A Histopaque 1077/1119 (Sigma Aldrich, St Louis, MO) discontinuo

A Histopaque 1077/1119 (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) discontinuous gradient was created by placing 10 ml of Histopaque 1119 into a 50 ml tube, overlaying Ceritinib price 10 ml of Histopaque 1077, then overlaying 4 ml of blood/PBS mixture. The gradient mixture was centrifuged at 700g for 30 min at room temperature. Cell layers were removed from the plasma/Histopaque 1077 interface

(mononuclear cells) and from the 1077/1119 interface (heterophils) with a Pasteur pipette, combined and transferred to a 15 ml tube. Cells were washed by adding 6 ml of PBS and centrifuged at 600g for 10 min at room temperature. Supernatant was discarded and the cell pellet washed a second time with PBS. Supernatant was discarded and PBL resuspended in 1.5 ml of RNAlater Epigenetics Compound Library price (AM7021) (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Cells were refrigerated in RNAlater for 7 day then excess RNAlater was decanted and cells were stored at −80 °C until RNA isolation. RNA samples were isolated using the Ambion MagMax-96 kit for Microarrays (AM1839) (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Briefly, PBL were added to 0.6 ml of TRI Reagent Solution (Ambion, Austin, TX). Samples were homogenized and split into two 300 μl aliquots, with 1 aliquot further processed and the other held

in reserve. Samples were then processed using the Spin Procedure according to manufacturer’s instructions. Total RNA was Org 27569 eluted with 30 μl of Elution Buffer and stored at −80 °C. Quality and quantity of RNA were assessed by Nanodrop (Thermo Scientific, West Palm Beach, FL). The microarray data for this experiment have been deposited in NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) [5] and [19] database and are accessible through the series accession GSE31387〈http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE31387〉. Gene expression was assessed utilizing the global 2-color chicken 44K Agilent Microarray [43]. A total of 40 samples were hybridized to the microarray, using one individual from each of the

ten treatment groups from each of 4 independent experimental replications. Samples were arranged in a reference design, using the NV–NC-day 1 sample as the reference for each experimental replicate, on 36 arrays. Within each replicate, the NV–NC-day 1 sample was hybridized to the other 9 treatment groups. Dye assignments were swapped between replicates. Briefly, 400 ng of total RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA with a T7 promoter region incorporated, then transcribed back into cRNA labeled with either Cy3 or Cy5 dye. Before hybridization, 825 ng of each labeled sample, Cy3 and Cy5, a blocking agent and fragmentation buffer were mixed together and incubated for 30 minutes at 60 °C. Following incubation, gex hybridization buffer was added and samples were hybridized to the microarray slide for 17 h at 65 °C.

OPN is produced by osteoblasts [109], [110] and [111], as well as

OPN is produced by osteoblasts [109], [110] and [111], as well as osteoclasts [110], [112] and [113], and is considered to play important roles in bone formation, resorption, and remodeling [109], [110], [111], [112], [113], [114], [115] and [116]. It was found previously that OPN

can promote the attachment selleck inhibitor of osteoclasts possibly via interaction with the RGDS amino acid sequence of OPN and αvβ3 integrin of osteoclasts [107]. We investigated the spatial gene expression of OPN mRNA in periodontal ligaments and in the interradicular septum (IRS) of alveolar bone during physiological tooth movement in rats [117]. OPN mRNA was detected in osteoclasts and only in osteocytes located adjacently in the resorption site of the interradicular septum, strongly suggesting that OPN participates in bone resorption. The experimental model for orthodontic tooth movement developed by Waldo and Rothblatt provides further information [28]. Initially, the positive signals were buy ZD1839 expressed only in cells

located close to the compressed bone surface of the IRS. After 2 days of treatment, the expression area spread until almost all of the osteocytes of the IRS were positive for OPN expression. This suggests a signaling mechanism caused by mechanical stress that is dispersed to surrounding cells, moving from only those at the distal side (compressed area) to include those cells at the mesial side (tensioned area of IRS). Following this event, numerous osteoclasts were recruited to the bone surface within the entire IRS. The appearance of osteoclasts occurred with a short delay to the increase in the proportion of OPN mRNA-positive 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase osteocytes.

However, this increase in the number of OPN mRNA-expressing osteocytes in the IRS was temporary. An in vitro migration assay demonstrated the chemotactic effect of OPN toward osteoclastic cells, and results of an in vivo blocking assay using an RGDS peptide further confirmed this chemotactic role of OPN to stimulate the migration of osteoclasts to bone surface. The bone surface of the osteoclast anchoring site is enriched in OPN [116]. CCN2 is a matricellular protein belonging to the CCN family of secretory proteins that contain 38 conserved cysteine residues [67]. “CCN” is an acronym for Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), Cysteine-rich protein (Cyr61), and Nephroblastoma overexpressed gene. There are six members of the CCN family, namely CCN1 to CCN6: cyr61/cef10, ctgf/fisp12, nov, elm1/wisp-1, rcop-1/wisp-2, and wisp-3. CCN2, otherwise known as CTGF, is a ubiquitous 38-KD protein originally isolated from the culture supernatant of human umbilical cord venous vascular endothelial cells [118]. CCN2 proteins have four distinct modules: insulin-like growth factor binding protein module, Von Willebrand factor module, thrombospondin-homology module and C-terminal cysteine knot module (CT module).

