Arabinose was added to a final concentration of 10 mM In mating

Arabinose was added to a final concentration of 10 mM. In mating experiments, exconjugant P. aeruginosa PAO1 clones were selected on PIA (Difco) containing Cb. Construction and screening of PAO1 shotgun antisense libraries Genomic DNA was isolated from P. aeruginosa PAO1 using an illustra GenomicPrep Cells

and Tissue DNA Isolation Kit (GE Healthcare). DNA was diluted in 10 mM TE buffer (pH 8.0) and nebulized to obtain sheared fragments spanning 200–800 bp (Additional file 1: Figure S1A). Following ethanol precipitation, fragmented DNA was treated with nuclease BAL-31 and Klenow (New England Biolabs) for 10 min at 30°C to obtain blunt ends. After enzyme inactivation with 1 mM EDTA, DNA was dialyzed against 20 mM Tris–HCl (pH 8.0). pVI533EH and pHERD20T were digested with SmaI (New England Biolabs) and dephosphorylated using shrimp alkaline AZD1152 purchase phosphatase (Roche). Fragmented DNA was ligated to dephosphorylated vectors using T4 Ligase

selleck screening library (Takara Bio) at 16°C overnight. Ligation mixtures were transformed into E. coli JM109 by electroporation, and transformants were selected on LB plates supplemented with Cb. The resulting transformant colonies composing the SAL were arrayed and cultured in 96-well microplates. Quality control by PCR of single colonies, using primers flanking the multi-cloning site (Additional file 1: Figure S1B), was performed to check the presence and the size of a genomic insert. SALs were mobilized from E. coli to P. aeruginosa PAO1 by conjugative triparental mating. E. coli donor strains were grown overnight in 96-well next microplates in LB broth supplemented with Cb. The recipient P. aeruginosa PAO1 and helper E. coli HB101/pRK2013 strains were grown overnight in flasks in LB broth. Thirty microliters each of helper, recipient, and donor strains were mixed in microplate wells. After mixing, microplates were centrifuged at 750 × g for 5 min and Selonsertib incubated for 3 h at 37°C. Cell pellets resulting from triparental mating were resuspended in 90 μl of LB, and 2 μl of each mating mixture were spotted on PIA plates supplemented with

Cb, both in the absence and presence of 10 mM arabinose, to counter select E. coli donor and helper strains. Exconjugant cell spots were inspected for growth defects following 24–48 h of incubation at 37°C. The PAO1 growth-impairing inserts in pVI533EH/pHERD20T derivatives were sequenced following PCR amplification using oligo pVI533-F/pVI533-R and pHERD-F/pHERD-R, respectively (Additional file 6: Table S1). The resulting sequences were matched to the PAO1 genome at the Pseudomonas Genome Database [27]. Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Andrea Milani and all members of the laboratory for their helpful discussions and technical support. This work was funded by the Italian Cystic Fibrosis Research Foundation (grant FFC#10/2004) and by the European Commission (grant NABATIVI, EU-FP7-HEALTH-2007-B contract number 223670).

Among these noble

metal plasmonic nanoparticles, gold nan

Among these noble

metal plasmonic nanoparticles, gold nanorods (GNR) in particular, WH-4-023 in vivo with its varied size, low reactivity, unique anisotropy shape, and optical properties, have been widely investigated by many research groups [1–3]. On the other hand, the LSPR frequency shifting has been widely used in chemical, gas [4] and bio-sensors [5], to examine the chirality of selleck screening library molecules [6] and be used as an electromagnetic energy transmitter [7] based on various types of pure- [8] or modified-metallic nanostructure array on glass substrate or nanoparticles in bulk solution [9]. In fact, developing of nanoparticle-based sensing materials is important and urgent for detection in special environment, for example, detection of single

