difficile (Levett, 1986) This study was supported in part by the

difficile (Levett, 1986). This study was supported in part by the Slovenian Research Agency Grants J4-2236 and P4-0092). We thank Dr John Pringle, SLU, for critical reading of the manuscript. “
“Flexirubins are specific polyene pigments produced by several genera of Bacteroidetes. Colonies and cell extracts of Flavobacterium johnsoniae and Flexibacter elegans have been

investigated by Raman spectroscopy to show that this fast and non-destructive technique can be used to differentiate PFT�� ic50 these pigments from carotenoids and to compare the flexirubin content of the two microorganisms. The presence or absence of certain distinguishing features in the CH combination band region at 2500–2750 cm−1 can assist in the discrimination between the two flexirubins investigated. Raman spectroscopy is thus a suitable CDK inhibitor tool not only to detect flexirubin pigments in bacterial cells, but also to further

characterize the pigments present in members of the Bacteroidetes genera that are rich in flexirubins. “
“Myxococcus xanthus has a large number of histidine kinase (HK) signal transduction proteins and many of these HKs are important for fruiting body development. Nla6S is an uncharacterized HK that lacks many of the conserved sequence motifs of typical HK proteins. In this study, we report that expression of the nla6S gene increases about sixfold during fruiting body development, that the Nla6S protein has the in vitro properties of HKs and that Nla6S is the prototype for a new family of HKs. To date, these Nla6-like HKs are found

only in fruiting members of the Cystobacterineae suborder of the myxobacteria. The myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus has a highly social lifestyle. To obtain nutrients, gliding swarms of M. xanthus cells hunt prey bacteria and feed on them. When they are starving, M. xanthus cells initiate Lenvatinib purchase a development cycle that yields multicellular fruiting bodies containing thousands of stress-resistant spores. Because of this multicellular lifestyle, M. xanthus has developed intricate signal transduction networks that monitor cell–cell signals and signals from the environment, and respond accordingly. Myxococcus xanthus has an abundance of histidine kinase (HK) sensor proteins to monitor these signals (Goldman et al., 2006). HKs, together with response regulators (RR), form a signal relay system known as the two-component signal transduction system (TCS). In this system, the HK autophosphorylates when it detects a particular signal and transfers the phosphoryl group to the RR, which activates it (Laub & Goulian, 2007). Activated RRs then alter the appropriate cellular process, often by modulating changes in gene expression. HKs typically contain a sensor and a transmitter domain (Stewart, 2010). The amino acid sequences of sensor domains are highly variable owing to the vast diversity of signals that they detect.

78 to 096 years when the monthly probability of chronic AIDS mor

78 to 0.96 years when the monthly probability of chronic AIDS mortality was increased or decreased by 50%. Use of mean chronic AIDS mortality risks for CD4 counts of >200 cells/μL, rather than the upper bound of the 95% CI used in the base case analysis, decreased the incremental gain in life

expectancy attributable to first-line efavirenz use to 0.51 years. Mean projected life expectancy for women receiving an efavirenz-based first-line ART regimen starting at CD4<500 cells/μL was 30.45 life years, while mean life expectancy for women who delayed efavirenz use and were treated with an alternative initial ART regimen which did not contain efavirenz was 29.53 life years. The life expectancy gain attributable Venetoclax to using an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen was 0.92 years. Increasing the discount rate from 0% (base case) to 5%

lowered incremental life expectancy gains attributable to use of an efavirenz-based first-line ART regimen from 0.89 to 0.21 years, a difference of 0.68 years. For women without efavirenz exposure during pregnancy, the rate of teratogenic events was 72.46 events per 100 000 women (Table 4). For women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy, the rate was 77.26 events per 100 000 women. We conducted a sensitivity analysis using age-group-specific pregnancy rates for women aged 15–24, 25–34 and 35–44 years. Using a pregnancy rate of 18.1 pregnancies per 100 person-years for women aged 15–24 years, the number of teratogenic events with use of efavirenz Sunitinib cost was 188.96 events per 100 000 women (11.73 excess events per 100 000 women). In contrast, using a pregnancy rate of 1.4 pregnancies per 100 person-years for women aged 35–44 years, the risk of excess teratogenic events decreased to 0.91 events per 100 000 women. Results of other one-way sensitivity analyses on the rate components of the decision model are summarized in Table 4. When the live birth rate was

