It should be noted that radar engineers use the term range to mea

It should be noted that radar engineers use the term range to mean distance, a definition not found in some dictionaries [2]. Although the detection of range is still one of the most important functions of modern radars, these devices can extract much more information from a target’s echo signal than its position. In this sense, some radars are often reclassified as sensors [3]. The main difference between a radar and a sensor lies in the receiver chain: radars usually have amplitude peak detectors whereas sensors preserve the entire signal for further analysis [4]. Analysis of the entire signal provides valuable additional information (Figure 1).Figure 1.Classification of time domain radars according to the information obtained from the signal received. (a) Radar’s schematic layout.

(b) Sensor’s schematic layout.A common requirement in radars is a significant bandwidth, which allows for higher resolution capabilities of the equipment. For Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR), this bandwidth should be at least equal to the emission frequency of the antenna [5]. Because of this, most GPR devices employ wavelets or multi-frequency short-time pulses emitted in baseband without an intermediate carrying frequency. Such GPR systems are referred to as time domain systems.Characterization of the wavelet emitted by the antennas is essential, as the pulse received by the radar is distorted and attenuated due to the propagation medium.

Therefore, in order to make a good interpretation of the GPR data and extract as much information as possible from the signal recorded during processing, a deep knowledge of the type of emission used is important because the characteristics of the detected reflections (length and shape of the reflected pulse, overlapping of constructive or destructive reflections, etc.) and system’s vertical resolution, directly depend on the characteristics of the wavelet emitted by the antennas [6,7]. In addition, advanced processing techniques such as deconvolution Carfilzomib or specific algorithms for target recognition require specific knowledge of this signal for proper operation. Within the field of numerical simulation, it is also useful to work with the real source wavelet of the system. The goal of the simulation is to obtain a synthetic record very similar to that obtained in the field, which could aid in data interpretation. To provide practical results, modulation schemes in computer simulators should be able to incorporate, in addition to real antenna configurations and appropriate descriptions of the material properties, a precise model of the signal emitted by the antennas [8].It is important to note that, despite the widespread commercialization of GPR, much of the antenna construction process is still done by hand.

etion increased STAT3 activation, tumorigenesis and tumor growth

etion increased STAT3 activation, tumorigenesis and tumor growth. Thus, these findings indicate that the association between NF ��B and STAT3 could be dif ferent according to the cancer cell type investigated and, thus, interaction of these two molecules in terms of cancer cell metastasis in each cancer type needs to be elucidated. Since the relationship between NF ��B and STAT3 path ways in gastric cancer has not been described previously, the present study performed a large scale immunohisto chemical analysis to investigate the correlation between NF ��B p65 and phospho Tyr705 STAT3 or matrix metalloproteinase 9 in 255 surgically excised human gastric carcinoma tissues. In addition, we inhibited NF ��B in gastric cancer cells by transduction with a retroviral vector containing supersuppressive mutant form of I��B and silenced STAT3 by transfection of STAT3 small interfering RNA.

Then, we evalu ated the effect of NF ��B and STAT3, alone or in combin ation, on the gastric cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. Methods Patients and tissue array methods A total of 255 surgically resected human gastric cancer Brefeldin_A specimens were obtained from the Department of Path ology, Seoul National University College of Medicine from January 1st to June 30th, 1995 and six paraffin array blocks were prepared by Superbiochips Laborator ies, as previously described. Briefly, core tissue biopsies were taken from individual paraffin embedded gastric tumors and arranged in a new recipient paraffin block using a trephine apparatus.

The staining results of the different intratumoral areas of gastric carcinomas in these tissue array blocks showed an excellent agreement. A core was chosen from each case for analysis. We defined an adequate case as a tumor occupying more than 10% of the core area. Each block contained internal controls consisting of non neoplastic gastric mucosa from body, antrum and other areas showing intestinal metaplasia. Sections of 4 um thickness were cut from each tissue array block, deparaf finized, and rehydrated. This protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Seoul Na tional University. Immunohistochemistry Immunohistochemical staining was performed as described previously using a streptavidin peroxidase procedure after antigen retrieval using an autoclave. The primary antibodies used were anti NF ��B RelA, anti phospho Tyr705 STAT3, anti MMP9.

