Because the failure was dominated by both filler decohesion and p

Because the failure was dominated by both filler decohesion and polymeric chain rupture, the strength was not influenced significantly by the amount of PAn-g-SGFs. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 934-941, 2009″
“In vitro anti-rotavirus activity SCH 900776 price of Alpinia katsumadai (AK) extracts were evaluated against bovine G8P[7] and porcine G5P[7] rotaviruses in two different assay strategies, a mixed treatment assay and a post treatment assay. In the mixed treatment assay, six AK extracts [AK-1 (EtOH extract), AK-3 (H2O layer), AK-5 (40% methanol fraction), and AK-9-11 (H2O extract, polysaccharide fraction, supernatant fraction)]

exhibited inhibitory activities against G5P[7] rotavirus GSK621 research buy with the EC50 values ranging from 0.7 +/- 0.4 to 33.7 +/- 6.5 mu g/mL. Extracts AK-1, AK-3, and AK-5 inhibited rotavirus infection against G8P[7] rotavirus, the with EC50 values of 8.4 +/- 2.2 mu g/mL, 6.5 +/- 0.8 mu g/mL and 8.4 +/- 5.0 mu g/mL, respectively. By hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, six AK extracts completely inhibited viral adsorption onto human RBCs in both strains

of rotaviruses at less than 11 mu g/mL. However, in the post treatment assay, there was no anti activity shown against both strains of rotaviruses. As a result, six AK extracts were attributed mainly to having a strong interaction with

hemagglutinin protein on the outer surface of rotavirus, resulting to blockage of viral adsorption. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“A systematic study of the magnetotransport behavior of multilayer rings for elliptical and rectangular shapes has been performed as a function of temperature. We observed that due to the increase in energy barrier heights with decreasing GS-9973 molecular weight temperature, there is a dramatic increase in the switching field distribution for both the ring shapes. In particular, for the rectangular rings, the switching field is very sensitive to temperature variations due to decreased thermal excitations and therefore lead to the formation of intermediate horseshoe state. This intermediate metastable state was thermally not favored at room temperature. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3174200]“
“In the tire industry, the preparation of silica-filled compounds requires relatively complicated compounding operations, which involve several dumping, cooling, and remixing steps, to eventually obtain quality final batches. The various and complex sets of events that take place along the mixing tine remain, however, poorly understood. The objectives of this study, reported in two companion articles, were to deepen the understanding of silica-silane compounding operations.

3%, which was highly associated with improvement in absolute ODI

3%, which was highly associated with improvement in absolute ODI score (P = 0.04). This haplotype frequency reflects the existence of both heterozygous and homozygous individuals in the study population.

The presence of 1 unit of this haplotype was associated with an improvement in postoperative ODI score of 15.34 relative to the absence of this haplotype (P = 0.04).

Conclusion. Preliminary results from this pilot genetic study of patients undergoing surgery for DDD suggests that the T allele at rs998259 of GCH1 may be associated with improved outcomes 1 year following surgery.”
“Previously described neurologic damage induced by immunosuppressive AZD6244 chemical structure treatments includes transient or reversible central nervous system involvement. We describe a 57-year-old man who underwent liver

transplantation and was started on immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus (FK506). Six months later, he started complaining of a progressive motor and sensory impairment β-Nicotinamide nmr of the left side, together with cognitive impairment. Brain MRI showed an enlarging lesion of the white matter with peripheral contrast enhancement. PET study indicated severe hypometabolism in the right hemisphere and spectroscopic MRI showed a peak of choline and relative reduction of other metabolites. Findings of CSF examinations and cultures, serology, and molecular techniques were normal. Tacrolimus treatment was stopped. A cerebral biopsy of the lesion showed a sub acute necrotizing process. In the following months, cognitive status of the patient tended to improve although he remained hemiplegic, while serial MRI Nutlin-3a cost confirmed the tendency to the recovery of the lesion that was still present 1 year after. The present observation describes a progressive encephalopathy associated with