molecule PCI-34051 price analyte of internal cell [10–12]. The free-label or monolayer/functionalized nanosensors have been achieved by fluorescence protein [13, 14], polymer [15, 16], quantum dots (QDs) [17], graphene oxide [18], and metal nanoparticles [19] through monitoring the variations in their fluorescence intensity or lifetime. However, the intrinsic drawbacks of fluorescence probe are photo-bleaching and blinking [20]. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of the QDs makes them practically useless for in vivo biological application. Therefore, it is an urgent task to develop biocompatible and highly photostable nanoparticles for nanosensors, in particular, based on the extinction/scattering, and therefore, with non-blinking is highly preferential. Recently, Zijlstra et al. have demonstrated a label-free optical detection of single non-absorbing molecules by monitoring the plasmon resonance of nanorod via a sensitive photothermal spectra [21].

Generally speaking, optical sensors of metallic nanoparticles can be achieved by exploiting the sensitivity to local refractive index (n) of the surrounding medium (Δλ max ≈ Δn) or to the plasmon band shift that is caused by the proximity of nanoparticles [21–24]. In this study, we investigate the pH-dependent local surface plasmon shift in a functionalized GNR. The gold STK38 nanorods modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (GNR-MUA) exhibit excellent stability and are easy to prepare, therefore can be the outstanding potential candidate for nanosensors. More importantly, it is based on the extinction spectrum (scattering) and thus non-blinking. We verified this optical signal originates neither from the aggregation of nanorods nor the variation of refractivity index through ion strength test and the pH titration procedure by comparing a modified pH-independent molecule (1-undecanethiol (UDT)) with MUA. We speculate that the dipole moment changes of MUA ligands on a rod surface play a very important role in this nanoparticle based-sensing system.

J Biol Chem 1997, 272:1682–1687 PubMedCrossRef 21 Liu YY, Gupta

J Biol Chem 1997, 272:1682–1687.PubMedCrossRef 21. Liu YY, Gupta V, Patwardhan GA, Bhinge K, Zhao Y, Bao J, et al.: Glucosylceramide synthase upregulates MDR1 buy CB-5083 expression in the regulation of cancer drug resistance through cSrc and beta-catenin signaling. Mol Cancer 2010, 9:145.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions MS and WD performed PCR, western blotting, and drafted the manuscript. BH performed total RNA preparation and reverse transcription. GR and JC conceived of the study

and guided the biochemical experiments. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction Renal carcinoma is the 13th most common cancer worldwide, with clear cell and clear cell renal cell carcinoma

(ccRCC) accounting for most of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) [1]. Radical nephrectomy is effective to cure early and local ccRCCs, but advanced or metastatic ccRCCs barely respond to chemotherapy or radiotherapy and have poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to better understand the pathogenesis of aggressive RCC in order to develop effective strategies for BAY 1895344 the prevention and treatment of RCC. NSBP1 is a new member of the high mobility group N (HMGN) protein family that modulates the structure and function of chromatin and plays an important role in transcription, histone modifications, DNA replication and DNA selleck screening library repair in living cells[2]. Early study showed that nucleosome binding protein 1 (HMGN5/NSBP1) Olopatadine was

abundantly expressed in prostate cancer [3]. In addition, NSBP1 expression was upregulated in squamous cell carcinoma, metastatic MDA-MB-435HM breast cancer cell line and adenocarcinoma, suggesting that NSBP1 may promote tumorigenesis [4–7]. Our previous studies showed that downregulation of NSBP1 expression caused G2 cell cycle arrest, decreased proliferation rate and increased apoptosis rate in prostate cancer cells in vitro [8, 9]. Nevertheless, the role of NSBP1 in ccRCC development remains unknown. Tumor invasion and metastasis are complicated processes, among which proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and angiogenesis (VEGF) are essential steps. ECM degradation can be promoted by the imbalance between proteolytic proteases and their inhibitors. Extensive studies have shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play crucial role in the degradation of ECM to promote tumor invasion and metastasis [10, 11]. Therefore, in this study we investigated the role of NSBP1 in ccRCC. First we detected NSBP1 expression in clinical ccRCC tissues and ccRCC cell lines. Then we examined the effects of lentivirus mediated NSBP1 knockdown on the growth and invasion of ccRCC 786-O cells and xenograft tumor growth in nude mice.

