM ginsenoside Rb1 dissolved in 0.5 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 5.5) and were shaken for 16 d, 200 rpm, at 30°C. Enzymatic transformation was conducted with 200 μL of a 16-d culture supernatant (centrifuged at 14,400 × g for 30 min at 4°C) and the same volume of 1 mM ginsenoside Rb1 was reacted for 48 h at 30°C and 50°C. Aliquots were withdrawn at suitable time intervals (0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h).

Otherwise, there is very little the therapist can do to be of ass

Otherwise, there is very little the therapist can do to be of assistance but call 911. Orienting the client to call prior to escalation of suicidal impulses and nonsuicidal self-injurious acts is an important step in shaping future skillful, effective behaviors. Baddeley (2007) has stated that when emotional arousal becomes too high, no new learning can occur. Thus, as emotional arousal increases, the ability to take in, profit from, and effectively use feedback decreases. When orienting clients to DBT, it is important to also explain that most people are unable to effectively take in and use feedback when emotional levels are high. This communicates to the client that

they are not being punished for escalation but rather are encouraged to learn more call when coaching is likely to be most successful. Below is a vignette that demonstrates how clinicians can orient clients to this first function of DBT phone coaching. THERAPIST: What I would like to do is describe for you the first function or goal of after hours telephone coaching. Panobinostat Related to the first function in phone coaching is the 24-hour rule. While instructing the client to call prior to the crisis is designed to reinforce skillful behavior, the 24-hour rule is designed to extinguish unskillful behavior.

During phone coaching orientation, clients are informed that they are explicitly forbidden to call their therapists after a nonsuicidal self-injurious act until a 24-hour time period has elapsed. Clients should be informed that the goal of phone coaching is to assist clients in managing emotions without acting impulsively. Given that nonsuicidal self-injury serves to reduce emotional pain, calling after a nonsuicidal self-injurious event is unnecessary given that the client has already reduced their emotional Inositol monophosphatase 1 response (Linehan, 1993). While not the desired outcome, the client has already solved the problem, albeit unskillfully, thus the therapist must be mindful not to reinforce the unskillful behavior. While these clients may obtain relief from extreme psychological pain, some will experience guilt and shame after a nonsuicidal self-injurious

act. These individuals may call after a nonsuicidal self-injurious event to seek reassurance and/or absolution from their therapist. By talking to a client after a nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior has occurred, here again, the therapist may inadvertently reinforce the very behavior they are seeking to eliminate. On occasion a client who has already engaged in a nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior may call. Concerns often arise for clinicians about what to do if a client has violated the 24-hour rule. While data are limited in this area, the one study conducted on frequency and topology of DBT phone coaching reported no occurrences in which the 24-hour rule was violated, suggesting that this behavior is rare (Limbrunner et al., 2011).

Published clinical records and surveys indicate that some WNV-inf

Published clinical records and surveys indicate that some WNV-infected patients complain of memory problems (Carson et al., 2006, Cook et al., 2010 and Gottfried et al., 2005). Rodent models with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis Anticancer Compound Library virus (Buenz et al., 2006) and Borna disease virus (Rubin et al., 1998) develop spatial memory loss, which is associated with infection in the hippocampus. To experimentally evaluate spatial memory in WNND, infected hamsters are evaluated in a Morris water maze (MWM) test. Motor function tests are first used to identify surviving animals that have normal motor functions before entering them into the MWM test, so as to not confound the memory

results with their inability to swim normally (Smeraski et al., 2011). The MWM test consists of a circular water basin filled with cloudy water ERK phosphorylation placed under a video surveillance camera. Swimming animals are trained to remember the position of a submersible platform on which they can anticipate resting. Fifty-six percent of infected hamsters spend more time in the quadrant of the submersible platform than the other three quadrants, as compared to 92% of hamsters treated with a WNV-specific antibody (hE16) to prevent infection (Smeraski et al., 2011), which substantiates the notion that WNV-infected

persons can have memory deficits, and that these deficits can be investigated with the use of rodent models which may provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Due to the specialization of the procedures described in this review, and that neuro-physiological procedures are typically not found in ABSL-3 virology