immune suppression with an unusual feature and permanent brain damage.”
“Methamphetamine (METH) abuse and addiction present a major problem in the United States and globally. Oxidative stress associated with exposure to METH mediates to the large extent METH-evoked neurotoxicity. While there are currently no medications approved for treating METH addiction, its pharmacology provides opportunities for potential pharmacotherapeutic adjuncts to behavioral therapy in the treatment of METH addiction. Opioid receptor agonists can modulate the activity of dopamine neurons and could, therefore, modify the pharmacodynamic effects of METH in the dopaminergic system. Efficacy of the adjunctive medication with buprenorphine has been demonstrated in the treatment of cocaine addiction extending beyond opiate addiction. We investigated the interactions of morphine (10 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (0.01 and 10 mg/kg) with METH (2 mg/kg) affecting striatal dopaminergic transmission.

To enhance solubility a drug inclusion complex with cyclodextrin

To enhance solubility a drug inclusion complex with cyclodextrin was developed using a spray-drying process. The powder complex characterized using DSC, XRPD, FT-IR, and (1)H NMR techniques confirmed interaction of cyclodextrin

with the CA indicating formation BLZ945 of a true complex wherein the drug is encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity. The saturation solubility and dissolution kinetics of drug complex evaluated in a discriminating medium showed significantly higher solubility and faster dissolution as compared to a physical mixture or powder blend comprising of drug and cyclodextrin. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in Wistar rats indicated a significant increase in the rate and extent of absorption for the drug complex as compared to a nanoparticulate dispersion that was used as the positive control. selleck chemicals llc Pharmacological activity following peroral administration of drug

complex in athymic nude mice with implanted tumors revealed that the tumor inhibition activity was equivalent to commercially available intravenous (IV) formulation with comparable safety profile. These studies demonstrated for the first instance feasibility of developing a safe and efficacious peroral formulation for a sparingly soluble camptothecin analog that may provide another viable, patient compliant, and cost effective option for the treatment of solid tumors.”
“A copolymer (2,4-DHBPOF) GDC-0973 concentration synthesized by the condensation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and oxamide with formaldehyde in the presence of acid catalyst with varying the molar proportions of the reacting monomer. Composition of the copolymer has been determined by elemental analysis. The copolymer has been characterized by UV-visible, FTIR, and H-1 NMR spectroscopy. The morphology of synthesized copolymer was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The activation energy

(E-a) and thermal stability calculated by using Sharp-Wentworth, Freeman-Carroll, and Freidman’s method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data were analyzed to estimate the characteristic thermal parameters. Freeman-Carroll and Sharp Wentworth methods have been used to calculate activation energy and thermal stability. The activation energy (E-a) calculated by using the Sharp-Wentworth has been found to be in good agreement with that calculated by Freeman-Carroll method. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change (Delta F), entropy change (Delta S), apparent entropy change (S*), and frequency factor (Z) have also been evaluated based on the data of Freeman-Carroll method. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 2181-2188, 2011″
“Poorly water-soluble drugs such as cefpodoxime proxetil (400 mu g/ml) offer a challenging problem in drug formulation as poor solubility is generally associated with poor dissolution characteristics and thus poor oral bioavailability.

The following risk factors were studied: family history

o

The following risk factors were studied: family history

of SNHL, consanguinity, low birth weight, prematurity, cranio-facial CH5424802 inhibitor abnormality and syndromes associated to SNHL, respiratory distress, intensive care in excess of 5 days (NICU), pregnant maternal diseases, perinatal sepsis or meningitis, hyperbilirubinemia, ototoxic drugs administration.