Immunostaining results were considered to be positive if 10% or 5% of the neoplastic cells were stained. Cell culture SNU 638 and MKN1, which are well characterized human gastric cancer cell lines, were purchased from the Korean Cell Line Bank. Cells were cultured in RPMI1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mg mL sodium bicarbonate, 100 U mL penicillin, and 100 ug mL streptomycin at 37 C in a humidified 95% air and 5% CO2 atmosphere. Infection with retroviral vectors expressing I��B supersuppressor The control retroviral vector MFG. EGFP. IRES. puro has been previously d

ing breast cancer, and expression is frequently lost in other hum

ing breast cancer, and expression is frequently lost in other human epi thelial carcinomas. Moreover, other 14 3 3��, ��, B, isoforms have also been identified in cancer. After DNA damage, 14 3 3�� down regulated cells fail to maintain a G2 M arrest and undergo a mitotic catastrophe, which re sults in apoptosis. The reduction of 14 3 3�� expression induced the G2 arrest, which leads to mitotic catastrophe and increase radio sensitivity. To verify the expressions of identified proteins, we performed an immuno blotting analysis on 14 3 3��, 14 3 3�� and 14 3 3, which have been suggested to be involved in various cancers. Quantification of the protein bands determined that the expression of 14 3 3��, 14 3 3�� and 14 3 3 were decreased in the vitamin C treated group compared to the vehicle treated control Carfilzomib group.

These data indicated that vitamin C de creased the expression of 14 3 3 isoforms in AGS cells. These data suggest that down regulation of 14 3 3 could be a useful information in therapeutic targets of human gastric cancers. Vitamin C down regulated the cytoskeleton and associated proteins, tropomyosin alpha 3 chain and tropomyosin alpha 4 chain proteins Tropomyosins are actin binding proteins that can inte grate cell mechanics and signaling essential for cellular migration and invasion. Proteomic studies showed that the expression of tropomyosin changes, which suggest an important role for tropomyosin in maintaining cell shape. In addition, tropomyosins increase filament stiffness, stabilize actin filaments by protecting them against the severing action of gelsolin and cofilin.

In our 2 D gel system, the spots corresponding to tropo myosin 3 and tropomyosin 4 showed a decreased exp ression in the response to vitamin C. These decreased changes in the tropomyosins expression might be coincidental with morphologic changes and migratory characteristics of AGS cells in response to vitamin C. Vitamin C up regulated the antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin 4 and thioredoxin domain containing protein 5 Generally, antioxidant proteins play a pivotal role in the antioxidant defense system and protect the cells from oxi dative stress. There are six peroxiredoxins found in mam malians, and peroxiredoxin 4 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. In the present study, antioxidant and detoxification proteins, like peroxiredoxin 4 and thioredoxin domain containing protein 5, were over expressed in vitamin C treated AGS cells.

Since, vitamin C is an excellent antioxidant that increased anti oxidant protein expressions in AGS cells and protects from oxidative stress. To our knowledge there has not been a reported study regarding peroxiredoxin 4 protein expres sion in human gastric cancer adenocarcinoma AGS cells response to vitamin C. Therefore, a detailed study is neces sary regarding the effects of vitamin C on peroxiredoxin 4 protein expressions and the role of peroxiredoxin 4 protein in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. Vitamin C altered the proteins involved in

s and its ligand are phy siologically involved in chondrocyte apo

s and its ligand are phy siologically involved in chondrocyte apoptosis, in our present study we used an anti Fas antibody to evaluate the role of LRP5 in chondrocyte apoptosis. The decreased chondrocyte apoptosis in Lrp5fl fl.Col2a1 cre mice sub jected to DMM surgery supports our contention that LRP5 plays a catabolic role in OA cartilage destruction. Conclusions Herein we provide evidence suggesting that LRP5 is a catabolic regulator of OA pathogenesis and report that IL 1B treatment increases LRP5 e pression largely via JNK and NF ��B signaling. On the basis of our results, we suggest that LRP5 plays a catabolic role in OA cartilage destruction by decreasing type II collagen syn thesis, increasing MMP3 and or MMP13 e pression and pro moting chondrocyte apoptosis.