Comptes Rendus Chimie 2006, 9:645–651 CrossRef 20 Adachi M, Saka

Comptes Rendus Chimie 2006, 9:645–651.CrossRef 20. Adachi M, Sakamoto Adriamycin M, Jiu J, Ogata Y, Isoda S: Electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. J Phys Chem 2006, 110:13872–13880.

Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions THM and JKT wrote this manuscript. SMC, YCL, and TYC carried out the preparation of the samples. TCW, LWJ, and WW carried out the current–voltage measurements. WRC, ITT and CJH carried out the EIS and IPCE measurements. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a p-type semiconductor metal oxide with a direct band gap of approximately 2.17 eV [1, 2]. Due to its unique optical, electrical, and magnetic properties [3–5] and other properties such as simplicity

and low cost of preparation, nontoxic nature, and abundance, it has PU-H71 cell line attracted great learn more attention and has been widely applied in solar energy conversion [6], photocatalysis [7], sensors [8], and antibacterials [9]. The fundamental properties of micro/nanostructure semiconductors are found to be dependent on their architectures, including geometry, morphology, and hierarchical structures [10–12]. Therefore, great efforts have been devoted to artificially control the morphology of Cu2O micro/nanocrystals in the past several years [13]. Different Cu2O nanoarchitectures have been synthesized, such as nanowhiskers [14], nanowires [11], nanocubes [15], nanorods [16], nanospheres [17], and nanoflowers [18]; Cu2O flower/grass-like three-dimensional nanoarchitectures (FGLNAs) with relatively large surface area have received particular attention and are expected to display significant semiconductor properties. Various methods have been reported to synthesize Cu2O nanoflowers, such as pulse electrodeposition [19], polyol process [20], and solution-phase route [21]. However, up to now, all the fabrication methods of Cu2O flower-like architectures are complex and costly. Recently, we proposed a novel method using thermal

oxidation with participation of catalyst and humidity to fabricate three-dimensional Cu2O FGLNAs (Hu LJ, Ju Y, Chen MJ, Hosoi A, and Arai S, unpublished observations). In the present paper, the growth mechanism of Cu2O FGLNAs affected by check the surface conditions of different substrates was investigated in detail. The effect of surface stresses on the growth of FGLNAs – in unpolished Cu foil, polished Cu foil, and Cu film specimens before thermal oxidation – was analyzed. The effects of grain size and surface roughness of polished Cu foil specimens and Cu film specimens before heating were also studied. Methods Two categories of specimens were prepared. One was made of a commercial Cu-113421 sheet (99.96% purity) with a thickness of 0.30 mm, which was cut into a square size of 6 × 6 mm2.

e , the C-terminal proline-rich portion of ORF5 The ORF5 gene pr

e., the C-terminal proline-rich portion of ORF5. The ORF5 gene product [22] corresponds to the 486 aa protein having EMBL/GenBank accession number CAE77151 [5]. The ORF5 antiserum selected a series of overlapping peptides thereby identifying a B cell epitope and confirming that polyclonal serum could specifically select antigenic peptides from the phage displayed repertoire. A further important indication that the peptides had been specifically selected was that prior to panning, only 12.5% of the sequenced inserts contained in the library were both in-frame and in the correct orientation for translation as mycoplasmal peptides. In contrast, after panning, all were in-frame and

without stops. This finding, together with the way in which immunoselection yielded multiple copies GSK1904529A concentration of some peptides (particularly BKM120 purchase those that overlapped but were not identical), provided additional evidence that the strategy was essentially sound. While 26 different MmmSC genes matched sequences selected by phage display, those chosen for expression in E. coli were required to have fulfilled criteria which were considered to have a bearing on their usefulness as possible vaccine antigens. Firstly, since the pathogen enters the animal via the nasal passages, preference was given to genes selected by IgA from Mali and Botswana. Secondly, only genes that were identified by multiple

