CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents a validated preoperative mort

\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Our study presents a validated preoperative mortality score for very elderly patients needing an emergency colectomy. The greater discriminating power of this targeted score indicates that preoperative risk assessment may need to be customized to specific

procedures and patient circumstances. (J Am Coll Surg 2011;213:220-225. (C) 2011 by the American College of Surgeons)”
“The vegetative and reproductive shoot architectures displayed by members of the grass family are critical to reproductive success, and thus agronomic Sapitinib molecular weight yield. Variation in shoot architecture is explained by the maintenance, activity and determinacy of meristems, pools of pluripotent stem cells responsible for post-embryonic plant growth. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the major properties of grass shoot meristems, focusing on vegetative phase meristems and the floral transition, primarily in rice and maize. Major areas of interest include: the control of Selleck Nepicastat meristem homeostasis by the CLAVATA-WUSCHEL pathway and by hormones such as cytokinin;

the initiation of axillary meristems and the control of axillary meristem dormancy; and the environmental and endogenous cues that regulate flowering time. In an accompanying paper, Tanaka et al. review subsequent stages of shoot development, including current knowledge of reproductive meristem determinacy and the fate transitions associated with these meristems.”
“Epidemiological studies indicate that women are at a higher risk

developing lung cancer than men are. It is suggested that estrogen is one of the most important factors in lung cancer development in females. Additionally, cigarette smoke, and environmental pollutants, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), may play salient roles in female lung carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms responsible for the interaction of these factors in the promotion of lung cancer are still poorly understood. The present study was designed to explore two ideas: first, the synergistic lung tumorigenic effects of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanol (NNK) combined with TCDD, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) or both through a selleck kinase inhibitor long-term treatment experiment, and second, to identify early changes in the inflammatory and signaling pathways through short-term treatment experiments. The results indicate that A/J mice given E2 had strong effects in potentiating NNK-induced activation of MAPK signaling, NF kappa B, and COX-2 expression. In the long-term exposure model, E2 had a strong tumor promoting effect, whereas TCDD antagonized this effect in A/J mice. We conclude that treatment with NNK combined with either E2 or TCDD induces lung carcinogenesis and the promotion effects could be correlated with lung inflammation.

5 years of data collected at Mbeli Bai in northern


5 years of data collected at Mbeli Bai in northern

Congo. Access to mates and offspring survival were both major sources of variance in male reproductive success. Males with larger harems had lower offspring mortality with no apparent reduction in female fertility or observed tenure length, so the size of harems did not seem to be limited by female feeding competition or by the risk of takeovers and infanticide by outsider males. The lower mortality in larger harems may reflect improved vigilance against predators, and females may cluster around males that enhance offspring survival. Thus, this study illustrates how a detailed analysis of the components of male reproductive success can shed light on the interrelated social and ecological aspects that affect it.”
“A novel tertiary amine catalyst (TAC) and trithiocarbonate (TTC) synergistic photo-induced controlled radical polymerization of methacrylates in the absence of conventional photo-initiators, metal-catalysts, see more or dye sensitizers, has been realized under mild UV irradiation (lambda(max) approximate to 365 nm), yielding polymethacrylates with low molecular weight distributions and excellent end-group fidelity.”
“Loco-regional treatments play a key role in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma

(HCC). Image-guided tumor ablation is recommended in patients with early-stage HCC when surgical options are precluded. Radiofrequency ablation has shown superior anticancer effects and greater survival benefit with respect to the seminal percutaneous technique, ethanol injection, in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, and is currently established as the standard method for

local tumor treatment. Novel thermal and nonthermal techniques for tumor ablation including microwave ablation, irreversible electroporation, and light-activated drug therapy seem to have potential to overcome the limitations of radiofrequency ablation and warrant further clinical investigation. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standard of care for patients with asymptomatic, noninvasive multinodular tumors at the intermediate stage. The recent introduction of embolic microspheres that have the ability to release the drug in a controlled and sustained fashion has been shown to significantly increase safety and efficacy of TACE with respect to conventional, lipiodol-based regimens. The available data for radioembolization with yttrium-90 suggests that this is a potential new option for patients with HCC, which should be investigated in the setting of randomized controlled trials. Despite the advances and refinements in loco-regional approaches, the long-term survival outcomes of patients managed with interventional techniques are not fully satisfactory, mainly because of the high rates of tumor recurrence.