These results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which LRP5 upreg ulation contributes to OA cartilage and suggest that LRP5 could be a candidate therapeutic target for new Brefeldin_A strategies to treat or prevent OA. Introduction Osteoarthritis is the most common arthritis, char acterized by progressive loss of articular cartilage, sub chondral bone remodeling, and synovial inflammation, leading to debilitating joint pain and functional limita tion. The underlying pathophysiologic process of cartilage destruction in OA has not been completely elucidated. Inflammation is believed to be implicated in the OA pathogenesis, even in early stages, by shifting the balance from the anabolic toward the catabolic state with gradually progressive cartilage loss.

In OA, chon drocytes, the only cells residing in cartilage, are a target of catabolic cytokines, including interleukin 1B, tumor necrosis factor, and IL 6. IL 1B in par ticular has been considered a key amplifier and perpetu ator of cartilage damage because it suppresses matri protein synthesis and induces matri degrading enzymes and other proinflammatory cytokines, including IL 6. However, postsurgical or spontaneous OA development is parado ically accelerated in IL 1B or IL 6 knockout mice, suggestive of their intricate role in cartilage biology. the proinflammatory cytokines might slow the OA pro gression via yet unknown mechanisms. Suppressors of cytokine signaling belong to a protein family that is composed of eight SH2 containing proteins and forms E3 ubiquitin ligase comple es to de grade target proteins by proteasomes.

As negative feed back, these proteins are induced by a variety of cytokines and inhibit, in turn, intracellular signaling of diverse cyto kines and growth factors. SOCS1 and SOCS3 are the best characterized, and SOCS1 is considered more potent than SOCS3. Although IL 1B is not a main inducer of SOCS family proteins or a potent activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription, IL 1B has been reported to induce SOCS1 or SOCS3 in several types of cells including chondrocytes. Further more, SOCS1 may inhibit IL 1B signaling pathways. SOCS1null T cells were found to be hypersensitive to IL 1B. When HEK293 cells

Figure 1 Scheme of the overall methodology to create reliable ort

Figure 1.Scheme of the overall methodology to create reliable orthodontic models.2.1. Digital Mouth Model through Optical ScanningIn this paper, an optical scanner based on an active stereo vision approach (Figure 2) has been assembled in 1|]# order to reconstruct patients’ dentition models including tooth crowns and surrounding gingival tissue [8]. Typically, these models can be either obtained by scanning the inner surface of an impression or the outer surface of a plaster cast. However, not all the surfaces composing a tooth shape can be easily reconstructed by using an optical scanning methodology.

In particular, two circumstances may occur: (1) the space between the proximal surfaces of adjoining teeth (interproximal space) is not accessible to the impression material and therefore cannot be captured; (2) the interproximal space is adequate to be captured by the impression, but not sufficient to avoid optical undercuts during the plaster model scanning.

In the first case, crowns remain incomplete either by scanning the impression or the plaster cast since geometry details of interproximal regions, where adjacent teeth in the same arch are contacting, are missing. The int
Acquiring the spatial distribution information of materials is vital for improving the system efficiency and reducing pollution emission in chemical reactors or multiphase flow units. ECT is a noninvasive imaging technique, which is used to acquire spatial distribution information from inaccessible objects in order to monitor industrial processes.