overlapping copies of each phage displayed peptide qualified. Thirdly, peptides that fulfilled the first two criteria, but which were selected with a negative bovine serum were excluded. Finally, the protein’s likely function or structural position was taken into account with a focus on previously-identified

membrane-associated proteins [23] which also fulfilled antigenicity criteria as predicted by bioinformatics analyses. Although not excluded as being potentially useful, any overlapping sequences that coded for FK228 molecular weight internally located proteins e.g. the DNA gyrase subunit B (Table 1) were not investigated in this study. Applying these criteria allowed us to focus on the ABC transporter, substrate-binding component protein (Abc), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN), the glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GlpO), the prolipoprotein B (LppB) and the PTS system, glucose-specific IIBC component (PtsG) for expression i n E. coli. By applying these criteria Tacrolimus (FK506) we do not exclude further studies on any of the other apparently antigenic proteins as vaccine or diagnostic targets. Even though the proliporotein LppC fulfilled our criteria, some of the peptides which matched the amino acid sequence included sequences of unknown origins which did not align with the target ORF (not shown). ABC transporter proteins act on a wide variety of substrates that include sugars, peptides, proteins and toxins [24]. For example, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter GtsABC together with GlpO forms part of the glycerol catabolism pathway associated with MmmSC virulence [25, 26].

Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy

Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy

of two different doses (1 g per 500 ml and 2 g per 500 ml) of AG on basketball performance, including jump power, selleck kinase inhibitor reaction time, shooting ability and fatigue during a basketball game. Methods Subjects Ten women volunteered for this study (21.2 ± 1.6 years; height: 177.8 ± 8.7 cm; body mass: 73.5 ± 8.0 kg). Following an explanation of all procedures, risks, and benefits, each subject gave her informed consent to participate in this study. The Institutional Review Board of the University approved the research protocol. Subjects were not permitted to use any additional nutritional supplementation during the course of the study. Screening for additional supplement use was accomplished via a health history questionnaire completed during subject recruitment. All subjects were scholarship athletes playing for the University’s Women’s basketball team. The study protocol was a double-blind cross-over design. Testing protocol Data collection occurred on four separate occasions. Each session required subjects to participate in a 40-min basketball game (normal duration for a NCAA college basketball game). To simulate an actual competition,

a 2-min time out was used at the 10-min mark of each half, and a 10-min halftime separated the first and second halves. Subjects were divided into two equally talented teams as determined by the team’s player captains. The team members remained the same for each game. Thus level of competition (subjects competing

against each other) was the same for each contest. Interestingly, this website each team won two games. The difference between each contest was the type of hydration fluid that was provided. During the first session (DHY) subjects were not allowed to rehydrate. During this session the total weight lost during the contest was determined, which was then used to determine the fluid replenishment during the subsequent three experimental sessions. During these three sessions subjects were provided fluid every 10 min in equal amounts for a total of six hydration times. The fluid consumed at each ingestion point was equal to the fluid loss observed Sodium butyrate during session one, divided by six. During one of these sessions subjects consumed only water (W), while during the other two session subjects consumed the AG supplement marketed as Sustamine™ (Kyowa Hakko USA, New York, NY) mixed in water using either a low dose (1 g per 500 ml) (AG1) or high dose (2 g per 500 ml) (AG2) concentration. The order of the three sessions was randomly determined per subject. All subjects were expected to begin each game in a euhydrated state. Prior to each contest a urine sample was analyzed for urine specific gravity (Usg) by refractometry to document euhydration; Usg ≤ 1.020 was defined as euhydration [12]. If a subject’s Usg > 1.020 she was requested to ingest 500 ml of water and retested.