laboratories, the utility of these procedures are limited by most investigators. Nevertheless, new avenues of discovery in basic neurovirology, preclinical therapeutic development, and clinical applications for viral encephalitis are likely available to those willing to make the financial and personnel investments in these neurological approaches. Plethysmography is very useful in detecting acute arbovirus-induced respiratory failure TCL in rodents, which is likely the physiological mechanism of death. Commercially available instrumentation for rodents facilitates operation after sufficient training by the supplier. Other benefits of whole body plethysmography are the use of non-sedated mice and time of the procedure that takes <2 min per mouse. If multiple chambers are available, multiple mice can be measured simultaneously. The utility for basic neurovirology is that plethysmography has been (Morrey et al., 2012 and Wang et al., 2013b), and should be useful in identifying the neuro-anatomical location of lesions responsible for respiratory failure, and the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of death. In preclinical development, this basic knowledge of pathogenesis should provide targets for therapeutic intervention.

In 1966 there were an estimated 30 WWTPs with a carrying capacity

In 1966 there were an estimated 30 WWTPs with a carrying capacity designed to serve 312,120 people, most with secondary treatment, discharging to LSC via the Clinton River

watershed (National Sanitation Foundation, 1964) (Fig. 5). Population BMS 754807 growth, especially in Macomb and Oakland County, led to gradual upgrades of WWTPs to serve the additional population and reduce effluent pollutant loads. An important element of this area is that the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department, although outside the LSC watershed, provides management and treatment for some of the drinking and wastewater derived from activities in the LSC watershed. Not all domestic waste was treated at facilities; some was treated in septic systems, which are another source of non-point source pollution (e.g. nutrients, pathogens) to LSC that could potentially influence algal blooms and beach closures due to E. coli contamination of the coastal waters. In both 1960 and 2000, the combined total number of septic systems in Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair and Wayne Counties held steady at approximately 140,000 ( Camp Dresser and McKee, 2003 and National

Sanitation Foundation, 1964). The total number of septic systems in Macomb and Wayne counties decreased between1960 and 2000, and the total number of septic systems in Oakland and St. Clair Counties increased between those years. Oakland County had the highest number of septic systems in both years out of the four counties listed above. For example, Oakland County had approximately 80,000 septic systems in Venetoclax purchase 2000, which is about twice as many as any other county listed. In the early 1900s, wastewater was a major source of pathogens

associated with drinking water outbreaks. Typhoid and general dysentery were the common waterborne infectious diseases. Pollution and disease impacts were influenced by population and infrastructure (water treatment). Bay 11-7085 The establishment of sanitary practices for the disposal of sewage in the late nineteenth century and the increasing use of filtration and chlorination of drinking water throughout the twentieth century resulted in a dramatic decrease in bacterial waterborne diseases in the United States. Death rates due to typhoid fever in Michigan dropped from 35.9 per 100,000 cases in 1900 to 0.1 per 100,000 cases by 1950 (Michigan Department of Community Health, access date 2 April 2012 http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,4612,7-132-2944_4669—,00.html). One of the last major waterborne outbreaks was documented in February 1926 when a large outbreak of dysentery occurred in Detroit with approximately 100,000 people ill (Wolman and Gorman, 1931). Recreation on the sandy beaches located on the western shoreline remains an important ecosystem service provided by LSC. Water quality based on fecal bacterial indicators was fairly stable prior to 1980, showed improvement during the 1980s, then declined in the1990s (Fig. 6).

The percentage of CCP plus coal particles in the sand size fracti

The percentage of CCP plus coal particles in the sand size fraction, with the remainder of the sample being composed predominately of quartz and a trace of muscovite and feldspar, is plotted in Fig. 6. Samples between