varied from 27% to 45% (base case rate: 36%), the excess risk of teratogenic events attributable to efavirenz use ranged from 3.60 to 5.99 events per 100 000 women. When the rate of teratogenic events with efavirenz was varied from 1.60% to 4.90%, the excess teratogenicity risk ranged from −29.84 to 58.08 events per 100 000 women. Here, a negative risk of excess teratogenic events suggests that efavirenz use confers no excess teratogenicity Baricitinib risk beyond the background risk. Figure 1 shows the results of a two-way sensitivity analysis on the prevalence of teratogenic events with efavirenz use and the pregnancy rate. For women aged 15–24 years with the highest pregnancy rate (18.1 pregnancies per 100 person-years) and the highest teratogenicity risk (4.9%; the upper bound of the 95% CI for the mean rate of teratogenicity with efavirenz), the estimated number of excess teratogenic events was 142.05 events per 100 000 women. For women aged 35–44 years with the lowest pregnancy rate (1.

The inhibition of binding of NheB to Vero cell monolayers by DDM

The inhibition of binding of NheB to Vero cell monolayers by DDM provides a mechanism for why the propidium uptake was abolished in Vero cells. DDM induces oligomer formation in NheB. Based on the pore formation by ClyA (Mueller et al., 2009), the conformational changes involved are irreversible, and so when NheB/DDM micelles are added to the Vero cells,

the protein is unable to bind to the native cell membranes. It cannot be excluded that Selleck GSK 3 inhibitor NheB may have a tendency to aggregate as well as forming organized multimeric structures. However, the fact that NheB pre-incubated with water was still able to bind to Vero cells and induce propidium uptake indicates that any such aggregation does not prohibit functional activity. The selective action of DDM

on NheB but not NheA and NheC was unexpected given their amino acid homology between all three components (see Fagerlund et al., 2008) and structural similarity selleckchem between NheB and NheC as predicted by homology modelling based on the crystal structure of HBl-B (Madegowda et al., 2008). More recently, we have shown that membrane-bound NheB is necessary for subsequent binding of NheA (Didier et al., 2012). Thus, we propose that pore formation by Nhe requires NheB binding to the cell membrane, conformational changes (as indicated by ANS binding) and oligomerization (SEC and differential dialysis). This process is irreversible such that when it occurs in DDM micelles, cytotoxicity to native cells is prevented. “
“Pseudomonas sp. TLC6-6.5-4 is a multiple metal resistant plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from copper-contaminated lake sediments. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of genes involved in copper resistance was performed by generating a library of transposon (Tn5) mutants. Two copper-sensitive mutants with significant reduction in copper resistance were identified: CSM1, a mutant disrupted in trpA gene (tryptophan synthase alpha subunit),

Niclosamide and CSM2, a mutant disrupted in clpA gene (ATP-dependent Clp protease). Proteomic and metabolomic analyses were performed to identify biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in copper resistance using CSM2 due to its lower minimum inhibitory concentration compared with CSM1 and the wild type. Proteomic analysis revealed that disruption of Clp protease gene up-regulated molecular chaperones and down-regulated the expression of enzymes related to tRNA modification, whereas metabolomic analysis showed that amino acid and oligosaccharide transporters that are part of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters pathways were down-regulated. Further, copper stress altered metabolic pathways including the tricarboxylic acid cycle, protein absorption and glyoxylate metabolism. Copper is an essential micronutrient for bacterial growth because it is the cofactor for many key enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidases or monooxygenases (Frangipani et al., 2008).