The latter approach is not a common clinical strategy as inhibito

The latter approach is not a common clinical strategy as inhibitory drugs only elicit a moderate impact on testosterone (approximately 15%) in conjunction with an increase in E2, gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, cataract formation, depressive symptoms, and other mood disorders [4,10–14]. Currently, the most common approach for elevating testosterone

selleck compound levels is through the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), or a combination of both. SERMs block the effects of estrogen in the central nervous system and breast in men, thereby reducing the occurrence of gynecomastia and they also block the suppressive effect of estrogens on luteinizing hormone production, which propagates testosterone production [15]. HCG is structurally similar to the luteinizing hormone and it is recognized by the body as luteinizing hormone, which in turns signals the testes to begin producing more testosterone. However, SERMs also function as estrogen agonists in the liver and this leads to an increase in the production of the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), which circulates in the blood and may irreversibly bind to testosterone and other sex hormones, causing them to become inactive. As a result, Adavosertib ic50 SERMs therapy may increase the

total concentration of testosterone, but the concentration of bioactive testosterone may remain low [15]. Furthermore, testosterone therapy has the potential to disrupt the feedback

cycle from the hypothalamus/pituitary to the testes [16]. With regard to CVD it is uncertain that any risk or beneficial effects of increasing testosterone levels through exogenous testosterone therapy, SERMS or HCG may be different than the use of other approaches such as the use of natural Selleck GDC-0068 supplements and is continuously under investigation. One such natural compound is Astaxanthin (AX), a carotenoid with ID-8 favorable pharmacokinetics and bioavailability produced by Haematococcus algae (pluvialis) [17]. AX is shown to inhibit both 5α-reductase and aromatase CYP-19, which is an enzyme that converts C19 androgens to aromatic C18 estrogenic steroids [18,19]. Moreover, findings from an open label dose response study of a product containing AX provided some suggestion that the compound may be involved in the regulation DHT and E2 levels, even within three days of treatment [19]. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to extend these findings to men under the age of 50. To this end, the hormonal response patterns of sedentary men was tested following an administration of novel Resettin®/MyTosterone™, which is a raw material consisting of AX and a lipid extract from the saw palmetto berry. Methods Study design A prospective single blind treatment vs. placebo study was conducted over a 14 day period at Hunter Laboratories in Walnut Creek, CA.

Primers M13universal and GlnKdelR (5′ AAGCC CTCGAG TTCAGTCACGGT 3

Primers M13universal and GlnKdelR (5′ AAGCC CTCGAG TTCAGTCACGGT 3′, Xho I AZD2281 cell line restriction site is underlined) were used to amplify a 180 bp region upstream of glnK and the first 107 bp of the glnK gene. The primers M13reverse and GlnKdelD (5′ GGACCTG CTCGAG GTGATCCGT 3′, Xho I restriction site is underlined) were used to amplify the last 58 bp of the glnK gene and the first 180 bp of amtB. The amplified fragments were joined by the Xho I sites. This fragment containing glnK deleted of 192 bp was then used as template for a PCR reaction with the primers M13reverse and M13universal. The resulting PCR product was

digested with Bam HI and Pst I and inserted into pUC18 to give pUCglnKdel. This fragment was then subcloned into pSUP202, yielding the plasmid pSUPglnKdel. A sacB -KmR cassette excised with Bam HI from pMH1701 CHIR-99021 cost [35] was inserted into the vector region of the Bam HI-cut pSUPglnKdel plasmid. The resulting plasmid (pSUPglnKdelsacB) was conjugated into H. seropedicae SmR1 using