242 and 440 cmblf contain high selleck products amounts of CCP and coal (Fig. 6). The basal lithologic unit contains gravel-sized sandstone and shale similar to the rocks of the Cuyahoga Group, rounded quartz pebbles similar to those found in the Sharon Formation, and particles of coal. ESEM-EDAX examination of grains that were magnetically extracted from the CCP-bearing sediment reveals spherical particles having Fe, O, Al and Si compositions and surface textures characteristic of CCP (Rose, 1996). In core C4, trace metal concentration profiles of Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb all show similar trends, and the Pb profile is plotted in Fig. 6. Trace metal concentrations are low but steadily increase in concentration from 0 to 200 cmblf. Between 200 and 520 cmblf the trace metal concentrations are high but variable, and then decrease from 520 cmblf to the base of the core. Samples having a sand component generally have lower trace metal content, because metals are preferentially absorbed to

finer particles (Fig. 6). However, mud is the dominate lithology throughout this website the core; thus, the major changes in metal content are not controlled by changes in grain size. The consensus-based probable effect concentration (PEC) is the freshwater sediment contaminant concentration above which adverse biologic effects are expected to frequently occur in sediment-dwelling organisms (MacDonald et al., 2000). Pb, Cr, and Zn display similar profiles with concentrations exceeding the PEC between about 125 and 520 cmblf (Fig. 6). Cu exceeds the PEC between about 240 and 475 cmblf. Upstream of the former power plant the impoundment continues to narrow and shallow in an upstream direction (Fig. 2). Between cross sections 11 and 15 the water area decreases from 320 m2 to 190 m2 (Fig. 5). However, field observations indicated that flow velocity remains low in this reach. Core C10 reached the underlying

bedrock and recovered 570 cm of sediment. cAMP Core C11 recovered 520 of sediment before sampling was halted due to lightning. These two cores have low magnetic concentration (Fig. 4). The dominant lithology is dark brown to black mud interbedded with layers of organic matter and sand. CCP-bearing sediment layers are absent. The sandy layers correspond to increased magnetic susceptibility values (Fig. 4). Upstream of cross section 16 the water area decreases from 100 to 30 m2, and flow velocity was observed to increase dramatically. Both cores C8 and C9 ended at bedrock and recovered approximately equal amounts of dark brown mud and gravelly sand. The higher magnetic susceptibility values correspond to the gravelly sand layers (Fig. 4). The 210Pb concentration generally declines with depth in core C4 (Fig. 7). The background (i.e., supported) 210Pb concentration is the average (0.

Terrestrial animals, while not nearly as important to the diets o

Terrestrial animals, while not nearly as important to the diets of prehistoric Amerindians as marine fauna, were nonetheless exploited when available. These included native species of iguanas, birds, lizards, and rodents, as well as several which were translocated from South America such as the agouti, opossum, armadillo, guinea pig, and peccary (Giovas et al., 2012). These translocated species never appear to have been moved in great numbers, however, and their general paucity and patchiness suggest they may have been prestige or status oriented this website foods. It is not known what environmental impacts these

had on Caribbean island environments, though given their generally low numbers, it may have been limited. Of these animal translocations, only the opossum and agouti persist today. Overall, there is mounting evidence that ancient Amerindians adversely affected their island environments, though the impacts varied through space and time (Fitzpatrick and Keegan, 2007 and Fitzpatrick et al., 2008). Prehistoric impacts were generally dwarfed by what LBH589 mw happened after European arrival in A.D. 1492, when the transmission

of diseases, introduction of hundreds of non-native plants and animals from the Old World, large scale human population replacement, intensifying exploitation of marine resources (e.g., whales, sea next turtles), and plantation economies devastated local flora and fauna. Regardless, the Caribbean follows a similar pattern seen worldwide, in which even small, pre-industrial populations exacted a toll on previously uninhabited island ecosystems, but some groups seem to have effectively used local resources over the long-term.

With a long tradition of archeological and ecological research, California’s Channel Islands provide important datasets to evaluate long-term human ecodynamics and the nature of Holocene and Anthropocene cultural and environmental developments. Many of the trends apparent on Caribbean and Pacific Islands—including over-harvest, landscape burning and clearing, translocation, as well as long-term continuity in the harvest of some key resources—are also apparent on the Channel Islands. California’s islands, however, were occupied entirely by Native American hunter-gatherers until the 19th century, when sea otters and several pinnipeds were hunted nearly to extinction, Chinese abalone fishers visited the islands, and Euroamerican ranching commenced (see Kennett, 2005). We focus on the Native American hunter-gatherer occupation of the Channel Islands, which provides comparative data that build on the Polynesian and Caribbean examples. The Channel Islands are composed of eight islands that are divided into northern and southern groups and are considerably less isolated than Polynesian and most Caribbean islands.