Presence and absence accuracies and weighted Cohen’s kappa were c

Presence and absence accuracies and weighted Cohen’s kappa were calculated to determine which models best predicted observed presences and absences of VHSV. Location models explain the patterns of VHSV

detections better than random models, and inclusion of “propagule pressure” often improved model fit; however, the relationship is weak likely because of a long lag time between introduction and detection, a high rate of false negatives in reporting, and the possible contribution of other vectors of spread. Montreal was also identified as the more likely introduction site of VHSV, rather than Lake St. Clair, the site where the virus was first {Selleck Anti-cancer Compound Library|Selleck Anticancer Compound Library|Selleck Anti-cancer Compound Library|Selleck Anticancer Compound Library|Selleckchem Anti-cancer Compound Library|Selleckchem Anticancer Compound Library|Selleckchem Anti-cancer Compound Library|Selleckchem Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|buy Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library ic50|Anti-cancer Compound Library price|Anti-cancer Compound Library cost|Anti-cancer Compound Library solubility dmso|Anti-cancer Compound Library purchase|Anti-cancer Compound Library manufacturer|Anti-cancer Compound Library research buy|Anti-cancer Compound Library order|Anti-cancer Compound Library mouse|Anti-cancer Compound Library chemical structure|Anti-cancer Compound Library mw|Anti-cancer Compound Library molecular weight|Anti-cancer Compound Library datasheet|Anti-cancer Compound Library supplier|Anti-cancer Compound Library in vitro|Anti-cancer Compound Library cell line|Anti-cancer Compound Library concentration|Anti-cancer Compound Library nmr|Anti-cancer Compound Library in vivo|Anti-cancer Compound Library clinical trial|Anti-cancer Compound Library cell assay|Anti-cancer Compound Library screening|Anti-cancer Compound Library high throughput|buy Anticancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library ic50|Anticancer Compound Library price|Anticancer Compound Library cost|Anticancer Compound Library solubility dmso|Anticancer Compound Library purchase|Anticancer Compound Library manufacturer|Anticancer Compound Library research buy|Anticancer Compound Library order|Anticancer Compound Library chemical structure|Anticancer Compound Library datasheet|Anticancer Compound Library supplier|Anticancer Compound Library in vitro|Anticancer Compound Library cell line|Anticancer Compound Library concentration|Anticancer Compound Library clinical trial|Anticancer Compound Library cell assay|Anticancer Compound Library screening|Anticancer Compound Library high throughput|Anti-cancer Compound high throughput screening| detected.”
“CD4 count is an important immunological marker of INCB28060 disease progression in HIV seropositive patients. This study was carried out to determine the effect of malaria or fever of unknown origin on the population of CD4+ T lymphocytes of HIV seropositive patients attending the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital,

Ilorin, Nigeria. 36 subjects were selected for this study. Ongoing history of fever was used as a case definition for malaria and malaria was confirmed from microscopic examination of thick and thin film of blood sample obtained from the patients during presentation with fever. The CD4 count was evaluated during presentation of fever and post-fever using flow cytometry. There was significant decrease in CD4 count of the patients. However, upon classifying the patients into 2 groups – those that returned to the clinic after a week and those that returned after a month; a significant increase in CD4 count was noticed in the group that

returned after a week, while a significant decrease was noticed in the group that returned after a month (at p value of 95 %). Further classification of LY3023414 the patients based on presence of malaria parasite, and body temperature resulted in varying effects on CD4 count post-fever (in the general group, 27 were positive for malaria parasites). Of these 27, there was an increase in CD4 count in 9 (33.3 %). However in the group that returned after a week, all 6 (100 %) that were positive for malaria parasites showed increase in CD4 count. Five (26.3 %) of the 19 patients that had body temperature within the range of 35.5-37.4 degrees C showed an increase in CD4 count, while 7 (41.2 %) of the 17 patients that had body temperature of 37.5 degrees C and above showed an increase in CD4 count. The results led to the conclusion that while some components of the immune response to malaria could strengthen the immune system of HIV seropositive patients by increasing their CD4 count, other components will suppress their immunity by decreasing their CD4 count, accelerating the progression to AIDS.

CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with OAD have a wide gradient of risk f

\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Subjects with OAD have a wide gradient of risk for mortality that can potentially he incorporated in clinical decision

making. Ann Epidemiol 2010;20:223-232. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved,”
“The non-communicable Batimastat clinical trial disease pandemic includes immune-mediated diseases such as asthma and allergy, which are likely originating in early life where the immature immune system is prone to alterations caused by the exposome. The timing of exposure seems critical for the developing immune system, and certain exposures may have detrimental effects in the earliest life, but no or even beneficial effects later. The human microbiome and infections are candidates as intermediary in the interaction between the host and the environment. The evidence seems inconsistent as infections as well as particular colonization patterns in neonates drive both short-term and long-term asthma symptoms, while, on the other hand, the composition of the microbiome in early life may protect against asthma and allergy in later life. This apparent contradiction may be explained by a deeper disease heterogeneity than we are currently able to discriminate, and in particular, the indiscriminate lumping together of different diseases into one atopic disease category. Also, the microbiome needs a differentiated understanding, considering balance between microbial groups, diversity and Autophagy Compound Library supplier microbial genetic capability. Furthermore,

the effects AC220 datasheet of the microbial exposure may only affect individuals with certain susceptibility genes. Few of the observations have been replicated, and publication bias is likely. Therefore, we are still far from understanding, or having proved, causal effects of the human microbiome. Still, the microbiome-gene interaction is a fascinating

paradigm that fosters exiting research and promises a breakthrough in the understanding of the mechanisms driving asthma, allergy and eczema, and potentially also other immune-mediated non-communicable diseases.”
“The present study examined localization of cholecystokinin receptor (CCK-R) mRNA in the muscle layer of the ovine omasum and role of CCK-R type 1 (CCK-1R) in the regulation of muscle contraction of the omasum. We demonstrated that not only CCK-R type 2 (CCK-2R) mRNA but also CCK-1R mRNA is highly expressed in the muscle layer of the ovine omasum. Application of CCK-8 to muscle strips of the greater curvature of the ovine omasum at 1-100 nM induced tonic contraction in a concentration-dependent manner, and the contractile effect of CCK-8 was inhibited by both CCK-1R antagonist lorglumide (IC(50) 2.7 and 7.9 mu M in the longitudinal and circular muscle, respectively) and CCK-2R antagonist PD135,158 (IC(50) 51.4 mu M in the longitudinal muscle), indicating that not only CCK-2R but also CCK-1R is functionally expressed in the plasma membrane of smooth muscles in the omasum and mediates action of exogenous CCK.

Despite years of research, the immunological mechanisms responsib

Despite years of research, the immunological mechanisms responsible for protective immunity versus immunopathology are still not well understood, although it is widely accepted that T cell driven IFN-g and Th17 responses are critical for clearing infection. While antibodies are able to

neutralize infections in vitro, alone they are not protective, indicating see more that any successful vaccine will need to elicit both arms of the immune response. In recent years, there has been an expansion in the number and types of antigens that have been evaluated as vaccines, and combined with the new array of mucosal adjuvants, this aspect of chlamydial vaccinology is showing promise. Most recently, the opportunities to develop successful vaccines have been given a significant boost with the development of a genetic transformation system for Chlamydia, as well as the identification of the key role of the chlamydial plasmid in virulence. While still remaining a major challenge, the development of a successful C. trachomatis vaccine is starting to look more likely. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The human immune system has evolved a variety of mechanisms for the primary task of neutralizing and eliminating microbial intruders. As the first line of defense, the complement system is responsible for rapid recognition and opsonization of bacteria, presentation to phagocytes and bacterial cell killing by direct lysis. All successful GSI-IX human pathogens have mechanisms of circumventing the antibacterial activity of the complement system and escaping this stage of the immune response. One of the ways in which pathogens achieve this is the deployment of proteases. Based on the increasing number of recent publications in this area, it appears that proteolytic inactivation of the antibacterial activities of the complement system is a common strategy of avoiding targeting by this arm

of host innate immune defense. In this review, we find more focus on those bacteria that deploy proteases capable of degrading complement system components into non-functional fragments, thus impairing complement-dependent antibacterial activity and facilitating pathogen survival inside the host.”
“Background. – New evidence for involvement of aquaporins (AQPs) in cell migration and proliferation adds AQPs to an expanding list of effectors in tumor biology. But there is few report concerning the expression and role of AQPs in human gastric carcinogenesis so far. The aim of this current study was to investigate the expression profile of AQPs in human gastric carcinoma and its significance.\n\nMethods. – We screened the expression profile of AQP0 similar to AQP12 in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and corresponding normal mucosa from 89 patients with gastric cancer by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and immunochemical assay.

