Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), commonly defined as three or more

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), commonly defined as three or more spontaneous pregnancy losses before 20 weeks of gestation, is as frequent as in 1–2% of reproductive couples.[2] The expected prevalence of pregnancy loss following three or more episodes is one in 300 pregnancies, 0.3%.[3] The etiology of RPL is multifactorial, Alectinib datasheet and sometimes women with RPL showed multiple causative factors following thorough evaluation.[4] In general, more than half of women

with RPL have autoimmune or alloimmune abnormalities. Antiphospholipid syndrome is a well-known autoimmune factor, which causes thrombosis in the uterine vessels and decrease in blood supply to the fetomaternal interface. Alloimmune abnormalities seem to significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of RPL, even though the exact extent of these abnormalities remains to be defined. Natural killer cells have been extensively studied in RPL. High proportion and high cytotoxicity of NK cells have been reported as poor prognostic factors.[5-7] In addition, an increased population of CD4+ Th1 cells is also thought to be harmful in early pregnancy.[8-10] Recent advances in immunologic studies have widened our knowledge of how the immune response is regulated.

Regulatory T cells are considered the most important immune regulator, especially in the peripheral immune system.[11, selleck screening library 12] Recently, a new T-cell subset was introduced as another key effector T cell. These Th17 cells, which secrete IL-17, are thought to play a role in chronic inflammation and protection from fungal infection.[13, 14] There is growing evidence that regulatory T and Th17 cells are involved in establishment and maintenance of pregnancy as regulator and effector cells, respectively.

Many researchers suggest that an immune imbalance between effectors Clomifene and regulatory cells may lead implantation failure and many other pregnancy disorders. This review will discuss recent and review recent studies concerning regulatory T and Th17 cells in RPL and infertility. For immune homeostasis, the balance between effector cells and regulator cells is necessary. Some conditions such as microbial infection trigger immune activation to defend against microorganisms or repair tissue damage. However, this activated immune response should be downregulated and return to the same normal state as prior to activation. The idea of immune regulation by thymic lymphocytes was introduced by Gershon and Kondo in 1970,[15] and T lymphocytes that were capable of suppressing an immune response were named as suppressor T cells.[16] Even though there were many efforts to identify these cells, the search for the elusive suppressor T cells was not successful for a few decades. In 1995, CD4+ CD25+ T cells were reported as a particular T-cell subset with regulatory function in mice.

The defects were located at the ankle (three cases), foot (two ca

The defects were located at the ankle (three cases), foot (two cases), and heel (six cases).

Particular attention was paid to precise patient selection and surgical refinements. Patient selection was based on the lower limb vascular status by palpable distal pedal pulses and ankle brachial index ranging from 0.9 to 1.2. Surgical techniques were refined as precisely locating the perforators of peroneal artery, placing the skin paddle in upper third of leg for a distal region coverage, designing a 7-cm-wide adipofascial pedicle with a 2 cm skin paddle on it, preserving the mesentery structure of sural nerve and concomitant artery with or without including gastrocnemius muscles cuff, no tunneling when inset this flap and supercharging selleck chemical with lesser saphenous vein whenever needed. All the flaps survived completely. Only NU7441 solubility dmso one patient required immediate anastomosis of lesser saphenous

vein to local vein around defect in order to relieve the venous congestion during operation. Patients felt diminished but adequate recovery of sense of touch and temperature at the flap. Following the precise patient selection and surgical refinements, the modified reverse sural flap seemed to be a reliable and effective local flap for reconstruction of the soft tissue defects on ankle and foot. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 33:342–349, 2013. “
“Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone allotransplants. We aim to determine whether bone remodeling in VEGF-treated bone allotransplants results from repopulation