In contrast to ED utilization in the general population, sociodem

In contrast to ED utilization in the general population, sociodemographic characteristics and drug use contributed little to the probability of ED visits in a cohort of HIV-infected persons receiving care in 1991–1992; ED utilization was primarily driven by disease severity [5]. In-patient utilization has declined and out-patient utilization increased with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy

(HAART), but rates of ED utilization have not been reported in the current era of HAART [6–10]. ED care is expensive and may be potentially avoidable. Identifying factors associated with ED visits is an important step in improving healthcare delivery to HIV-infected patients and reducing healthcare costs. As HIV-infected patients are now living longer and healthier lives [11–14], GSK-3 inhibitor we hypothesized that ED utilization and in-patient admissions would GW572016 be more strongly associated with sociodemographic and substance use characteristics, compared with factors related to the clinical aspects of HIV disease [15–19]. The objective of this study was to assess

utilization rates, reasons for ED utilization, and patient characteristics associated with ED utilization in the HAART era among patients who have a primary source of HIV care. We evaluated the characteristics associated with one or more ED visits, including demographic factors, frequency of primary care visits, pain, CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA. We also examined factors associated with being admitted to the hospital from the ED. This study was

a cross-sectional survey, based on in-person interviews with patients recruited from HIV clinics. Patients were not recruited directly from EDs. The HIV Research Network (HIVRN) is a consortium of out-patient clinics that provide primary and subspecialty care to HIV-infected adult and paediatric patients. Clinics abstract specified data elements from patients’ medical records; abstracted data are assembled into those a uniform database and submitted to a Data Coordinating Center [2,20]. Patients are identified only by a coded ID number in the medical record database. Fourteen out of the 15 clinics that treated adult patients participated in conducting interviews with patients. Six are located in the Eastern USA, three in the Midwest, two in the South and three in the West. Seven clinics have academic affiliations; seven are community-based. Initially, Data Coordinating Center staff drew a random sample from each participating clinic using the coded IDs in the medical record database. The sampling frame consisted of active patients in 2002 at these sites. Sampled IDs were then sent to the clinics to be linked with personal identifiers by clinic staff. Because of confidentiality restrictions, each sampled patient had to be first approached by a clinic staff member to solicit participation in the interview. Clinic staff mailed letters of invitation to potential study patients at their last known address.

With regard to cervical cytology, HIV-positive pregnant women sho

With regard to cervical cytology, HIV-positive pregnant women should be managed as per Guidelines see more for the NHS Cervical Screening Programme 2010 [48]. Routine cytology should be deferred until after delivery, but if follow-up cytology or colposcopy is advised because of a previously abnormal result, then this should be undertaken. 4.2.1 Newly diagnosed HIV-positive

pregnant women do not require any additional baseline investigations compared with non-pregnant HIV-positive women other than those routinely performed in the general antenatal clinic. Grading: 1D 4.2.2 HIV resistance testing should be performed before initiation of treatment (as per BHIVA guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1 positive adults with antiretroviral therapy 2012; www.bhiva.org/PublishedandApproved.aspx ), except for late-presenting women. Post short-course treatment a further resistance test is recommended to ensure that mutations

are not missed with reversion during the off-treatment period. Grading: 1D In the case of late-presenting women, HAART, based on epidemiological assessment of resistance, should be initiated without delay and modified once the resistance test is available. 4.2.3 In learn more women who either conceive on HAART or who do not require HAART for their own health there should be a minimum of one CD4 cell count at baseline and one at delivery. Grading: 2D 4.2.4 In women who commence HAART in pregnancy a VL should be performed 2–4 weeks after commencing HAART, at least once every trimester, at 36 weeks and at delivery. Grading: 1C Performing a VL test at 2 weeks allows for a more rapid assessment

of adherence and may be of particular benefit in a late-presenting woman. 4.2.5 In women commencing HAART in pregnancy, LFTs should be performed as per routine initiation of HAART and then at each antenatal visit. Grading: 1C Hepatotoxicity may occur because of the initiation of HAART and/or the development of obstetric complications such as obstetric cholestasis, pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and acute fatty liver. Close liaison with the obstetric team is recommended. 4.2.6 In the Pazopanib supplier event that a woman who has initiated HAART during pregnancy has not achieved a plasma VL of <50 copies/mL at 36 weeks the following interventions are recommended: Grading 1C Review adherence and concomitant medication. Perform resistance test if appropriate. Consider TDM. Optimize to best regimen. Consider intensification. For a woman who conceives on HAART that is not fully suppressive or loses virological control during pregnancy, these interventions should be undertaken as soon as possible. If treatment failure occurs when the infant is likely to be delivered prematurely and may be unable to take medication enterally, intensification should consist of therapies that readily cross the placenta such as double-dose tenofovir, raltegravir and single-dose nevirapine. 5.1.