In addition, H(2)O(2) strongly induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2,

In addition, H(2)O(2) strongly induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not ERK5, in eosinophils. Hydrogen peroxide-triggered activation of caspase-3 and ERK1/2 was attenuated by pretreatment with rotenone.\n\nConclusions: These results suggest that mitochondrial respiration MS-275 nmr is essential for activation of ERK1/2 and caspase-3 in human eosinophils stimulated with H(2)O(2).”
“An electrostatic force microscope system in a scanning electron microscope specimen chamber was developed to measure the surface

potential of an insulator film on a conductive substrate irradiated by an electron beam. As the accelerating voltage varies with the constant beam current, the surface charges positively if the voltage is lower than 1 kV or higher than 3 kV but negatively if the voltage is between 1.1 and 2.7 kV. This positive-negative-positive potential alternation is explained by the relationship between the electron range and the film thickness, and verified by the Monte Carlo simulation of electron trajectories. By selecting the acceleration

voltage as 30 kV to show less potential variation with time, the spatial potential distribution at the specimen surface is obtained, and a negative dip is observed around 50 mu m from the edge of the irradiated area. The authors find that the depth of the dip increases with an increase in ARO 002 the electron dose, and the negative potential distribution spreads MAPK inhibitor over 300 mu m is obtained, which is almost 10 times larger than the primary electron range in the specimen. The characteristic variation in the distribution agrees with a hypothetically derived charge distribution obtained in a different experiment. (C) 2011 American Vacuum Society. [DOI: 10.1116/1.3662079]“
“The development of red color in the peel of red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia

Nakai) is influenced by temperature and light; however, the response patterns vary among different cultivars. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of postharvest treatment with various temperatures (low, high, variant and constant) on detached mature fruit of red Chinese sand pear ‘Mantianhong’ and ‘Meirensu’. Fruit of red apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) ‘Royal Gala’ and red European pear (P. communis L.) ‘Cascade’ received the same treatments for comparison. Furthermore, the effects of light quality and irradiance level on ‘Mantianhong’ pears were evaluated at the optimum temperature for anthocyanin accumulation. Fruit firmness and concentrations of total soluble sugars and organic acids were measured to determine fruit quality. The effect of temperature on red Chinese sand pear fruit color was similar to that of apples, but not European pear.

The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of a

The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of a 2-hour PALS training session utilizing high-fidelity mannequins on residents’

psychomotor skills performances.\n\nMETHODS: Between February and June 2009, residents from two urban family medicine residency programs received training on four PALS procedures (bag-mask ventilation, tracheal intubation, intraosseous line placement, and cardiac rhythm assessment/defibrillation) at a university simulation center. Residents completed questionnaires to provide data on previous resuscitation training and experience. We collected self-confidence data and video recordings of residents performing the procedures before and after training. To assess retention at 6 months, we collected self-confidence data and video recordings of PGY-1 and PGY-2 residents

performing the procedures. A blinded reviewer scored the video recordings.\n\nRESULTS: Forty-seven Ilomastat in vivo residents completed the study. The majority of residents (53.2%) had never performed any of the procedures on a real patient. Immediately following skills training, mean overall performance improved from 39.5% (+/- 11.5%) to 76.5% (+/- 10.4%), difference 37.0% (95% Selleck Ispinesib CI, 33.5%-40.6%). Bag-mask ventilation and intraosseous insertion skills remained above baseline at 6-month follow-up.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Simulation training is beneficial for teaching PALS procedures to family medicine residents.”
“Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) find protocol is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in childhood, and the causes of ALL are not completely understood. microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various biological processes including organ development, cell growth regulation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. We performed a case-control study with 570 childhood ALL cases and 673 cancer-free controls to investigate the association between hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 T bigger than C polymorphism and ALL risk. The bioinformatics was used to estimate the potential