Owing Batimastat to its distinct advantages such as the non-intrusive sensing, radiation-free nature, high temporal resolution, affordable measuring device and easy implementation, Carfilzomib ECT is proven to be useful in industrial process monitoring, multiphase flow measurements, the visualization of combustion flames in porous media and the identification of two-phase flow patterns [1�C10].ECT technology attempts to reconstruct the permittivity distribution of the cross-section via an appropriate reconstruction algorithm from the capacitance measurement data, where reconstructing high-quality images plays a crucial role in real applications.

Due to the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem, the ��soft-field�� effect and the underdetermined problem in ECT image reconstruction, achieving high-accuracy URL List 1|]# reconstruction of a dynamic object is challenging. The key issue for improving the reconstruction quality has attracted intensive attention, and thus various algorithms, which can be approximately divided into two categories, static and dynamic reconstruction algorithms, had been developed for ECT image reconstruction.

The dissimilarity measure of reasonable evidences is the basic is

The dissimilarity measure of reasonable evidences is the basic issue of both static and dynamic reliability assessment. For example, dissimilarity measures among evidences are unreasonable in Guo’s [2] and Elouedi’s method [6]. Moreover, some methods use information inadequately, such as Elouedi’s Tf [9] and Yang’s method [8]. In addition, the research on methods of combining static and dynamic discounting factors is not deep enough, which is just mentioned in [2]. This combination method has no ability to adapt to the performance changes of sensors.In order to resolve the above problems, this paper puts forward a scheme of sensor reliability evaluation and evidence discounting, which mainly includes two parts.

First, we have designed an improved dissimilarity measure based on a dualistic exponential function so as to assess the static reliability from a training set by local decision of each sensor and distance measure between evidences. The dynamic reliability factors are gained from every test target by dissimilarity measures between the output information of each sensor and the consensus of total evidences simultaneously. Second, we have introduced an adaptive combination method of static and dynamic discounting based on fuzzy theory and Parzen-window density estimation, which can be suitable for different kinds of uncertain target environments.The rest of the paper is divided into six parts. Section 2 reviews the belief function theory. An improved dissimilarity measure based on a dualistic exponential function is presented in Section 3.

Evaluation methods of static and dynamic discounting Anacetrapib factor are respectively introduced in Section 4. In Section 5, we propose an adaptive combination mechanism of static and dynamic reliability discounting. The experiments and analysis are arranged in Section 6, where we compare the proposed method with other methods on real datasets. Then, a conclusion is presented in Section 7.2.?Basic Concepts of the Belief Function TheoryBelief function theory is regarded as a useful tool of representing and processing uncertain knowledge. In this section, a brief review of the belief function theory is introduced.2.1. Main FunctionLet �� = ��1, ��2, ��, ��p be a finite set of all possible results to a given problem, which is named as the frame of discernment. All the elements of �� are exclusive and exhaustive, and belong to the power set of ��, denoted as 2��. The subsets of �� containing only one element are called singletons.Definition 1: Given a set of evidence provided by the sensor, intelligent agent defines the corresponding basic belief assignment on �� as a function m��:2�� �� [0,1], which satisfies:��A?��m��(A)=1(1)If there is no ambiguity, m�� may be abbreviated to m.

The main disadvantage of one-way authentication is that a node is

The main disadvantage of one-way authentication is that a node is not able to know whether it is connected with a legal entity or a fake one; therefore, the mutual trust between the two communicating parties is zero. In addition, to perform node authentication in key management schemes, there is no 100% guarantee that a shared key will be found. Due to the lack of mutual authentication in the network devices, the dynamic session key has the lowest priority. Moreover, to perform the authentication between two nodes/devices, high numbers of keys are suggested to a sensor node in [28,30,37]. However, the high numbers of keys may pose the Sybil threats to the applications if a node is compromised by an adversary.