E. coli strain S17.1 as the donor. Recombinant colonies were selected for kanamycin and chloramphenicol resistance. One mutant strain was selected, and grown overnight in liquid NFbHP medium supplemented with ammonium chloride (20 mmol/L) and 80 μg/mL streptomycin. One microliter of the culture was plated on solid NFbHP medium supplemented with 20 mmol/L NH4Cl, 5% sucrose and 80 μg/mL Methane monooxygenase streptomycin. Sucrose is toxic to Dinaciclib purchase bacteria containing the sacB gene in the chromosome, therefore only strains that lost the sacB -KmR cassette by

a second homologous recombination event would grow. The selected strains were analyzed by PCR with the primers GlnKF1 (5′TGTCCAAGACCTTCGACG3′) and GlnKR1 (5′CATGCTCATTAGAGTTCC3′) which were homologous to the glnK flanking 5′- and 3′- regions, confirming the deletion of the 192 bp glnK fragment (data not shown). This in-frame glnK strain (ΔglnK) was named LNglnKdel. Construction of plasmid pLNΔNifA An Eco47III/SacI DNA fragment containing the nifA gene promoter region of H. seropedicae was excised from the plasmid pEMS301[36] and sub-cloned into the SmaI/SacI-cut vector pDK6 [37], yielding plasmid pDK6pnifA. An Xba I DNA fragment encoding for the central and C-terminal region of NifA protein (ΔN-NifA) of H. seropedicae was excised from the plasmid pRAM2T7 and sub-cloned into the XbaI-cut pDK6pnifA, in the same orientation as the nifA promoter, yielding plasmid pDK6nifACT. Finally, a SacI/HindIII DNA fragment containing the nifA 5′-truncated gene was excised from pDK6nifACT and sub-cloned into pLAFR3.18Cm digested with Sac I and Hin dIII. The generated plasmid was named pLNΔNifA and encodes for the central and C-terminal domains of NifA under control of the nifA promoter. Construction of the plasmid pACB210 A 1.

For this purpose, standard PAM-software provides

For this purpose, standard PAM-software provides routines for fitting the LC-parameters α, rel.ETRmax, and I k using models developed by Eilers and Peeters (1988) or Platt et al. (1980). The parameter α relates to the maximal PS II quantum yield (initial slope of LC). Rel.ETRmax is a measure of maximal relative rate and I k relates to the PAR at which light saturation sets in (defined by ETRmax/α). For example, diurnal changes in rel.ETRmax (measured with the same sample in its natural environment) provide valuable information on changes of photosynthetic capacity due to light-dependent

enzyme regulation and down-regulation of PS II upon exposure to excess light (Ralph et al. 1999). While most PAM fluorometers so far have been providing just one color of ML (red or blue) and AL (normally white, red or blue), with the new multi-color-PAM light response curves of the same sample can be recorded using different colors. As expected, in this case substantial differences in LC-parameters are revealed, when a default value of 0.42 is applied as ETR-factor. In Fig. 4, LCs of rel.ETR in Chlorella with 3-min illumination

steps using Histone Methyltransferase inhibitor 440- and 625-nm light are compared. Fig. 4 LC of rel.ETR measured with a dilute suspension of Chlorella (300 μg Chl/L) using 440- and 625-nm light. Ignoring information on the fraction of incident light absorbed by PS II, a default ETR-factor of 0.42 was applied (see text for explanation and Fig. 8 for comparison). Illumination time at each intensity-setting was 3 min With 440-nm light the rel.ETR LC saturates at much lower PAR than with 625-nm light and the rel.ETRmax measured with 440 nm is much lower than when measured with 625 nm. Furthermore, with 440 nm after

reaching maximal values of rel.ETR, there Dichloromethane dehalogenase is some decline of rel.ETR, which is not apparent with 625-nm illumination. The decline of rel.ETR is likely to reflect Selleckchem EX-527 photoinhibition and, hence, the observed differences between 440- and 625-nm illumination seem to agree with previous findings that blue light is more effective than red light in causing photoinhibition. At this stage, however, it would be premature to interpret these data as evidence for the two-step hypothesis of photoinhibition (see “Introduction”), with the rate-limiting step consisting of blue-light-induced damage of the OEC. Obviously, 440-nm photons are much better absorbed by PS II than 625-nm photons, so that the data also agree with the notion that the extent of photoinhibition increases with the rate of PS II turnover. The decisive question is whether more photoinhibition is also observed when the same flux density of PS II-absorbed 440- and 625-nm photons is applied. This aspect will be further investigated below (see Figs. 8, 9). In Fig.