Results: Forty-seven infants (11.41%) were diagnosed with SNHL; median corrected age at final audiological diagnosis was 12 weeks. SNHL resulted moderate in 44.68%, severe in 10.64% and profound in 21 cases with a significant difference in family history and NICU infants (p < 0.0001). As the number of coexisting risk factors increases, the percentage value of SNHL in infants (chi(2) = 12.31, p = 0.01, r(2) = 0.98) and the degree of hearing loss (chi(2) = 13.40, p = 0.0095, r = 0.92) also increase. The study of single TEOAE and combined TEOAE/ABR showed a statistical difference (chi(2) = 14.89, p < 0.001) with a low concordance value (kappa = 0.87) confirming the importance of combined techniques for NICU group (kappa = 0.86) where four cases (0.97%) of auditory

neuropathy were diagnosed.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the ACY-1215 manufacturer necessity to implement a neonatal hearing screening program in Western Sicily because of the high percentage of SNHL in infants at risk. Family history of HL is an independent significant risk factor for SNHL easily diagnosed through single TEOAE technique. Combined TEOAE/ABR is the gold standard for NICU babies which are at risk for auditory neuropathy. Coexisting risk factors are an additional risk factor for HL. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: To implement a comprehensive service to screen for metabolic syndrome, assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, determine the 10-year risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD), and measure the effectiveness of patient education on lifestyle modifications.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Community pharmacy in Pennsylvania

between February 2006 and August 2007. Patients: 239 patients 18 years of age or older with no history of CHD.

Intervention: Participating patients were screened for 4EGI-1 metabolic syndrome, Framingham risk assessment, and medication use. Test results were discussed and patients were educated on metabolic syndrome and lifestyle recommendations. A follow-up survey was administered.

Main outcome measures: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population, Framingham risk assessment of those with metabolic syndrome, proportion of patients with self-reported lifestyle modifications.

Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study population was 36%. The Framingham risk assessment of patients with metabolic syndrome and no known history of diabetes revealed that 65.3% were at low risk, 26.4% were at moderate risk, and 8.3% were at high risk for CHD.

This case-control study was done at an emergency medical center o

This case-control study was done at an emergency medical center of a university hospital. 52 patients with neurological symptoms

were enrolled (28 Ischemic Stroke Group and 24 Non-Stroke Group). In the ROC analysis of IMA index to diagnose stroke, area under the curve (AUC) was 0.990 (cutoff value 91.4; 95% CI: 0.970-1.000; sensitivity: 95.8%; specificity: 96.4%). The AUC for IMA value was 0.928 (cutoff value 98 U/ml; 95% CI: 0.857-0.999; sensitivity: 87.5%; specificity: 89.3%). The difference between progression (n = 12) and non-progression group (n = 16) in IMA and IMA index were statistically insignificant (p > 0.01). IMA index was more sensitive than conventional IMA value as diagnostic biomarker of stroke, however, arguable as a predictive biomarker for progression of ischemic stroke.”
“We report

the effects of depolarization on the excitonic Rabi oscillation in SRT2104 GaAs thin films measured in the 2k(1) – k(2) direction of a degenerate four-wave-mixing signal. The Rabi frequency, measured by changing the k(2) pulse intensity, varies with the k(1) pulse intensity; the Rabi frequency decreases with an increase in the k(1) power. This decrease originates from the reduction in the field intensity of the k(2) pulse, which consists of the local field and depolarization terms. Cancellation of the k(2) field due to depolarization leads YH25448 concentration to the decrease in the Rabi frequency. (C) FK228 in vitro 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3624667]“
“We present a case of pneumococcal meningitis complicated by leukoencephalopathy. Possible pathogenic mechanisms, a diagnostic pitfall, and optimal treatment options are discussed.”
“The effects of selective distribution of carbon black (CB) particles and spatial confinement on the crystallization behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/Polystyrene (PS)/CB composite were studied.