In [31�C33,35], a sensor node required a smaller number of keys to perform the authentication, but authors did not care for strong mutual authentication and session key establishment, node privacy, and message confidentiality and freshness. Therefore an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework remains a challenge for real WSN applications.To address mutual authentication in WSNs-based applications, this paper introduces an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that exploits the features of symmetric key cryptography and provides strong mutual authentication and strong key establishment, message confidentiality, node identity and location privacy, and message freshness. The proposed scheme makes use of the pre-deployment location of sensors nodes which improve the application processes and operational efficiencies [16,28,32].

The proposed framework is very simple and performs the following tasks:Firstly, sensor nodes (L-sensor and H-sensor) obtain the required keys from an offline key server, as in [30�C33].Secondly, a secure network (cluster) formation takes place where the L-sensor and H-sensor mutually authenticate each other and establish a strong dynamic session key.Thirdly, a key revocation mechanism copes with the case of compromised L-sensor nodes, if found in the network.Finally, a new L-sensor node addition technique facilitates the node Drug_discovery scalability to the application and supports maximum network size.This paper further demonstrates the correctness of the proposed framework using Burrows, Abadi, and Needham (BAN) logic, which is a quite popular logic for verifying mutual authentication and session-key establishment schemes [39,40].

The security analysis shows that the proposed scheme offers strong safeguards against possible security attacks such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks and information-leakage attacks.The rest of the paper is structured as follows: Section 2 describes the system model, threat model and design goals. Section 3 discusses the related work and Section 4 introduces the detailed design of proposed scheme for real WSNs. Section 5 proves the correctness using BAN logic.

This technique can address the correspondence problem by generati

This technique can address the correspondence problem by generating from the lighting source artificial features, including even non-featured regions such as the cheek, chin and forehead. However, because the active sensing technique uses a visual beam projector to project a structured pattern onto the face, the person whose face image is to be acquired may feel a strong aversion such as to the beam glare.In this paper, we present a developed a nonintrusive 3D face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition. This system consists of a stereo vision system and a rotatable near-infrared line laser (NILL) [17]. Because the proposed system uses NILL, which is not visible, the person whose face image is to be acquired perceives nothing of the 3D acquisition.

The system can not only reconstruct full-range full-density 3D face data, but it can also directly reconstruct precise face profiles. Using both full-density 3D face data and 3D face profiles, we propose random-profile-based 3D face recognition that is pose-invariant. In this context, the term random means that the number of profiles (from 7 to 12) and the extracted profiles from the face region are arbitrary. Moreover, before addressing the face recognition technique in this paper, we introduce a face feature-based registration process, which is much faster than conventional iterative closest points (ICP) for making two sets of 3D face data into the same pose. We next explain the face recognition, which is performed by comparing the 3D random face profile as a probe and the 3D full-density 3D face data.

Because 3D random-face profiles are used as the probe, this technique is memory efficient and faster than using full-density 3D face data, while outperforming 2D face recognition under pose variation.The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we briefly review related works on 3D acquisition systems and 3D face recognition. In Section 3, we present a proposed system that includes a 3D face data acquisition AV-951 system, registration, and random-profile-based 3D face reconstruction. The details of our experiments and results are presented in Section 4. Finally, our conclusions are presented in Section 5.2.?Related Works2.1. Three-dimensional (3D) Face Acquisition SystemA variety of 3D face acquisition systems have been developed to acquire accurate 3D face data. These systems can basically be divided into three kinds of systems: stereo vision systems (SVS) [10,11], laser scanners (LS) [14,16], and structured light systems (SLS) [12,13]. The stereo vision system, which consists of two optical sensors [10], reconstructs 3D data by performing a triangulation between the corresponding points of images captured from each camera [15].

