7 to 46) The overall anatomical success rate was 93 18% (41 of 4

7 to 46). The overall anatomical success rate was 93.18% (41 of 44 cases) FRAX597 and the functional success rate was 90.91% (40 of 44).

Conclusions: Surgical procedures for treating female urethral strictures with urethrovaginal fistulas should be based on fistula location, stricture length and vaginal anatomy. A transvaginal

approach might be optimal if the vagina is wide and easily dilated. Pedicle labial flap urethroplasty was a reliable technique for complex strictures.”
“The study explored the association between temperament and character and medication adherence in 76 patients with schizophrenia. Patients were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. First-degree relatives were used as informants on adherence. The patients differed in their adherence based on the effect of gender, as males were found to be less adherent than females. Adherence differed based on novelty seeking. The temperament of the patient should be considered during the assessment of adherence. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Male urethral stricture disease can be recurrent and debilitating. The aim of any intervention is to allow men to return to a normal state of voiding while maintaining a strong quality of life. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to assess for the use of patient reported outcome instruments

after male anterior urethroplasty.

Materials AZD6738 purchase and Methods: A review of PubMed (R) was conducted to identify studies that used a patient reported outcome measure to assess patient outcome after open surgical correction of male strictures. Preference Go6983 mw was given to studies that used an instrument in the preoperative and postoperative setting. However, use of an outcome measure solely in the postoperative setting was also accepted. After article selection, the 8 attributes recommended by the Scientific

Advisory Committee were used to analyze the measurement properties of each patient reported outcome measure.

Results: A total of 15 studies were identified that included an instrument to assess patients with anterior urethral strictures. The studies used differing instruments to assess anterior urethral strictures in a nonuniform manner. Four studies used a lower urinary tract symptoms instrument, 8 used a sexual/ejaculatory dysfunction instrument, and 3 used a lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual/ejaculatory function instrument. There was only 1 report that described the development of a urethroplasty specific patient reported outcome instrument.

Conclusions: Continued effort is necessary to develop a powerful instrument to assess patient reported outcomes after male urethroplasty. The importance of patient perspective is vital to understanding the success of open urethral reconstruction.”
“Glutathione S-transferases are ubiquitous multifunctional enzymes, which play a key role in cellular detoxification.

1038/labinvest 2010 90; published online 10 May 2010″
“We us

1038/labinvest.2010.90; published online 10 May 2010″
“We used magnetoencephalography to investigate the effect of directed attention on sensorimotor mu (8-12 Hz)

response (mu reactivity) to non-painful electrical stimulation of the median nerve in healthy adults. Mu desynchronization in the MCC 950 10-12 Hz bandwidth is typically observed during higher-order cognitive functions including selective attentional processing of sensorimotor information (Pfurtscheller, Neuper, & Krauz, 2000). We found attention-related sex differences in mu reactivity, with females showing (i) prolonged mu desynchrony when attending to somatosensory stimuli, (ii) attentional modulation of the mu response based on whether attention was directed towards or away

from somatosensory stimuli, which was absent in males, and Prexasertib chemical structure (iii) a trend for greater neuronal excitability of the primary somatosensory region suggesting greater physiological responsiveness to sensory stimulation overall. Our findings suggest sex differences in attentional control strategies when processing somatosensory stimuli, whose salience may be greater for females. These sex differences in attention to somatosensory stimuli may help elucidate the well-documented sex biases in pain processing wherein females typically report greater sensitivity to experimental and clinical pain. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Primary cilia are specialized cell surface projections found on most cell types. Involved in several signaling pathways, primary cilia have been Belinostat reported to modulate cell and tissue organization. Although they have been implicated in regulating cartilage and bone growth, little is known about the organization of primary

cilia in the growth plate cartilage and osteochondroma. Osteochondromas are bone tumors formed along the growth plate, and they are caused by mutations in EXT1 or EXT2 genes. In this study, we show the organization of primary cilia within and between the zones of the growth plate and osteochondroma. Using confocal and electron microscopy, we found that in both tissues, primary cilia have a similar formation but a distinct organization. The shortest ciliary length is associated with the proliferative state of the cells, as confirmed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Primary cilia organization in the growth plate showed that non-polarized chondrocytes (resting zone) are becoming polarized (proliferating and hypertrophic zones), orienting the primary cilia parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bone. The alignment of primary cilia forms one virtual axis that crosses the center of the columns of chondrocytes reflecting the polarity axis of the growth plate. We also show that primary cilia in osteochondromas are found randomly located on the cell surface. Strikingly, the growth plate-like polarity was retained in sub-populations of osteochondroma cells that were organized into small columns.