with circulation-derived autogenous cells or survival of allogenic transplant-derived cells. Vascularized femoral bone transplants were transplanted from female Dark Agouti rats (DA;RT1a) to male Piebald Viral Glaxo (PVG;RT1c). Arteriovenous bundle implantation and short-term immunosuppression were used to maintain cellular viability. VEGF was encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres and delivered intramedullary in the experimental group (n = 22). In the control group (n = 22), no VEGF was delivered. Rats were sacrificed at 4 or 18 weeks. Laser capture microdissection L-gulonolactone oxidase of bone remodeling areas was performed at the inner and outer cortex. Sex-mismatched genes were quantified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the amount of male cells to total cells, defined as the relative expression ratio (rER). At 4 weeks, rER was significantly higher at the inner cortex in VEGF-treated transplants as compared to untreated transplants (0.622 ± 0.225 vs. 0.362 ± 0.081, P = 0.043). At 4 weeks, the outer cortex in the control group had a significantly higher rER (P = 0.038), whereas in the VEGF group, the inner cortex had a higher rER (P = 0.015). Over time, in the outer cortex the rER significantly increased to 0.634 ± 0.106 at 18 weeks in VEGF-treated rats (P = 0.049). At 18 weeks, the rER was >0.5 at all cortical areas in both groups.

5, bottom panel; Supporting Information Fig S1D) This result is

5, bottom panel; Supporting Information Fig. S1D). This result is consistent with the hypothesis that in the presence of polyclonal Treg cells, fewer cells leave the LN to enter the circulation, and fewer cells are therefore available to respond to antigen at a distant site. To begin to explore potential mechanisms by which Treg cells might inhibit T-cell trafficking from the site of immunization, we initially compared the phenotype of Teff

cells primed in the presence or absence of Treg cells. There were no differences between the two groups for a variety of markers tested. A summary of various markers, cytokines and chemokine/chemokine receptors that Maraviroc manufacturer were consistently found to be unaltered between the two groups can be found in Supporting Information Table 1. These results suggested to us that the presence of a higher number of Treg cells does not result in global and dramatic alterations to the immune response, but influences immunological

outcomes check details by targeting very specific pathways. To elucidate these pathways, we purified Teff cells from mice that had been immunized in the presence or absence of Treg cells and subjected mRNA from these cells to microarray analysis. Remarkably, very few genes were found to be up or downregulated by more than three-fold between the two groups (data not shown), further confirming the notion that Treg cells do not induce global changes. Notably, two of the genes that were found to be different between the two groups were involved in cell migration and trafficking. CXCR4 was found to be decreased over four-fold in the presence of Treg cells. We confirmed this observation both at the protein and at the mRNA level (Fig. 6). We also confirmed at the protein level decreased

expression of Syndecan-4, a molecule involved in cell motility 11. An additional molecule that has been well characterized as being important in the trafficking of T lymphocytes is the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor before 1 (S1P1) 12. S1P1 levels are rapidly downregulated on T cells following entry into the LN. As T cells are primed and differentiate, they upregulate S1P1 allowing the cell to respond to high levels of S1P in the circulation and exit the LN in response to the concentration gradient 13, 14. We observed a dramatic decrease in S1P1 expression at the mRNA level in Teff cells that had been primed in the presence of Treg cells. This observation provides a potential mechanistic explanation for the retention of Teff cells in the LN. By altering the expression of S1P1 on Teff cells, Treg cells would affect the ability of these cells to migrate out of the LN and into the circulation. It remains to be determined whether Treg cell-mediated suppression of S1P1 upregulation on Teff cells is direct or indirect. Both polyclonal and antigen-specific Treg cells are capable of suppressing immune responses in vitro and in vivo.

mirabilis Orf9 belongs to the group 1 family of glycosyltransfer

mirabilis. Orf9 belongs to the group 1 family of glycosyltransferases (Pfam00534, E value = 9 × e−28) and shares 33% identity to glycosyltransferase of Herpetosiphon aurantiacus. Therefore, orf7, orf9, and orf12 were proposed to encode the three glycosyltransferases and were named wpaA, wpaB, and wpaD, respectively. Among four known pathways for synthesis and translocation check details of O-antigen (Hug et al., 2010; Valvano, 2011), the Wzx/Wzy-depending pathway occurs in the synthesis of the majority of O-antigens, especially heteropolymeric O-antigens. Both Wzx (flippase)

and Wzy (O-antigen polymerase) are highly hydrophobic inner membrane proteins, usually sharing little sequence identities with their homologues. In the O40-antigen gene cluster, orf6 and orf8 are the only two genes encoding predicted membrane proteins. Orf6 has 12 predicted transmembrane segments, which is a typical topology for Wzx proteins, and shares 46% identity or 63% similarity with putative flippase of E. coli O91. It was proposed that orf6 encodes the O-antigen flippase and was named wzx. Orf8 exhibited no sequence identity to any protein in GenBank. However, the transmembrane region search indicated that it had 10 predicted transmembrane segments with a large Talazoparib chemical structure periplasmic loop of 34 amino acid residues. One or two such loops have

been reported for a number of O-antigen polymerases (Islam et al., 2010; Islam et al., 2011; Daniels et al., 1998) and seemed to be important in the recognition of the O-unit or/and for the catalytic activity (Valvano,

