“Synechococcus- and Prochlorococcus-specific narB genes that encode for an assimilatory nitrate reductase are found in coastal to open-ocean waters. However, it remains uncertain if these picocyanobacteria assimilate nitrate in situ.
This unknown can potentially be addressed by examining narB mRNA from the environment, but this requires a better understanding of the influence of environmental factors on narB gene transcription. In laboratory experiments with Synechococcus sp. CC9311 cultures exposed to diel light fluctuations and grown on nitrate or ammonium, there was periodic change in narB transcript abundance. This periodicity was broken in cultures subjected to a doubling of irradiance (40–80 μmol photons · m−2 · s−1) learn more during the mid-light period. Therefore, the irradiance level, not circadian rhythm, was the dominant factor controlling
MK0683 mw narB transcription. In nitrate-grown cultures, diel change in narB transcript abundance and nitrate assimilation rate did not correlate; suggesting narB mRNA levels better indicate nitrate assimilation activity than assimilation rate. Growth history also affected narB transcription, as changes in narB mRNA levels in nitrogen-deprived CC9311 cultures following nitrate amendment were distinct from cultures grown solely on nitrate. Environmental sampling for narB transcripts should consider time, irradiance, and the growth status of cells to ecologically interpret narB transcript abundances. “
“The siphonous green algal family Caulerpaceae includes the monotypic genus Caulerpella and the species-rich genus Caulerpa. A molecular phylogeny was inferred from chloroplast tufA and rbcL DNA sequences analyzed together with a five marker dataset of non-caulerpacean siphonous green algae. Six Caulerpaceae lineages were revealed, but relationships between them remained largely unresolved. A Caulerpella clade representing multiple cryptic species was nested within CYTH4 the genus Caulerpa. Therefore, that genus is subsumed and Caulerpa ambigua Okamura is
reinstated. Caulerpa subgenus status is proposed for the six lineages substantiated by morphological characters, viz., three monotypic subgenera Cliftonii, Hedleyi, and Caulerpella, subgenus Araucarioideae exhibiting stolons covered with scale-like appendages, subgenus Charoideae characterized by a verticillate branching mode, and subgenus Caulerpa for a clade regarded as the Caulerpa core clade. The latter subgenus is subdivided in two sections, i.e., Sedoideae for species with pyrenoids and a species-rich section Caulerpa. A single section with the same name is proposed for each of the other five subgenera. In addition, species status is proposed for Caulerpa filicoides var. andamanensis (W.R. Taylor). All Caulerpa species without sequence data were examined (or data were taken from species descriptions) and classified in the new classification scheme. A temporal framework of Caulerpa diversification is provided by calibrating the phylogeny in geological time.