Other countries in Europe have their investments at about 100 mil

Other countries in Europe have their investments at about 100 million euros per year and with well-tailored targets to achieve their interest and maintain global competitiveness and sustainability. Observatory NANO [14] reported that the Russian government has since 2006 launched their nanotechnology activities

with block funding from various government agencies with Federal Agency for Science and Innovation (ROSNAUKA) as the implementing body. They have two main bodies charged with overall activities of nanotechnology: the Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies – as an agency responsible for commercialization of nanoproducts and innovations targeting to create many nanotechnology industries by 2015 [20]. Another agency

is the National Nanotechnology Network – a body charged with responsibility of coordinating activities of over 480 R&D institutions and about 1,700 researchers. The this website focus of Russia which is on using cluster manufacturing approach is signaling pathway to produce nanomaterials, nanomedicine, nanophotonics, and nanoelectronics for ICT. Current research and development empowerment nations Discussion on the implications of nanotechnology is going on well among developing countries. Many see nanotechnology as an opportunity for further exploitation of the developing countries [21], whilst others see it as an opportunity to promote sustainability by focusing on the gains [22]. Both opinions may be crotamiton correct for a nation, depending on what they believe and the steps taken. Court et al. [23] categorized 10 developing countries as either fourth runners, middle ground, or up-comers, while Cozzens et al. [12] reported that the Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) countries dominate nanotechnology publications in the developing

countries. They further reported that there is very little activity outside the BRIC and that ‘The nanotechnology game appears to be largely limited to the affluent countries and the BRIC.’ Clearly, advancements in nanotechnology made in China and Russia is enormous that they are no longer in the same categories with other developing countries hence their inclusion in this study as national activity nations. There are also a few other developing countries that have joined the BRIC in the fourth runners’ category, because they have caught the vision of upcoming nanotechnology learn more industrial revolution, and have started their own nanotechnology initiatives through proper policy framework, robust budgetary plan, network linkages, and human capital development for successful national development in line with the effort of Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology-United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (APCTT‒UNESCAP) to facilitate regional collaborations in nanotechnology innovation and industrial application [24]. These countries include South Africa, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand.

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