2011). Therefore, orf8 was proposed to encode O-antigen polymerase and, accordingly, was designated wzy. These findings suggested that the biosynthesis of the P. alcalifaciens O40-antigen is mediated by the Wzx/Wzy-dependent process. orf15, orf16, and orf17 are homologues of wza, wzb, and wzc genes required for the biosynthesis and export of group 1 and Etofibrate 4 capsular polysaccharides (CPS) (Whitfield, 2006). In particular, tyrosine–protein kinase Wzc and its cognate tyrosine phosphatase Wzb are essential for maintaining polymerization process, and Wza is involved in forming an outer membrane pore through which the CPS is translocated (Collins et al., 2007). Together with a nonessential gene named wzi, the wza, wzb, and wzc genes comprise a conserved locus within group 1 CPS biosynthesis clusters of E. coli (Whitfield, 2006). In contrast, in E. coli group 4 capsular producers, the wza, wzb, and wzc genes are accompanied by the ymcABCD genes and located outside the CPS gene cluster. Both group 1 and 4 capsules can be anchored to the cell surface by means of core-lipid A giving rise to the so-called KLPS. Some strains coexpress KLPS with a “normal” LPS, whereas others produce KLPS as the only serotype-specific polysaccharide (Whitfield, 2006). The latter seems to be the case of P.

This hypothesis was further supported by the finding that ZNF9 ca

This hypothesis was further supported by the finding that ZNF9 can bind ribosomal protein mRNA in Xenopus and, more recently, in humans [42,43]. Moreover, recent studies show that ZNF9 is part of a ribonucleoprotein complex that promotes cap-independent mRNAs translation [44]. Western blot analysis presented here indicates that: (i) the K20 Ab, used in the subsequent experiments on ZNF9 localization, recognizes a single electrophoretic band consistent with ZNF9 MW (19 kDa) in rat and human tissue extracts; and (ii) ZNF9 is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues, at the highest level in liver, spleen

and brain, and at a lower level in heart and skeletal muscle. This last result is not entirely consistent with the tissue distribution of ZNF9 mRNA observed Seliciclib in a recent report [24]. The discrepancy could be due to tissue-specific translational and/or post-translational H 89 manufacturer regulation, which would be interesting to further investigate.

In addition, our WB analysis revealed that the signal of ZNF9 does not appear to be consistently altered in DM2 muscles as compared with normal, although some variability was observed. We obtained similar results probing DM2 lymphoblastoid cells with the antiserum from which the K20 Ab was purified [38]. Normal levels of ZNF9 mRNA and protein were also detected by Margolis et al.[45] in myoblasts and muscle tissue from heterozygous and homozygous DM2 patients using an Ab to the middle portion of the ZNF9 protein. On the other hand, two recent studies report a decrease of ZNF9 protein in DM2 myoblasts and muscle

biopsies [42,46]. Several reasons that may underlie this discrepancy may include the presence of mixed cell populations in biopsies as opposed to the purity of myoblast culture, the use of different cell types (lymphoblastoid vs. myoblasts) or different Abs. Moreover, the limited number of samples used in this and in other studies suggests that more definitive data on ZNF9 expression in DM2, possibly correlated with histological grading and [CCUG]n expansion size, should be obtained from larger pools mafosfamide of patients. Our IF experiments are helpful in locating ZNF9 in myofibres, in relation to subcellular structures. The combination of a myofibrillar pattern of distribution in transverse section, and the localization to cross-striational bands with a thickness of about 1 µm, corresponding to the size of I bands in semi-relaxation, suggests a location of ZNF9 immunoreactivity within or in association with sarcomeric structures. This is confirmed by the results obtained from double IF experiments. Indeed, when comparing ZNF9 distribution with that of two non-repetitive epitopes located at distant sites along the titin molecule, we observed different patterns of localization.