The program developed (spyder; available at http://peopleulethc

The program developed (spyder; available at http://people.uleth.ca/~selibl/Spyder/Spyder.html) was designed in perl and uses the Needleman–Wunsch algorithm (Needleman & Wunsch, 1970) via dynamic programming (Cormen et al., 2009). A similarity matrix (Table 1) was used to generate a scoring matrix based on the alignment of the primer to target. The matrix, a slight modification of a generic scoring matrix for the four bases ‘A C T G’, takes into account the possibility of degenerate bases, which are often encountered

in sequence databases. Degeneracies were assigned scores (Table 1) such that the score of the degenerate base is the summation of the scores for each possible click here combination between the degeneracy and its corresponding bases. For example, the degenerate base ‘H’ could be either base ‘A’, ‘C’ or ‘T’; therefore, the score for ‘H’ is the sum of scores for ‘A’, ‘C’ and ‘T’. The scoring matrix is used to assign scores for all positions in every possible alignment between the primer and the target. Each possible alignment is scored through a trace back of the scoring matrix and the optimal alignment selected (i.e. that with the highest score). Commonly used 16S rRNA gene primers (Table 2) were evaluated against sequences within the RDP database (Cole et al., 2009). Primer–target

regions were selected according to their approximate annealing position relative to Escherichia coli (GenBank Accession J01695) (Fig. 1). http://www.selleckchem.com/products/BIBW2992.html The antisense (−) strand was selected for forward primers and the sense (+) strand

for reverse primers. Regions were selected such that they ensured the coverage of the primer-binding site while maintaining maximal coverage of the database, which was clonidine verified by retrospective analysis of the spyder output (instructions provided as Supporting Information, Appendix S1). The spyder output was analyzed manually for indels and substitutions. Those that were abundant relative to the number of available sequences for the searched region were noted and necessary degeneracies or modifications were completed. Updated primers were then reanalyzed using the RDP Probe Match service to determine the effect on target and nontarget sequences. Modified primers were checked using oligocalc (Kibbe, 2007) to ensure no decrease in primer quality (i.e. similar GC content, no self-complementarity, hairpins, or 3′- primer–primer complementarity). The spyder program was able to successfully process over 1 000 000 sequences in a matter of minutes using a relatively modest computer (Core 2 Duo processor at 2.2 GHz with 4 GB of RAM). Conducting such an analysis on an aligned 16S rRNA gene database is not practical due to the size of the current databases, which can easily exceed 100 MB. The primers analyzed matched between 48% and 97% of target sequences currently available with zero mismatches.

[13] Anemia is found more commonly in parasitemic women[6] All o

[13] Anemia is found more commonly in parasitemic women.[6] All our patients had hemolytic anemia, as judged on the basis of undetectable haptoglobin and elevated

lactate dehydrogenase levels, and increased reticulocyte count. The parasites cause anemia in the mother in a number of ways[14]: erythrocyte destruction, splenic sequestration of non-parasitized erythrocytes, and bone marrow dysfunction. The oxygen transport to the unborn child becomes impaired. Placental malaria contributes to premature deliveries, low birth Nintedanib weight, and increased risk of infant death.[13] The prevention of malaria will reduce all these risks to a substantial degree. Accordingly, WHO recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) to all pregnant women at risk of P falciparum infection in countries in sub-Saharan Africa with stable malaria transmission given at the first and second scheduled antenatal care visits after the first noted movement of the fetus.[15] The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend pre-departure presumptive treatment without malaria tests to

all refugees (not all immigrants) from highly endemic countries, excluding pregnant or lactating women—in these groups only confirmed malaria is treated.[9] However, conventional thick films have been reported to significantly underestimate selleck compound placental malaria,[4, 5] which leads to a failure to identify malaria as a cause of fetal impairment. Rapid diagnostic