Table 1 The relationships for the structures of α-adrenergic agon

Table 1 The relationships for the structures of α-adrenergic agonists and some antagonists optimized in vacuo and in aquatic environment statistical C59 wnt cost parameters: R, s, F and P of regression equation log k = k 0 + k 1Descriptor1 + k 2Descriptor2, where n = 11 k 1Descriptor1

MK-8776 nmr k 2Descriptor2 R s F P In vacuo log k AGP 0.9019 ± 0.1440 V – 0.9019 0.1055 39.2375 0.0001 log k IAM −0.9418 ± 0.1121 BE – 0.9418 0.1633 70.5851 0.0001 log k w7.4Su −0.9596 ± 0.0938 BE – 0.9596 0.2424 104.5626 0.0001 log k w2.5Sp −1.6761 ± 0.1742 BE 1.0907 ± 0.1742 TE 0.9636 0.1634 51.8941 0.0001 Hydrated log k AGP 0.9042 ± 0.1426 V – 0.9042 0.1043 40.3182 0.0001 log k IAM −0.9418 ± 0.1121 BE – 0.9418 learn more 0.1632 70.6113 0.0001 log k w7.4Su −1.0316 ± 0.0726 BE 0.02163 ± 0.0726 TDM 0.9811 0.1769 102.6939 0.0001 log k w2.5Sp −1.6752 ± 0.1740 BE 1.0896 ± 0.1740 TE 0.9636 0.1633 51.9731 0.0001 Table 2

The relationships for the structures of α-adrenergic agonists optimized in vacuo; by PCM method; statistical parameters: R, s, F and P of regression equation log k (column) = k 0 + k 1Descriptor1, where n = 8 k 1Descriptor1 R s F P log k IAM 0.9420 ± 0.1371 IPOL 0.9420 0.1271 47.2322 0.0005 log k w7.4Su 0.9714 ± 0.0968 ESE 0.9714 0.1499 100.6252 0.0001 log k w2.5Sp 0.9527 ± 0.1240 IPOL 0.9527 0.1994 59.0060 0.0002 log k w7.3Al 0.9295 ± 0.1505 ESE 0.9295 0.2286 38.1378 0.0008 Table 3 The activity relationships for the structures

of α-adrenergic antagonists and agonists optimized in vacuo and in aquatic environment; statistical parameters: R, s, F and P of regression equation: pA2 (α1) in vivo/pA2 (α1) in vitro/pC25 = k 0 + k 1Descriptor1 + k 2Descriptor2 k 1Descriptor1 k 2Descriptor2 R s F P pA2 (α 1 ) in vivo, in vacuo, n = 11 −0.6287 ± 0.1622 HE −0.5189 ± 0.1622 E_LUMO 0.8935 0.4463 15.8397 0.0016 pA2 (α 1 ) in vitro, in vacuo, n = 11 −0.6398 ± 0.1674 E_LUMO −0.4957 ± 0.1674 HE 0.8861 0.4808 14.6273 0.0021 pA2 (α 1 ) in vivo, hydrated, n = 11 −0.6089 ± 0.1553 HE −0.5558 ± 0.1553 ioxilan E_LUMO 0.9026 0.4279 17.5874 0.0012 pA2 (α 1 ) in vitro, hydrated, n = 11 −0.8639 ± 0.1575 E_LUMO 0.4811 ± 0.1575 HF 0.8998 0.4526 17.0163 0.0013 pC25, in vacuo, n = 8 −0.8672 ± 0.2033 E_LUMO – 0.8672 0.4310 18.1891 0.0053 pC25, hydrated, n = 8 −0.8798 ± 0.1941 E_LUMO – 0.8798 0.4114 20.5463 0.0040 According on the chromatographic relationships for the structures of α-adrenergic agonists and some antagonists optimized in vacuo, they are characterized by the values of the regression coefficients R > 0.9.