5) The donor site was closed primarily The patient was most rec

5). The donor site was closed primarily. The patient was most recently seen 6 months post-operatively,

at which time his flap was healthy and viable; the patient was able to close the eye without lagophthalmos, visual changes, or diplopia (Fig. 6). The donor site healed with minimal morbidity (Fig. 7). The UFFF was first described by Lovie et al. [3] Other flaps were previously the mainstay of head and neck reconstruction, including the pectoralis major myocutaneous, lateral upper arm, and vastus lateralis flaps.[2, 7] The radial forearm flap and anterolateral thigh flaps remain important tools in head and neck reconstruction.[19, 20] However, many RNA Synthesis inhibitor of these flaps posed three-dimensional reconstruction RAD001 clinical trial issues and anastomosis difficulties due to the bulkiness of the tissue.[6] However, the UFFF is a thin, pliable flap that is also versatile enough for the delicate structures of the head and neck, especially intraoral defect repairs.[13] The UFFF is also technically easy to harvest, with excellent vasculature ideal for head and neck reconstruction.[7] Unlike the diameter of the radial artery, the diameter of the ulnar artery is similar to the venae comitantes’, allowing for better size match for both

artery and vein to the corresponding vessels in the head and neck.[18] Our case also demonstrated perforators supplying the UFFF. In a study by Yu et al.,[18] perforator location in 38 UFFFs were determined by arm proportions; with the pisiform at the wrist crease designated as point 0, the epicondyle as 1.0, and the midpoint as 0.5, perforators were typically

located 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 cm ulnar to the pisiform-to-epicondyle line. In this study of 38 patients undergoing repair of head and neck defects with SPTLC1 UFFFs, all patients had two (39%) or three (61%) perforators.[18] The robust vasculature of the UFFF would thus allow for the viability of UFFFs when utilized in head and neck reconstruction. This point is emphasized by so few flap losses in this review. One thing to note is the pedicle length of the UFFF; Sieg et al.[2] reported a long pedicle length compared with alternative transplants but shorter than the radial equivalent. An additional consideration when using the UFFF is the presence of a superficial ulnar artery in place of the normal ulnar artery. In a study by Sieg et al.,[11] none of these vascular anomalies were identified preoperatively by the Allen’s test, only intra-operatively during dissection. In this study, four (3.7%) cases out of 107 UFFFs demonstrated a superficial ulnar artery; however, the smaller superficial ulnar artery was still able to adequately perfuse these flaps, keeping the reconstructed sites viable and healthy.

This might have direct implication for all those clinical conditi

This might have direct implication for all those clinical conditions relying on T-cell detection for diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, the finding that IL-7 elicits the expansion of tumour-specific T cells, in the absence of exogenous Ag provision provides a suitable alternative for all those situations for which the Ag remains to be identified. In the model system adopted in

this study, IL-7-expanded CD4+ T cells were capable of supporting the development of protective anti-tumour immunity, while IL-2 cultured cells were not. To date, OTX015 in vivo the clinical efficacy of ACT, although proven in recent clinical trails 1, remains limited to a fraction of the patients. This might be due to limitations imposed by current strategies click here used to isolate tumour-specific lymphocytes,

and insufficient CD4+ T-cell help. Indeed, present ACT strategies mostly exploit Ag in combination with IL-2-driven T-cell stimulation, which favor production of effector CD8+ T cells lacking long-term survival 36, 50. In agreement, we found that IL-2, although capable of sustaining the proliferation/accumulation of in vivo Ag-sensitized CD4+ T cells without the need of exogenous Ag provision, did not promote viability/survival and LN homing to similar extents as IL-7. Alongside with effector cytokine production (IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion), IL-7-cultured CD4+ T cells maintained a less differentiated phenotype than IL-2 cultured CD4+ T cells, allowing superior persistence and LN homing when infused in tumour-bearing hosts. We found that replenishing the cultures with IL-7 after 7 days further promoted the accumulation of tumour-specific T cells (data not shown). At present it remains to be determined whether longer cultures will also preserve the poorly differentiated state of the cells, which might be critical for the in vivo efficacy. Most recently, IL-7 was also shown to promote the ex vivo expansion of CD8+ T cells 51, 52. This together with the notion that less differentiated T-cell subsets might be more potent than fully differentiated effector cells 53, suggest that