tests are considered more sensitive than conventional thick films.[4, 5] PCR, the most sensitive diagnostic tool,[4, 5] is rarely available. After immigrating to non-endemic areas, pregnant women from regions with high malaria endemicity no longer benefit from the IPTp programs carried out in their native country. In the new home, their malaria tends to be neglected, as both the possibility of asymptomatic malaria and the persistence of parasites in semi-immune individuals are poorly known. Most Western countries have no recommendations on screening for malaria in pregnant immigrants, even though persistent parasitemia is a health risk for unborn children. A negative blood smear does not rule out the disease, which should be emphasized when training health care personnel. They should also be aware of the possibility of malaria in anemic Rucaparib research buy pregnant immigrants from areas with high endemicity even years after the immigration. Diagnostic tests including rapid tests or, when possible, PCR should be made, and, if positive, treatment should be started without delay. Obviously, all immigrants from high malaria endemicity areas would benefit from screening. The authors thank Elisabet Tyyni, HUSLAB, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland, for her contribution in laboratory work. The authors state they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major health threat for travelers.

Once the records had been reviewed, all unique identifiers associ

Once the records had been reviewed, all unique identifiers associated with outbreaks and case reports were removed, including names, dates buy Antidiabetic Compound Library of birth, gender, countries of origin, job titles and duties on the vessel, vessel names, and cruise line names. Analysis was limited to varicella reports among crew members on cruise ships. Reports from cargo ships were not included since they do not carry trained medical personnel and follow different CDC recommendations

than those given to cruise ships. Passenger varicella cases and contacts were not included, since secondary cases associated with the index case would not be readily identified and only contact management information up to the time of disembarkation would be available. Categorical variables were described using frequencies and percentages, and continuous variables were described using ranges, means, and medians. This investigation was approved as non-research by the CDC Institutional Review Board. During 2005 to 2009, varicella reports comprised 357 (15%) of the total 2,305 maritime illness reports submitted to CDC during that period. Of the varicella reports, 278 (78%) were among cruise ship crew members. They were selleck products predominantly male (80%), their median age was 29 years (range 20–66), and three-quarters

Megestrol Acetate of the ill crew members were residents of Caribbean countries, Indonesia, the Philippines, or India. Excluding 2005, a partial reporting year, varicella was reported more commonly in the spring (28%) and winter (27%) months. During 2009, 94 cases of varicella among cruise ship crew members were reported to CDC Quarantine Stations. By manual review of each case report, 22 varicella clusters were identified. Four of the clusters were excluded because the cases were not considered epidemiologically linked. Therefore, after exclusion, 66/94 (70%) cases among crew members were associated with 18 outbreaks. The remaining 28 cases were considered isolated case reports.

Outbreak response by cruise ships reporting the 18 varicella outbreaks during 2009 included isolation of 66 (100%) of 66 cases, restriction of 66 (26%) of 255 close crew-contacts, and administration of post-exposure vaccine to 522 close contacts and other susceptible crew members (Table 2). No contacts received VZIG. The number of cases per outbreak ranged from 2 to 9. There were a total of 45 first-generation cases (range 1–6 per outbreak), 16 second-generation cases (range 0–4), and five additional-generation cases (range 0–2) (Figure 1). There was a slight but nonsignificant positive correlation between time to reporting and number of second- and additional-generation cases.

[4] A facilitator (JC) disclosed the anonymous results and any qu

[4] A facilitator (JC) disclosed the anonymous results and any questions not agreed by all three faculty members were discussed. At the end of the discussion the faculty members anonymously re-rated the exam questions.

BEZ235 manufacturer If there was still no consensus for a particular item the method was employed again until consensus from all three faculty members was achieved. LP is a 28-year-old white female who presents to her physician requesting birth control. She does not want to take oral contraceptives, because she knows she won’t remember to take a pill every day. She wants a reliable method, and one that she doesn’t have to think about on a daily basis. She is a mother of three children, and does not want to have another baby. She smokes one pack of cigarettes per day. Which of the following is the most appropriate contraceptive agent for LP? Contraceptive sponge Depo-Provera Diaphragm Nuva Ring FT is a 27-year-old male who was recently diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. He states he feels palpitations, sweating and an irrational fear before giving presentations to large audiences. He has a very important presentation to give in 3 days and would like a pharmacologic agent. What would you recommend?