All rights reserved “
“Adynamic bone in patients with chroni

All rights reserved.”
“Adynamic bone in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a clinical concern because of its potential increased risk for fracture and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prevalence rates for adynamic bone are reportedly increased, although the variance for its prevalence and incidence is large. Differences in its prevalence are largely attributed to classification and population differences, the latter of

which constitutes divergent groups of elderly patients having diabetes and other comorbidities that are prone to low bone formation. Most patients have vitamin D deficiency and the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, invariably decreases to very low levels during CKD progression. Fortunately, therapy with vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs) appears to be useful in preventing bone loss, in part, by its effect to stimulate bone formation and in

decreasing Pexidartinib supplier CVD morbidity, and should be considered as essential therapy regardless of bone turnover status. Future studies will depend on assessing cardiovascular outcomes to determine whether the risk/ reward profile for complications related to VDRA and CKD is tolerable.”
“Perinatal estrogens LY2090314 concentration increase the number of vasopressin-expressing cells and the density of vasopressin-immunoreactive fibers observed in adult male rodents. The mechanism of action of estrogens on sexual differentiation of the extra-hypothalamic vasopressin system is unknown. We hypothesized that the sexually dimorphic expression of progestin receptors (PRs) during development would masculinize vasopressin expression in mice. We compared the number of vasopressin-expressing cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala and the density of vasopressin-immunoreactive fibers in several brain regions of male and female wild type Adenosine triphosphate and PRKO mice using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. As expected, sex

differences in vasopressin cell number were observed in the BNST and medial amygdaloid nucleus. Vasopressin-immunoreactive fiber density was sexually dimorphic in the lateral septum, lateral habenular nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, and mediodorsal thalamus. Sex differences were also observed in the principal nucleus of the BNST and medial preoptic area but not in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, which are thought to receive vasopressin innervation from the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Deletion of PRs did not alter the sex difference in vasopressin mRNA expression and vasopressin fiber immunoreactivity in any area examined. However, deletion of PRs increased the density of vasopressin fiber immunoreactivity in the lateral habenular nucleus. Our data suggest that PRs modulate vasopressin levels, but not sexual differentiation of vasopressin innervation in mice. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Replacement of activated vitamin D has been the cornerstone of therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT).

Their microcephaly with grossly preserved macroscopic organizatio

Their microcephaly with grossly preserved macroscopic organization of the brain is a consequence of a reduced brain volume, which is evident particularly within the cerebral cortex and thus results to a large part from a reduction of grey matter. Some patients with MCPH further provide evidence of neuronal heterotopias, polymicrogyria see more or cortical dysplasia suggesting

an associated neuronal migration defect. Genetic causes of MCPH subtypes 1-7 include mutations in genes encoding microcephalin, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory associated protein 2 (CDK5RAP2), abnormal spindle-like, microcephaly associated protein (ASPM), centromeric protein J (CENPJ), and SCL/TAL1-interrupting locus (STIL) as well as linkage to the two loci 19q13.1-13.2 and 15q15-q21. Here, we provide a timely overview of current knowledge on mechanisms leading to microcephaly in humans with MCPH and abnormalities in cell division/cell survival in corresponding animal models. Understanding the pathomechanisms leading to MCPH is of high importance not only for our understanding of physiologic brain development (particularly of cortex formation), but also for that of trends in mammalian evolution Daporinad with a massive increase in size of the cerebral cortex in primates, of microcephalies of other etiologies

including environmentally induced microcephalies, and of cancer formation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

Circulating tumor cells are malignant cells in peripheral blood that originate from primary tumors or metastatic sites. The heterogeneous natural history and propensity for recurrence in prostate, bladder and kidney cancers are well suited for improved individualization of care using circulating tumor cells. The potential clinical applications of circulating Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor tumor cells include early diagnosis, disease prediction and prognosis, and selection of appropriate therapies.

Materials and Methods: The PubMed (R) and Web of Science (R) databases were searched using the key words circulating tumor cells, CTC, prostate, kidney, bladder, renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma. Relevant articles and references from 1994 to 2011 were reviewed for data on the detection and significance of circulating tumor cells in genitourinary cancer.

Results: Technical challenges have previously limited the widespread introduction of circulating tumor cell detection in routine clinical care. Recently novel platforms were introduced to detect these cells that offer the promise of overcoming these limitations. We reviewed the current state of circulating tumor cell capture technologies and their clinical applications for genitourinary cancers.

Conclusions: In genitourinary cancer circulating tumor cell enumeration has been useful for prognosis in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer.