The crystallization behaviors and the morphologies of the composite were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light microscope (PLM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated the typical cocontinuous structure appeared in PP/PS/CB (55/45/1) composite, and CB particles are distributed in PS phase, which follows the theory of interfacial tension. Compared with PP/CB composite, the nucleation effect of CB particles on the crystallization process of PP in PP/PS/CB was greatly weakened by selective distribution. Moreover, the morphologies of cocontinuous structure, which means that the crystallization process of PP had to take place in the micron-scale spatial confinement formed by continuous PS phase, greatly influenced the crystallization behavior of PP in PP/PS/CB composite.

Detailed information on selected risk factors was obtained from d

Detailed information on selected risk factors was obtained from direct measurement (Body Mass Index (BMI)), self-complete questionnaires (excessive use of hands, previous hand injury) and

medical record review (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes). Hand pain and disability were self-reported at baseline and 3-year follow-up using Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN).

Results: Crude population prevalence estimates for symptomatic hand OA subsets in the adult population aged 50 years and over were: thumb base OA (22.4%), nodal interphalangeal joint (IPJ) OA (15.5%), generalised hand OA (10.4%), non-nodal IPJ OA (4.9%), erosive OA (1.0%). Apart from thumb base OA, there was considerable overlap between the subsets. Erosive OA appeared

the BMS-345541 cell line most distinctive with the highest female: male ratio, and the most disability at baseline and 3-years. A higher frequency of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and metabolic syndrome was observed in this subset.

Conclusion: Overlap in the occurrence of hand OA subsets poses conceptual and practical challenges to the pursuit of distinct phenotypes. Erosive OA may nevertheless provide particular insight into the role Selleck YM155 of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in the pathogenesis of OA. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Osteoarthritis Research Society International.”
“Purpose: To evaluate a real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) as a tool to select candidates for coronary revascularization among patients buy C59 Wnt with ESRD and to assess the rate of revascularization and

mortality.

Material/Methods: 58 ESRD patients were screened for CAD using MCE. We analyzed the rate of coronary revascularization during 3-year follow-up. Patients with and without perfusion disturbances on MCE were compared.

Results: CAD was found in 46.2% patients out of 39 who underwent coronary angiography. 11 (39.3%) patients out of 28 from the group with perfusion defects on MCE underwent revascularization procedure (21.4% – PCI, 17.9% – CABG). No one from the group without perfusion defects had revascularization procedure. Perfusion defect (OR 1.37 CI 1.37-1.86, p=0.022) was related to revascularization in multivariant analysis (OR 12.87, CI 1.86-89.21, p=0.025). There was no difference in mortality between the group which underwent invasive procedures and treated conservatively (p=0.6643). In ROC analysis defects on MCE and CAD on angiography were equally good in anticipating combined end-point (AUC 0.716, CI 95% 0.544-0.851 and AUC 0.747, CI 95% 0.577-0.875, p=0.701) and death (AUC 0.752, CI 95% 0.582-0.878 and AUC 0.729, CI 95% 0.558-0.861, p=0.805).

Conclusions: Our results indicate that MCE is a safe and uncomplicated method which may help along with other methods to select candidates for coronary revascularization among ESRD patients.

(C) 2011 Phytochemical

Society of Europe Published by El

(C) 2011 Phytochemical

Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Wastewater has proved to be a significant source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the environment. Seventeen congeners from tri- to deca-BDEs were determined to characterize the occurrence, fate, and transport of PBDEs in two sewage treatment plants in the Pearl River Delta, South China. The PBDE concentrations varied substantially from 13.3 to 2496.4 ng L(-1) in the raw wastewater, depending on selleckchem the wastewater types and contents of the suspended particulate matter (SPM). The concentrations declined to 0.9 to 4.4 ng L(-1) in the treated effluent and were closely associated with SPM contents. BDE-209 was the predominant congener in the wastewater and sewage sludge. Most of PBDEs might have ended up in the sewage sludge, with <4.7% being CCI-779 molecular weight discharged with the treated effluent. The results revealed that PBDEs were not significantly degraded by biological treatment and chlorination

in the STPs. An annual release of PBDEs was estimated at 2280 kg/year through wastewater from the Pearl River Delta. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a multifaceted disease and continues to be the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infants. The purpose of the review is to highlight important recent developments regarding CHI.