Therefore dimensionless expression of the sensitivity is preferab

Therefore dimensionless expression of the sensitivity is preferable,Bs(S0)=S0A��(S0)��dA��(S0)dS0,(19)where BS stands for the dimensionless sensitivity of the biosensor, A��(S0) is the steady state absorbance calculated at the substrate concentration S0 in bulk solution.We consider the dimensionless Biot number Bi to express the ratio of internal mass transfer resistance to the external one [34],Bi=d/DSe��/DSb=dDSb��DSe.(20)3.?Digital SimulationBecause
With the development of inexpensive multimedia hardware, such as micro-cameras and microphones, wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSN) have recently emerged as an important technology, which has outstanding performance in multimedia signal acquisition and processing.

Compared to a wireless sensor network (WSN), WMSNs can not only enhance existing sensor network applications such as target tracking, classification, home automation, and environmental monitoring, but also enable several new applications, such as multimedia surveillance sensor networks, advanced health care delivery, industrial process control, and so on [1]. The content-rich vision-based information brings more effective way for target tracking and classification, but it also requires efficient distributed processing because the energy and network resources are strictly constrained in WMSNs. Target classification is a big challenge addressed in WMSN. The specific requirements of WMSNs, such as transmission of large amounts of data, various noises and time-varying samples, determine that the energy efficient, robust and online classifier learning algorithm is highly desired.

Support vector machine (SVM) is a well known classification tool, which has been widely used in WSNs [2-4]. Cilengitide However, SVM classifier learning calls applies to solving a quadratic programming problem [5], which is computation expensive and cannot be afforded by single sensor node with limited computing ability and energy. Furthermore, traditional classifier learning is a kind of centralized learning strategy, which also needs to acquire samples from all sensor nodes. The large amount of data transmission will consume much energy, which is impractical for a highly constrained WMSN. Recently, various incremental learning methods were proposed [4-6], which implies that the learning process can be progressively carried out with the collaboration of multiple sensor nodes.

Although incremental learning is suitable for target classification in WMSNs, with the consideration of missing and false detection, the incremental learning should be collaboratively implemented according to the contribution of sensor nodes. This requires a new architecture to increase the system scalability with collaborative in-network processing by reducing the energy consumption and gathering the samples from a proper set of sensor nodes.

Since a number of articles have been published in this area, it s

Since a number of articles have been published in this area, it seems timely to review the development of IR-based sensors in addressing the issues and challenges facing environmental monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants. The most significant advances in relation to MIR-ATR sensing of organic compounds in aqueous environments will be reviewed. The article will pay particular attention to sensor design and type of materials used to prepare the sensing surface.2.?Principles of Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)Since the development of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer in the early 1960s there has been a significant rise in the application of infrared spectroscopy to investigate and understand a wide range of problems [11].

The majority of the infrared studies performed in the past involved collecting IR spectra in the direct transmission mode. However, in recent years a number of accessories and refection-based methods have been developed, and these have extended the capability of FTIR to measure a wide range of complex samples in the laboratory. In particular, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy is one of only a few techniques that allows the interfacial phenomena of many important chemical systems and materials to be investigated in situ [12]. Although, ATR has been around for several decades, the technique has only recently been exploited as a tool for chemical sensing.

ATR, also known as internal reflection spectroscopy (IRS) or evanescent field spectroscopy (EFS), is a versatile and non-destructive technique.

To reduce confusion, the term ATR will be used exclusively throughout this entire manuscript. When light strikes an interface between two materials of different refractive indices some of the light will be reflected and some will be transmitted. A standing wave normal to the reflecting surface is established in the denser medium and an evanescent non-propagating field in the rarer medium. An optically transparent material of high refractive index, known as the internal reflection element (IRE), is used to ensure that the IR beam propagates through a series of internal reflections at the sample/IRE interface. Although complete internal reflection occurs at the interface, some of the radiation (i.

e., evanescent wave) does penetrate into the sample, noting that the sample is in direct contact with the IRE. Only molecules in Drug_discovery the region of the evanescent wave will undergo interaction with the IR radiation, since the evanescent wave decays exponentially Entinostat in amplitude with distance from the IRE surface into the adjacent sample.