By using a combination of Purkinje cell antigenic markers and aff

By using a combination of Purkinje cell antigenic markers and afferent tracing, four transverse zones have been identified: the anterior zone (AZ: similar to lobules I-V), the central zone (CZ: similar to lobules VI-VII), the posterior zone (PZ: similar to lobules VIII-dorsal IX) and the nodular zone (NZ: similar to ventral lobule IX+lobule X). Neurofilament-associated antigen (NAA) is an epitope

recognized by a monoclonal antibody, which is expressed click here strongly in association with neurofilaments. During perinatal cerebellar development, anti-NAA immunocytochemistry reveals novel features of cerebellar organization. In particular, the CZ is reproducibly subdivided into anterior and posterior components. Between embryonic day 17 and postnatal day 7 NAA immunoreactivity is expressed selectively by a parallel fiber bundle that is restricted to lobule VII, thereby distinguishing the CZ anterior (lobules VIa, b) from the CZ posterior (lobule VII). The novel restriction boundary at lobule VII/VIII, which is also reflected in the morphology of the external granular www.selleckchem.com/products/GDC-0941.html layer and aligns with a gap in the developing Purkinje cell layer, precedes

the morphological appearance of the posterior superior fissure between lobules VIb and VII. In addition, afferent axons to the CZ terminate in an array of parasagittal stripes that is probably a specific climbing fiber projection. Thus, the transverse zone architecture of the mouse cerebellum is more complex than had previously been appreciated. (C) 2008 Proteases inhibitor IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A method of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was employed to develop a rapid and simple detection system for porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). The amplification could be finished in 60 min under isothermal condition at 64 degrees C by employing a set of four primers targeting the cap gene of PCV2. The LAMP assay showed higher sensitivity

than the conventional PCR, with a detection limit of five copies per tube of purified PCV2 genomic DNA. No cross-reactivity was observed from the samples of other related viruses including porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The detection rate of PCV2 LAMP for 86 clinical samples was 96.5% and appeared greater than that of the PCR method. The LAMP assay reported can provide a rapid yet simple test of PCV2 suitable for laboratory diagnosis and pen-side detection due to ease of operation and the requirement of only a regular water bath or heat block for the reaction. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Visinin-like protein-1 (VILIP-1) belongs to the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family of EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins which are involved in a variety of Ca2+-dependent signal transduction processes in neurons.

Their associations with brain sexual differentiation are reviewed

Their associations with brain sexual differentiation are reviewed and further questions noted. Both Buparlisib cost EDCs produce a wider spectrum of health effects, however, than would be extrapolated simply from their properties as anti-androgens and estrogens. Obesity is one example. Further complicating their assessment as health risks are questions about nonmonotonic dose-response functions and about transgenerational effects incurred via epigenetic mechanisms. All these facets of endocrine disruption are

pieces of a puzzle that challenge neurotoxicologists for solutions. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Intestinal calcium absorption is thought to have a critical role in nephrolithiasis. However, to our knowledge no study has directly assessed this association. Therefore,

we explored the relationship among intestinal fractional calcium absorption, calcium intake and nephrolithiasis.

Materials and Methods: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures is a prospective cohort of 9,704 postmenopausal women recruited from population based listings in 1986 and followed for more than 20 years. Secondary analyses were performed of 7,982 women who reported their history of nephrolithiasis, of which 5,452 (68%) underwent an oral radioactive Verubecestat calcium assay (45Ca). The impact of dietary and supplemental calcium on intestinal fractional calcium absorption was evaluated, and factors independently associated with nephrolithiasis were determined.

Results: Fractional calcium absorption decreased with

increased calcium intake, with no difference between dietary and supplemental calcium. Fractional calcium absorption was higher in women with a nephrolithiasis history among all calcium intake groups. Increased dietary calcium intake reduced the likelihood of nephrolithiasis by 45% to 54% (p = 0.03). Women with a history Lonafarnib datasheet of nephrolithiasis were less likely to supplement calcium (p = 0.001). In adjusted analyses women who supplemented calcium were 21% to 38% less likely to have a nephrolithiasis history (p = 0.007) and there was a 24% increased risk of kidney stones for each 10% increase in fractional calcium absorption (p = 0.008).