Recent findings

Several recent studies have highlighted the advances in medical genetics, imaging techniques, histological variety, and surgical decision making regarding CHI. The advancements have resulted in the ability to often distinguish between diffuse and focal disease, thus allowing a more focused medical and surgical approach to the patient. When genetic information is combined with advanced imaging and intraoperative histological analysis, surgical results have improved. Despite medical and surgical advancements, recent studies also reveal the need for better medical options for patients and that aggressive surgery may lead to the onset of

diabetes.

Summary

Current advances have improved the overall care of the patient with CHI, although there are still improvements to be achieved. The ability to apply these advancements is best accomplished with an PR-171 mw experienced team consisting of geneticists, radiologists, endocrinologists, pathologists, and surgeons. Utilizing a team approach results in a complete evaluation and allows a customized care plan for each patient.”
“The essential oils from aerial parts of nine populations of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS and C-13 NMR. A total of 80 constituents, mainly oxygenated monoterpenes, were identified representing from 79.0 to 95.2% of the total oils which showed different composition patterns.

The expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin was assessed with i

The expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin was assessed with immunohistochemistry.

Results: In the colon the microvilli and their glycocalyx shortened and reduced in

density the most in necrotizing pancreatitis. In necrotizing pancreatitis JNJ-26481585 research buy adherens and tight junctions were occasionally open in the colon but rarely in the jejunum. Mitochondria in the colon epithelial cells were degenerated in necrotizing pancreatitis, swollen in edematous pancreatitis, and remained intact in the control case. In necrotizing pancreatitis, capillaries of the colon showed a broken endothelial lining with narrow lumens. The expression of E-cadherin immunoreactivity showed a trend toward this website a decrease in the colon in both edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis.

Conclusion: Ultrastructural abnormalities in acute pancreatitis appear early in the colon, where they seem to be more damaging than in jejunum. Epithelial cell

damage seems to include mitochondrial injury and an opening of tight and adherens junctions, which are more pronounced in necrotizing pancreatitis. Damage is seen in the mucosal and mesenteric endothelial cells.”
“Background: Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) with calcitriol is often limited by the occurrence of hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and risk of vascular calcifications. Paricalcitol, a vitamin D analogue with lower calcemic and phosphatemic effects, is successfully utilized in dialysis patients, although some uncertainty remains about the optimal dosage. Amelioration of survival in hemodialysis patients has been correlated to the use of calcitriol and, even better, paricalcitol.

Methods: We evaluated 1-year treatment with paricalcitol in 12 chronic

hemodialysis patients with moderate-severe SHPT previously treated with intravenous calcitriol. Starting dose of paricalcitol was calculated according to the severity of the disease by the formula: LOXO-101 clinical trial intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) / 80, and successive titration performed according to the NKF-DOQI guidelines.

Results: Paricalcitol caused a rapid decrease in serum levels of iPTH with a consistent percentage of values falling below 150 pg/mL in the first months of treatment. Although the occurrence of hypercalcemia was not significantly different between treatment with calcitriol and paricalcitol, a slight but significant increase in mean calcium levels was observed during paricalcitol treatment. A significant amelioration of erythropoiesis and acid-base balance was observed during paricalcitol treatment.

Conclusions: Paricalcitol efficiently suppresses PTH secretion in dialysis patients with SHPT, with a moderate calcemic, but not a phosphatemic, effect. The dose of paricalcitol calculated as iPTH/80 may cause acute lowering of bone turnover.