target of hsa-miR-196a2. In the present study, the hsa-miR-196a2 variant TC heterozygote, and CC/TC genotypes were found to be associated with a significantly increased childhood ALL risk, compared with the TT wild-type homozygote (adjusted OR= 1.50, 95% CI= 1.15-1.95 for TC and OR= 1.40, 95% CI= 1.09-1.79 for CC/TC). Further, the difference was pronounced in younger ( smaller than = 6) subjects or parental non-drinker. The significance of the increased risk is more obvious than the higher treatment branch. Additionally, we found that the rs11614913 TC genotype can increase B-phenotype ALL risk (OR = 1.37,95% CI = 1.07-1.76). Finally, combination of three bioinformatics approaches revealed that HOXC8 may be the target gene of hsa-miR-196a2. Taken together, our finding suggested that hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 T bigger than C may increase the risk of childhood ALL. Large studies with the function of hsa-miR-196a2 are needed in the further study. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Ecm is involved in the central reaction sequence of this novel pa

Ecm is involved in the central reaction sequence of this novel pathway and catalyzes the transformation of ethylmalonyl-CoA to methylsuccinyl-CoA in combination with a second enzyme that was further identified as promiscuous ethylmalonyl-CoA/methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. In contrast to the epimerase, Ecm is highly specific for its substrate, ethylmalonyl-CoA, and accepts methylmalonyl-CoA only at 0.2% relative activity. Sequence analysis revealed that Ecm is distinct from (2R)-methylmalonylCoA mutase as well as isobutyryl-CoA mutase and defines a new subfamily selleck screening library of coenzyme B-12-dependent acyl-CoA mutases. In combination with molecular

modeling, two signature sequences were identified that presumably

Selleck IPI-145 contribute to the substrate specificity of these enzymes.”
“Purpose of review\n\nGastrointestinal affect human health and well being. The pathogens profoundly provider’s ability to render optimal care often highly depends on diagnostic microbiologic support. We aim to provide a clinically pertinent assessment of the current state of our ability to diagnose human gastrointestinal pathogens and describe (and decry) the unsophistication of many current diagnostic methods and strategies.\n\nRecent findings\n\nRecent advances involve improved stool polymerase chain reaction assays and application of this technology to a broader panel of pathogens, stool antigen assays, and improved culture techniques, but there is little penetration of such diagnostic advances into clinical practice. Many such techniques remain limited to research or epidemiologic use and are not typically available in the clinical laboratory.\n\nSummary\n\nMultiple clinical and laboratory factors need to be considered when attempting to diagnose the wide variety of gastrointestinal

pathogens afflicting humans. Careful interpretation of diagnostic tests with attention to the population studied and the characteristics of each test is necessary.”
“To investigate the total Selleckchem NU7441 antioxidant status (TAS) and the extent of oxidative DNA damage in total lymphocytes and their relation with essential hypertension. A total of 130 South Indian subjects aged 30-65 were recruited for the study. Of these hypertensive subjects investigated, 30 were newly diagnosed and were not on any antihypertensive drugs, but had systolic blood pressure (BP) ranging between 140 and 160 mm Hg and diastolic BP between 95 and 100 mm Hg; 50 hypertensive patients who were already on drug therapy for 1 year and 50 were normotensive controls with BP p120/80 mm Hg. DNA damage was significantly increased in hypertensive patients (both newly diagnosed and who were already on drug therapy) compared with control group. The major increase in DNA damage was observed in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients compared with hypertensive patients who were already on drug therapy.

Furthermore, heat treatment and UVB irradiation induced JNK, ERK,

Furthermore, heat treatment and UVB irradiation induced JNK, ERK, and p38 activation but not melanogenic and morphological changes in melanocytes from skin phototype I. These findings suggested that heat promoted melanocyte differentiation, probably via heat-induced ERK/p38/MITF/activation.