Conclusions: Fractional calcium absorption is higher in women with a history of nephrolithiasis. Higher intestinal fractional calcium absorption is associated with a greater risk of historical nephrolithiasis. Dietary and supplemental calcium decrease fractional calcium absorption, and may protect against nephrolithiasis.”
“Oscillatory brain activities have been traditionally studied in the context of how oscillations at a single frequency recorded from a single area could reveal functional insights. Recent advances in methodology used in signal analysis have revealed that cross-frequency coupling, within or between functional related areas, is more informative in determining the possible roles played by brain oscillations.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old woman was hospitalized owing

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old woman was hospitalized owing

to sudden onset of severe AZD6094 purchase back pain with discomfort in the lower extremities. Two days later, she again experienced sudden back pain accompanied by paraparesis and sphincter disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spinal cord showed 2 intradural masses of heterogeneous intensity at the levels of T-8 and T-10, spinal infarction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Spinal angiography revealed a “”pearls and strings”" aspect of a radiculomedullary artery arising from the left T-11 and a fusiform aneurysm of a radiculopial artery arising from the left T-8. Infectious and immunological evaluations failed to show any anomaly. Go6983 Spontaneous dissections were suspected. Conservative treatment was proposed, and the patient’s clinical course remained uneventful. Followup magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography performed 2 months after onset showed disappearance of both arterial lesions.

CONCLUSION: Arterial dissections of spinal radicular arteries can resolve spontaneously and be managed conservatively. We propose a classification of the pathogenesis of spinal arterial aneurysm to clarify appropriate treatment strategies by a literature review.”
“Background. Bipolar

disorder and schizophrenia have both been associated with deficits in extra-dimensional set shifting (EDS). Deficits in reversal learning (RL) have also been shown in schizophrenia but not in bipolar disorder. This study sought to assess the specificity of these findings in a direct comparison of clinically stable patients with each disorder.

Method. The intra-dimensional/extra-dimensional (IDED) set-shifting task, part of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), was administered to 30 patients with schizophrenia, 47 with bipolar

disorder and a group of 44 unaffected controls. EDS and RL errors were compared between the groups and related to measures of current and past psychiatric symptoms and medication.

Results. Both Mizoribine cost groups of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder made more EDS and RL errors than controls. Neither measure separated the two disorders, even when the analysis was restricted to euthymic patients. No relationship was found with prescribed medication.

Conclusions. Patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia show common deficits in EDS and RL. These deficits do not seem to be attributable to current symptoms and are consistent with disrupted networks involving the ventral prefrontal cortex.”
“Background. Suicide tends to concentrate in disadvantaged neighborhoods, and neighborhood disadvantage is associated with many important risk factors for youth suicide.

We report here the discovery of novel viral sequences in human se

We report here the discovery of novel viral sequences in human serum and sewage which are clearly related to the asfarvirus family but highly divergent from ASFV. Detection of these sequences suggests that greater genetic diversity may exist among asfarviruses than previously thought and raises the

possibility that human infection by asfarviruses may occur.”
“We recently developed a novel targeting selleckchem Sindbis virus envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vector, 2.2ZZ, which acquires specific transduction capacity by antibody conjugation and binding with specific antigens on the surface of targeted cells. Here we characterize the virological properties of this vector by examining its targeting to CD4 antigen. Our results show that entry is dependent on CD4 cell surface density and occurs via the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of infection by a new viral vector with combined properties of Sindbis virus and lentiviruses and infectivity conferred Nepicastat cell line by monoclonal antibody-ligand interactions.”
“The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vpu enhances virus particle

release by counteracting a host factor that retains virions at the surfaces of infected cells. It was recently demonstrated that cellular protein BST-2/CD317/Tetherin restricts HIV-1 release in a Vpu-dependent manner. Calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand (CAML) was also proposed to be involved in this process. We investigated whether CAML is involved in cell surface expression of Tetherin. Here, we show that CAML overexpression in

permissive Cos-7 cells or CAML depletion in restrictive HeLa cells has no effect on HIV-1 release or on Tetherin surface expression, indicating that CAML is not required for Tetherin-mediated restriction of HIV-1 release.”
“Murine norovirus (MNV) is a highly infectious but generally nonpathogenic agent that is commonly found in research mouse colonies in both North America and Europe. In the present study, the effects of acute and chronic infections with MNV on immune responses and recovery from concurrent Friend virus (FV) infections were investigated. No significant differences in T-cell or NK-cell responses, FV-neutralizing antibody Danusertib concentration responses, or long-term recovery from FV infection were observed. We conclude that concurrent MNV infections had no major impacts on FV infections.”
“Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILR alpha) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Its binding to a cellular ligand, CD99, depends on the presence of sialylated O-linked glycans on CD99. Glycoprotein B (gB) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) binds to PILR alpha, and this association is involved in HSV-1 infection.

An analysis of molecular response at 12 months was planned A sup

An analysis of molecular response at 12 months was planned. A superior molecular response was defined as a decrease in the ratio of transcripts of the tyrosine kinase

gene BCR-ABL ZD1839 mw to transcripts of ABL of 0.01% or less, corresponding to a reduction of 4 log(sub 10) units or more from the baseline level, as assessed by means of a real-time quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay.