IL-7 should be preferred Obeticholic Acid to IL-2 when attempting the ex vivo expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to be used in anti-tumour ACT. TS/A-LACK cells do not express MHC class II molecules, and their parental cell line TS/A relies on CD8+ T cells to be rejected 47. We speculate that IL-7-expanded cells following ACT by migrating to T-dLN and to the tumour might provide help to CD8+ T cells and other immune effectors and by that favor tumour rejection. Thus, together with the finding that IL-7 and IL-15 drives the in vitro generation of self-renewing central memory human T lymphocytes 54, our data support the use of IL-7 for the identification and the expansion of clinically relevant T-cell subsets. Eight-week-old BALB/c mice were purchased from Charles River (Charles River Italia, Milan, Italy). 16.

Indeed, the profound effects of adjuvants such as alum [40] or To

Indeed, the profound effects of adjuvants such as alum [40] or Toll-like receptor ligands [41] on Th cell differentiation have been described. Thus, we favor the view that INK 128 mouse the major

effector function of IFN-γ in the pathogenesis of myocarditis is to drive the early inflammatory process, as revealed by our analysis. However, IFN-γ is not the major effector cytokine for the pathogenic remodeling of the heart muscle leading to heart failure, since it is the cooperation of IFN-γ and IL-17A that is essential for progressive disease. The early changes in the heart muscle physiology in TCR-M myocarditis could be readily detected by CMRI. We found that the initial IL-6- and IFN-γ-driven inflammation led to a significant increase in the left ventricle wall thickness at week 5. Such transient ventricular wall thickening has also been described in early stages of human myocarditis [42]. It is likely that the increased wall thickness during the early heart inflammation is the reason for the lowered end systolic and end diastolic volumes with the resulting increase in the EF. Importantly, the heart function determined as systolic volume remained stable during this phase. Our CMRI analysis in 12-week-old TCR-M mice revealed the extraordinary capacity of the mouse find more heart to fully compensate the early pathophysiological

changes and to cope with

the ongoing chronic myocarditis. Once TCR-M had overcome the first “critical” 3 months period, they survived and bred for more than 1 year (our unpublished data). We are convinced that future prospective CMRI and echocardiagraphic studies in TCR-M mice will reveal those morphological and functional parameters that are predictive for either 4��8C progression to DCM or successful compensation. Since the expression of myhca is absent in thymic epithelial cells both in humans [25] and mice ([25] and this study), central myhca-specific T-cell tolerance is not operational. Thus, in humans, it is mostly likely that the occurrence of particular MHC class II alleles critically impinges on the susceptibility to autoimmune myocarditis. Indeed, expression of the human MHC class II antigen HLA-DQ8 in autoimmune disease-prone NOD mice precipitates spontaneous autoimmune myocarditis [43, 44]. Likewise, the TCR-M transgenic mouse with spontaneously developing, Th cell driven cardiac inflammatory disease recapitulates the central processes in the transition from autoimmune myocarditis to DCM. Importantly, the TCR-M model permits the dissection of essential immune effector pathways in monoclonal heart-specific T cells, such as the contribution of Th1/Th17 cells, in a spontaneously occurring disease setting without the strong immune-biasing effects of certain adjuvants.