Furthermore, heat had an additive effect on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis. These results provide a new clue for dermatologists for the treatment of hypopigmented skin disease with heat combined with UVB irradiation.”
“Drought stress is an important abiotic factor limiting wheat yield. Thirty-one accessions of Aegilops species belonging to five species were screened to identify species/accessions tolerant to drought stress and to measure traits associated with the tolerance. Plants were grown at full irrigation, 25/19 degrees C day/night FAK inhibitor temperature and an 18 h photoperiod. At anthesis (Feekes 10.5.1), drought stress was imposed by withholding water for 16 days. Controls were continuously irrigated. Drought stress

decreased chlorophyll content, grain number, individual grain weight and grain yield by 31, 25, 68 and 76% compared with the control. Aegilops geniculata Roth had greater tolerance to drought stress for yield (48% decline from control) compared with other species (>73% decline from control). The tolerance was associated with higher grain number spike (1) and heavier grains. A. geniculata, GenBank accession number TA 10437, was highly tolerant to drought stress with <20% yield decline and a drought stress susceptibility index (DSI) <0.5, buy Napabucasin whereas TA 1802, TA 2061, TA 1814, TA 1819 were identified

as moderately tolerant to drought stress (20-40% yield decline and DSI <1.0). Our results suggest CH5424802 order a presence of genetic variability among Aegilops species that can be utilised in breeding wheat for tolerance to drought stress at reproductive stages.”
“Forster resonance energy transfer within a protein-protein complex has previously been invoked to explain emission spectral modulation observed in several bioluminescence systems. Here we present a spatial structure of a complex of the Ca2+ regulated photoprotein clytin with its green-fluorescent protein (cgGFP) from the jellyfish Clytia gregaria, and show that it accounts for the bioluminescence properties of this system in vitro. We adopted an indirect approach of combining x-ray crystallography determined structures of the separate proteins, NMR spectroscopy, computational docking, and mutagenesis. Heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy using variously N-15, C-13, H-2-enriched proteins enabled assignment of backbone resonances of more than 94% of the residues of both proteins. In a mixture of the two proteins at millimolar concentrations, complexation was inferred from perturbations of certain H-1-N-15 HSQC-resonances, which could be mapped to those residues involved at the interaction site.

High quality RCTs need to be conducted to assess the safety and e

High quality RCTs need to be conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of lipid-lowering drugs for people with nephrotic syndrome.”
“Radiofrequency ablation of post-transplant flutter in a centrally denervated donor atrium at a site remote from the AV node resulted in transient worsening of AV nodal conduction, with absent central vagal reinnervation. This could be an electrophysiological marker of intact

innervation to the donor AV node from the intrinsic cardiac neuronal plexus, not demonstrated in human hearts earlier.”
“Acid deposition as a widely concerned environmental problem in China has been less studied in plantation forests compared to urban and secondary forests, albeit they Panobinostat constitute 1/3 of the total forested areas of the country. We measured the rainwater amount and chemistry outside and beneath the canopies of two widely distributed plantations (Acacia mangium and Dimocarpus longan) in the severe acid rain influenced Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China for two years. Our results showed that the frequency of acid rain was 96% on the basis of pH value <5.6. The volume-weighted mean (vwm) pH was 4.62 and higher in the dry (Oct.-Mar.) than in the wet (Apr.-Sep.) seasons. The major acidic anion was sulfate with vwm concentration of 140 mu eq l(-1) and annual deposition

flux of 110.3 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). The major neutralizing cations were calcium (94.8 mu eq l(-1) and 28 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and ammonium (41.2 mu eq l(-1) and 11.7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Over 95% of these major acidic anions and neutralizing cations were derived from anthropogenic and terrestrial sources as a result of industrial, agricultural and forestry activities. Plantation canopy had marked impacts on rainwater chemistry, with the measured AZD9291 anion and cation concentrations being significantly enriched in throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) rainwater by 1.4 (for NO3-) to 20-fold (for K+) compared to those in bulk precipitation (BP). Dry deposition generally contributed about 13-22% of

the total deposition while canopy leaching mainly occurred for K+ (>88%) and NH4+ (10-38%). The two tree species showed distinct impacts on rainfall redistribution and rainwater chemistry due to their differences in canopy architecture and leaf/bark texture, suggesting that species-specific effects should not be overlooked while assessing the acid deposition in forested areas. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of genotype by environment interaction (GEI) on the weight of Tabapua cattle at 240 (W240), 365 (W365) and 450 (W450) days of age. In total, 35,732 records of 8,458 Tabapua animals which were born in the state of Bahia, Brazil, from 1975 to 2001, from 167 sires and 3,707 dams, were used.