Figure 1 Scheme of the overall methodology to create reliable ort

Figure 1.Scheme of the overall methodology to create reliable orthodontic models.2.1. Digital Mouth Model through Optical ScanningIn this paper, an optical scanner based on an active stereo vision approach (Figure 2) has been assembled in 1|]# order to reconstruct patients’ dentition models including tooth crowns and surrounding gingival tissue [8]. Typically, these models can be either obtained by scanning the inner surface of an impression or the outer surface of a plaster cast. However, not all the surfaces composing a tooth shape can be easily reconstructed by using an optical scanning methodology.

In particular, two circumstances may occur: (1) the space between the proximal surfaces of adjoining teeth (interproximal space) is not accessible to the impression material and therefore cannot be captured; (2) the interproximal space is adequate to be captured by the impression, but not sufficient to avoid optical undercuts during the plaster model scanning.

In the first case, crowns remain incomplete either by scanning the impression or the plaster cast since geometry details of interproximal regions, where adjacent teeth in the same arch are contacting, are missing. The int
Acquiring the spatial distribution information of materials is vital for improving the system efficiency and reducing pollution emission in chemical reactors or multiphase flow units. ECT is a noninvasive imaging technique, which is used to acquire spatial distribution information from inaccessible objects in order to monitor industrial processes.

Owing Batimastat to its distinct advantages such as the non-intrusive sensing, radiation-free nature, high temporal resolution, affordable measuring device and easy implementation, Carfilzomib ECT is proven to be useful in industrial process monitoring, multiphase flow measurements, the visualization of combustion flames in porous media and the identification of two-phase flow patterns [1�C10].ECT technology attempts to reconstruct the permittivity distribution of the cross-section via an appropriate reconstruction algorithm from the capacitance measurement data, where reconstructing high-quality images plays a crucial role in real applications.

Due to the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem, the ��soft-field�� effect and the underdetermined problem in ECT image reconstruction, achieving high-accuracy URL List 1|]# reconstruction of a dynamic object is challenging. The key issue for improving the reconstruction quality has attracted intensive attention, and thus various algorithms, which can be approximately divided into two categories, static and dynamic reconstruction algorithms, had been developed for ECT image reconstruction.

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