Second, autoimmune responses are dynamic and the features of the

Second, autoimmune responses are dynamic and the features of the response to a given antigen can vary within different windows of time and within different tissues.[31] Therefore, our results could have been influenced by

the timing of our sampling or by the fact that only the periphery could be sampled. In spite CHIR-99021 purchase of these limitations, the results of our study provide a practical means to address important hypotheses in human subjects with T1D. Our results demonstrate a diversity of GAD65 responses: at least 12 DR0401-restricted epitopes that can be processed and presented from intact protein. As summarized in Table 4, a limited panel of epitopes could detect responses to more than one GAD65 epitope in virtually every subject, allowing visualization and comparison of responses in healthy subjects Selleck Bortezomib and in subjects with T1D using tetramers. Recent technical advances in our laboratory and by other groups allow the direct phenotypic analysis of tetramer-positive cells following ex vivo magnetic enrichment.[32, 33] Applying these methods with this selection of epitopes would provide an excellent tool to measure the frequencies, phenotypes and dynamics of autoreactive T cells in human subjects. It would be of particular interest to identify clear phenotypic

attributes of autoreactive T cells that are associated with disease progression or that correlate with therapeutic outcomes. Ongoing work should focus on identifying imbalances in particular T-cell subsets (Treg cells, T helper cells types 1, 2 or 17), or variations in cytokine production, activation status or homing markers that are a prelude to disease onset. These future studies are likely to provide important insights into disease mechanism and opportunities for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic intervention. We thank the staff of the JDRF Center for Translational Research and the Benaroya Research Institute Translational Research programme for subject recruitment and sample management. We thank Ms Diana Sorus for assisting with preparation of the manuscript. This work was supported in part by

a grant from the JDRF (Center for Translational Research acetylcholine at Benaroya Research Institute; 33-2008-398). The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. “
“Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disorder with a varied clinical presentation [1]. The age of onset varies from early childhood to much later in life, and the disease is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, hypogammaglobulinaemia and impaired antibody responses. In addition to recurrent infections, which can be mild or serious, CVID patients often develop inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, malignancies and systemic granuloma formation, as well as gastrointestinal (GI) problems [2]. Most CVID cases are sporadic, but there are also families with more than one affected member.

The infected mice displayed a significant up-regulation in the ex

The infected mice displayed a significant up-regulation in the expression of chemokines (Cxcl1, Cxcl2 and Ccl2), numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines (Ifng, Il1b, Il6, and Il17f), as well as Il22 and a number of anti-microbial peptides (Defa1, Defa28, Defb1, Slpi and Reg3g) at the site(s) of infection. This was accompanied by a significant influx of neutrophils, click here dendritic cells, cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and all major subsets of lymphocytes to these site(s). However, CD4 T cells of the untreated and C. difficile-infected mice expressed similar levels of CD69 and CD25. Neither tissue had up-regulated levels of Tbx21, Gata3 or Rorc. The caeca and colons of the

infected mice showed a significant increase in eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation, but neither the splicing of Xbp1 nor the up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones, casting doubt on the full-fledged induction of the unfolded protein response by C. difficile. They also displayed significantly higher phosphorylation of AKT and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an indication of pro-survival signalling. These data

underscore the local, innate, pro-inflammatory nature of the response to C. difficile and highlight eIF2α phosphorylation and the interleukin-22–pSTAT3–RegIIIγ axis as two of the pathways that could be used to contain and counteract the damage inflicted on the intestinal Talazoparib epithelium. Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium.[1] It is the most prevalent cause of infectious Phosphoprotein phosphatase diarrhoea in antibiotic-treated patients in hospitals.[2, 3] Infection with C. difficile can lead to a broad range of clinical outcomes, including asymptomatic colonization, mild diarrhoea and severe pseudomembranous colitis. Clostridium difficile encodes a number of toxins. Of these, two exotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, are the bacterium’s main virulence factors. Both toxins are glucosyltransferases that irreversibly inactivate small GTPases of the Rho family.[4, 5] This in turn leads to the depolymerization of the epithelial actin cytoskeleton, impaired function of tight junctions and severe epithelial cell damage.[6-8] The use of

ileal loop models has provided useful insights into the function of these toxins.[9] Studies using mouse models of C. difficile infection have proven the higher susceptibility of MyD88−/−[10] and Toll-like receptor 4−/−[11] mice and the protective effect of Toll-like receptor 5 stimulation against acute C. difficile colitis.[12] The higher susceptibility of MyD88−/− mice is at least in part due to impaired CXCL1 expression and the consequent reduction in neutrophil influx to the site of infection.[13] Interestingly, NOD1−/− mice also have reduced neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection, but show similar levels of epithelial damage as wild-type mice.[14] However, much remains to be determined about the host inflammatory and mucosal response to C.