In 1966 there were an estimated 30 WWTPs with a carrying capacity

In 1966 there were an estimated 30 WWTPs with a carrying capacity designed to serve 312,120 people, most with secondary treatment, discharging to LSC via the Clinton River

watershed (National Sanitation Foundation, 1964) (Fig. 5). Population BMS 754807 growth, especially in Macomb and Oakland County, led to gradual upgrades of WWTPs to serve the additional population and reduce effluent pollutant loads. An important element of this area is that the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department, although outside the LSC watershed, provides management and treatment for some of the drinking and wastewater derived from activities in the LSC watershed. Not all domestic waste was treated at facilities; some was treated in septic systems, which are another source of non-point source pollution (e.g. nutrients, pathogens) to LSC that could potentially influence algal blooms and beach closures due to E. coli contamination of the coastal waters. In both 1960 and 2000, the combined total number of septic systems in Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair and Wayne Counties held steady at approximately 140,000 ( Camp Dresser and McKee, 2003 and National

Sanitation Foundation, 1964). The total number of septic systems in Macomb and Wayne counties decreased between1960 and 2000, and the total number of septic systems in Oakland and St. Clair Counties increased between those years. Oakland County had the highest number of septic systems in both years out of the four counties listed above. For example, Oakland County had approximately 80,000 septic systems in Venetoclax purchase 2000, which is about twice as many as any other county listed. In the early 1900s, wastewater was a major source of pathogens

associated with drinking water outbreaks. Typhoid and general dysentery were the common waterborne infectious diseases. Pollution and disease impacts were influenced by population and infrastructure (water treatment). Bay 11-7085 The establishment of sanitary practices for the disposal of sewage in the late nineteenth century and the increasing use of filtration and chlorination of drinking water throughout the twentieth century resulted in a dramatic decrease in bacterial waterborne diseases in the United States. Death rates due to typhoid fever in Michigan dropped from 35.9 per 100,000 cases in 1900 to 0.1 per 100,000 cases by 1950 (Michigan Department of Community Health, access date 2 April 2012,4612,7-132-2944_4669—,00.html). One of the last major waterborne outbreaks was documented in February 1926 when a large outbreak of dysentery occurred in Detroit with approximately 100,000 people ill (Wolman and Gorman, 1931). Recreation on the sandy beaches located on the western shoreline remains an important ecosystem service provided by LSC. Water quality based on fecal bacterial indicators was fairly stable prior to 1980, showed improvement during the 1980s, then declined in the1990s (Fig. 6).

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