Sertraline 50 mg/day Clonazepam 0.5 mg BID PRN Buspirone 15 mg BID PRN Propranolol 10 mg TID Bortezomib mw VL is a 48-year-old male admitted with a 2-month history of weakness, night sweats and pain in his left foot. Physical examination reveals a fever of 100.9 F (42.7°C) and several painful erythematous nodules in the pads of his toes. His PMH is significant for HTN and aortic valve replacement 2 years

ago. He reports NKDA. Multiple blood cultures are positive (see culture/sensitivity report). TTE was unable to visualize cardiac valves and a TEE is pending. Which peripheral manifestation of infective endocarditis is VL experiencing? Osler’s node Roth spot Janeway lesion Splinter hemorrhage Which of the GNA12 following medications is most likely to cause hyperkalemia? Hydrochlorothiazide Bisoprolol Ramipril Furosemide A patient has been diagnosed with epilepsy. The medical resident asks you, ‘What dose of valproic acid should we start with this patient?’ You correctly respond: 5–10 mg/day 50–100 mg/day 500–1000 mg/day 1000–2000 mg/day Acute tubular necrosis secondary to ischemic causes is characterized by which of the following? Cell shrinking and vacuolization Rupture of basement membranes Thickening of basement membranes Tubule epithelial proliferation Choose the correct statement regarding adverse effects experienced by children and medications: Kernicterus is characterized by abdominal distension, vomiting and diarrhoea caused by chloramphenicol. Cartilage damage and joint arthropathy have been associated with tetracyclines. Grey baby syndrome was experienced with the preservative benzyl alcohol.

Nevertheless, some reports revealed that massive amplification

Nevertheless, some reports revealed that massive amplification

of antibiotic biosynthesis gene cluster is often one of the outcomes of empirical strain improvement programs. The kanamycin-overproducing strain, Streptomyces kanamyceticus 12-6 generated by classical mutagenesis possesses tandem amplification of the entire kanamycin (Km) biosynthetic gene cluster and the level of Km production is linearly BIBF 1120 co-related with the copy number of the Km biosynthetic gene cluster (Yanai et al., 2006). A penicillin-overproducing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum contains a large number of copies of penicillin biosynthetic genes (pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE) in tandem on a c. 57.9-kb DNA fragment (Fierro et al., 1995). In the industrial strain Streptomyces lincolnensis 78-11; the non-adjacent gene clusters for the production of lincomycin and melanin are duplicated (Peschke et al., 1995). These examples imply that introduction of extra copies of biosynthetic gene clusters into a wild-type strain might be an effective approach to improve the yield of the corresponding product. However, most of the antibiotic biosynthetic genes often cluster in a contiguous region containing tens of thousands of nucleotide base pairs in the chromosome. They are consequently almost impossible to manipulate via restriction endonucleases

and DNA ligases due to the frequent occurrence of cleavage sites. Reports focusing on overexpressing these biosynthetic gene clusters in parental strain through directed genetic approaches are few. The Red/ET recombination ABT-199 nmr technology provides a convenient and simple method for engineering large DNA fragments in Escherichia coli. The recombineering is mediated by homologous recombination, which occurs between two DNA molecules and requires only short homology regions (c. 40–50 bp) for efficient recombination (Zhang et al., 2000). The myxochromide S (mchS, c. 30 kb) and myxothiazol (mta, c. 60 kb) gene clusters from the myxobacteria

Stigmatella aurantiaca, the epothilone (epo, c. 60 kb) gene cluster from myxobacteria Sorangium cellulosum have all been successfully engineered for heterologous expression by different strategies based on Red/ET technology (Wenzel et al., 2005; Perlova et al., 2006). The S. spinosa CCTCC M206084 isolated by our laboratory has a low capability for spinosyn production. We thus attempted Pregnenolone to improve its spinosyn productivity through duplication of the spinosyn biosynthetic genes. It is difficult to obtain the c. 74-kb gene cluster on one single vector by one step and therefore we first directly cloned part of the spinosyn biosynthetic gene cluster (c. 18 kb) which encoded the enzymes for cross-bridging of the cyclized polyketide, for deoxysugar biosynthesis, attachment and methylation from the genomic DNA of S. spinosa CCTCC M206084 with the assistance of Red/ET recombination instead of constructing a genomic library. The resultant plasmid pUCAmT-spn was then introduced into S. spinosa CCTCC M206084 through conjugal transfer.