Results: At 12 months, the rates of cytogenetic response were similar among the four groups. The rate of a superior molecular response was significantly higher among patients receiving imatinib and peginterferon alfa-2a (30%) than among patients receiving 400 mg of imatinib alone (14%) (P=0.001). The rate was significantly higher among patients treated for more than 12 months than among

those treated for 12 months or less. Gastrointestinal events were more frequent among patients receiving cytarabine, whereas rash and depression were more frequent among patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2a.

Conclusions: As compared with other treatments, the addition of peginterferon alfa-2a to imatinib therapy resulted in significantly higher rates of molecular response in patients with chronic-phase CML. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00219739.)

N Engl J Med 2010;363:2511-21.”
“Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 gene polymorphism and the short-term risk of postoperative Temsirolimus solubility dmso cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease receiving elective surgery and also to evaluate the endothelial function.

Methods and results. We determined preoperatively IL-6 gene polymorphism (-174

G/C and nt565 G/A), IL-10 polymorphism (-1082G/A, -819C/T, -592C/A), and brachial artery vasodilatation using ultrasound in 48 patients undergoing vascular surgery. Eight patients (16.7%) developed over a period of 30 days cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke). Cardiovascular events were more frequent in the subgroups of patients with genotypes associated with high serum levels of IL-6: -174CC (57.14% vs 12.5% for -174GC genotype and 8% for -174GG, P = .007) and nt565AA (50% vs 17.6% for nt565GA genotype and 8% for nt565GG genotype, P BMS-777607 research buy = .021) and in subgroups with haplotypes associated with low serum levels of IL-10: ATA (57.14% vs 14.8% for haplotype ACC and 7.4% for GCC, GCA, GTA, GTC haplotypes, P = .004). Flow-mediated dilatation was significantly lower in patients with IL-6 -174CC genotype (7.05% +/- 1.49% vs 8.41% +/- 1.9% for IL-6 -174GC and 9.42% +/- 2.46% for IL-6 -174GG, P = .009) and IL-6 nt565AA genotype (7.14 +/- 1.61% vs 8.49% +/- 1.91% for IL-6 nt565GA and 9.42% 2.46% for IL-6 nt565GG, P = .018) and in patients with IL-10ATA haplotype (6.45% +/- 0.57% vs 9.13% +/- 2.

In contrast, we hypothesized structural similarities between CAD

In contrast, we hypothesized structural similarities between CAD + MDD and MDD groups, both involving depression-related circuitry. We obtained structural magnetic resonance imaging scans from age-matched consenting subjects (CAD + MDD, n = 12: CAD, n = 12: MDD, n = 19: CTRL, n = 17) and performed a region of interest analysis. We found decreased grey matter volumes in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus and right insula in CAD + MDD versus CTRL subjects and decreased Nirogacestat research buy grey matter volumes in the bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal regions in CAD + MDD versus CAD subjects. We found

grey matter reductions in the right orbitofrontal cortex of CAD + MDD versus MDD subjects, and reductions in right insula of CAD versus CRTL subjects. Our results support that the network of brain regions involved in emotion regulation may be relevant to the relationship between CAD and MDD. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and

respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), characterized by a discontinuous 30-amino-acid check details deletion in its Nsp2-coding region, has been emerging in China since 2006. Here, we report the complete genomic sequence of two novel Chinese virulent PRRSV variants with additional NSP2-gene deletions, which will help us understand the molecular and evolutionary characteristics of PRRSV in Asia.”
“Movement disturbances are often overlooked consequences of chronic cocaine abuse. The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate sensorimotor performance in chronic

cocaine users and characterize changes in brain activity among movement-related regions of interest (ROIs) in these users. Functional magnetic to resonance imaging data were collected from 14 chronic cocaine users and 15 age- and gender-matched controls. All participants performed a sequential finger-tapping task with their dominant, right hand interleaved with blocks of rest. For each participant, percent signal change from rest was calculated for seven movement-related ROIs in both the left and right hemisphere. Cocaine users had significantly longer reaction times and higher error rates than controls. Whereas the controls used a left-sided network of motor-related brain areas to perform the task, cocaine users activated a less lateralized pattern of brain activity. Users had significantly more activity in the ipsilateral (right) motor and premotor cortical areas, anterior cingulate cortex and the putamen than controls. These data demonstrate that, in addition to the cognitive and affective consequences of chronic cocaine abuse, there are also pronounced alterations in sensorimotor control in these individuals, which are associated with functional alterations throughout movement-related neural networks. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.