The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-p

The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible,

references to relevant empirical studies and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor clinical trial methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and metaanalyses.”
“RAFT polymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) has been investigated in the presence of chain transfer agent (CTA), i.e., prop-2-ynyl morpholine-4-carbodithioate (PMDC). The influence of reaction parameters such as monomer concentration [NVP], molar ratio of [CTA]/[AIBN, i.e., 2,2'-azobis (2-methylpropionitrile)] and [NVP]/[CTA], and

temperature have been studied with regard to time and conversion limit. This study evidences the parameters leading to an excellent control of molecular weight and molar mass dispersity. NVP has been polymerized by maintaining molar ratio [NVP]: [PMDC]: [AIBN] = 100 : 1 : 0.2. Kinetics of the reaction was strongly influenced by both temperature and [CTA]/[AIBN] ratio and to a lesser extent by monomer concentration. AZD6244 chemical structure HM781-36B The activation energy (Ea = 31.02

kJ mol-1) and enthalpy of activation (?H= 28.29 kJ mol-1) was in a good agreement to each other. The negative entropy of activation (?S = -210.16 J mol-1K-1) shows that the movement of reactants are highly restricted at transition state during polymerization. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011″
“Study Design. A cadaveric biomechanical study.

Objective. To investigate the biomechanical behavior of the cervical spine after cervical total disc replacement (TDR) adjacent to a fusion as compared to a two-level fusion.

Summary of Background Data. There are concerns regarding the biomechanical effects of cervical fusion on the mobile motion segments. Although previous biomechanical studies have demonstrated that cervical disc replacement normalizes adjacent segment motion, there is a little information regarding the function of a cervical disc replacement adjacent to an anterior cervical decompression and fusion, a potentially common clinical application.

Methods. Nine cadaveric cervical spines (C3-T1, age: 60.2 +/- 3.5 years) were tested under load-and displacement-control testing. After intact testing, a simulated fusion was performed at C4-C5, followed by C6-C7. The simulated fusion was then reversed, and the response of TDR at C5-C6 was measured.

The important finding of an association with hypocretin

g

The important finding of an association with hypocretin

genes in animal models of narcolepsy has led to the establishment of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin measurements as a new diagnostic test for human narcolepsy. This is a fascinating story of translation of basic science research into clinical practice in sleep medicine during the past decade. Recent advances have shed light on the associations between respiratory medicine and narcolepsycataplexy research. The first is that upper airway infections, including H1N1 and/or streptococcal infections, may initiate or reactivate an immune response that leads to loss of hypocretin-secreting cells and narcolepsy in genetically susceptible individuals. The second is that an increased incidence of sleep disordered breathing

among narcoleptic subjects may relate to the impairment of central control of breathing, linked to hypocretin Small molecule library deficiency or carriage of HLADQB1*06:02, in animals and human subjects with narcolepsy, Cyclopamine respectively, indicating neural dysfunction in an area where respiratory and sleepwake systems are closely interrelated.”
“In electroporation, an electric field transiently permeabilizes the cell membrane to gain access to the cytoplasm, and to deliver active agents such as DNA, proteins, and drug molecules. Past work suggests that the permeabilization is caused by the formation of aqueous, conducting pores on the lipid membrane, which are also known as electropores. The current-voltage relation across the membrane-bound pores is critical for understanding and predicting electroporation. In this work, we solve the Nernst-Planck equations

in a geometry encompassing an isolated electropore to investigate this relation. In particular, we study cases where the intra- and GSK2879552 in vitro extracellular electrical conductivities differ. We first derive an analytical solution, which is subsequently validated with a direct numerical simulation using a finite volume method. The main result of the current work is a formula for the effective pore resistance as a function of the pore radius, the membrane thickness, and the intra- and extracellular conductivities. This formula can be incorporated into whole-cell or planar-membrane electroporation models for system-level prediction and understanding.”
“Influenza presents a unique human infectious disease that has a substantial impact on the public health, in general, and especially for those with chronic airways diseases. People with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are particularly vulnerable to influenza infection and experience more severe symptoms with the worsening of their pre-existing conditions. Recent advances in reverse genetics and innate immunity has revealed several influenza virulence factors and host factors involved in influenza pathogenesis and the immune responses to infection.