For example, talactoferrin (TLF),

For example, talactoferrin (TLF), trans-isomer clinical trial a recombinant human lactoferrin, is an immunomodulatory molecule that has shown promising antitumor activity in preclinical models and in a variety of solid tumors. Phase II trial data suggested that TLF is a promising, well-tolerated agent that has demonstrated evidence of potential clinical activity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma [147]. Cationic antimicrobial peptides, including human

cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37, possess qualities that make them excellent candidates for antimicrobial therapeutics, including a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ease of synthesis, and a novel mechanism of action. In a recent report, it was shown that in bacterial infections with Shigella, expression of hCAP18/LL-37 and hBD-1 is reduced or turned off, which could partly explain the chronic inflammatory response Selleck SRT1720 associated with Shigella infection. Remarkably, the study further demonstrated that plasmid DNA released from lysed bacteria by the action of hCAP18/LL-37 was a major mediator of antimicrobial peptide down-regulation [148]. Therefore, hCAP18/LL-37 can act as a nuclear localization signal to translocate antisense nucleic acids [149]. Interestingly, a recent study demonstrated that treatment with a combination of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN),

broadly as immunostimulant, and LL-37 generated significantly better antitumor therapeutic effects and enhanced survival in murine ovarian tumor-bearing mice than treatment with CpG-ODN or LL-37 alone [150]. The expression of CD69 and IFN-γ in NK cells stimulated by CpG-ODNs can be enhanced by treatment with the LL-37 peptide, thus leading to the activation of NK cells. NK cells play a critical role in the antitumor effects against murine ovarian tumor.

Although HDPs, including hCAP18/LL-37, indicate antimicrobial and antitumor activity, it is currently difficult to develop peptide-based drugs due to poor pharmacokinetics and potential systemic toxicity [151]. Cathelicidins are an important else family of HDPs because they are multifunctional, and their significance in human immune defenses is only beginning to be fully recognized. Additionally, hCAP18/LL-37 elicits complex responses in many cell types, either directly or through the modulation of cellular responses to microbial compounds and other immune mediators. Their HDPs may be useful in the diagnosis and therapy of periodontal and cariogenic diseases and in oral mucositis. Further advances in our understanding of the biological activity of HDPs, including hCAP18/LL-37, will be of therapeutic potential in infectious, inflammatory, and cancerous diseases. No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed. I am grateful to E. Isogai from the Laboratory of Animal Microbiology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, for the critical reading of the manuscript and to T.

Silva et al (2011) suggested that mate consumption could decreas

Silva et al. (2011) suggested that mate consumption could decrease body weight and adiposity, most probably because of caffeine’s ability to increase thermogenesis. Moreover, Strassmann et al. (2008) noted that treatments performed with mate extract and with caffeine on the vascular membranes of chick embryos

yolk sac showed pro-vasculogenic and angiogenic properties and also embryonic growth enhancement. However, based on available evidence, it is suggested that caffeine intake should be less than 300 mg caffeine per day (equivalent to 4.6 mg/kg/day in a 65 kg person) while children should consume less than 2.5 mg/kg/day; Nawrot et al., Dorsomorphin in vitro 2003). The leaves of Ilex paraguariensis contain a significant amount of triterpenoid saponins. These compounds are highly water-soluble and are responsible for the typically bitter taste of mate. Saponins may be used as a chemical fingerprint for authentication of mate. Adulteration by variable quantities of leaves of other Ilex species is rather common ( Heck & Mejia, 2007). Concentration of mate extract by NF increased the total saponin content by 211%. According to the data in Table 1, the total saponin content of the concentrated mate extract was 366 ± 14.0 μg/mL. Similar results were reported by Silva et al. (2011) for aqueous extract of NSC 683864 unprocessed

mate, 387 ± 1.58 μg/mL; however, the concentration of the extract used in that study was 7 g of ground leaves in 100 mL of water. Such high saponin content in concentrated mate extract not

only affects the flavour of the extract, but also provides hypocholesterolaemic properties. The potential cholesterol-lowering properties were reported in a work of Morais et al. (2009), Cobimetinib manufacturer where consumption of approximately 130 and 350 mg of saponins in yerba mate infusion provided further decrease in LDL-cholesterol in subjects undergoing statin therapy. Puangpraphant, Berhow, and Mejia (2011) also stated that the saponins of mate prevent inflammation and colon cancer in vitro. The concentrated mate extract showed an amount of condensed tannins approximately 278% higher than the mate extract. Studies on condensed tannins take on greater importance when considering the impact of these compounds on nutrition. Despite the known antinutritional activity of condensed tannins, Okuda (2005) reported several health-promoting effects of these compounds, such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation, carcinogen mutagenicity, and tumours, and at the same time they promote antiviral activity, and potentiation of antibacterial activity. In addition, according to the results shown in Table 1, the concentration of total chlorophyll content in the concentrated mate extract obtained by NF was 321% higher compared to that of the mate extract.

For example, a slow-acting antioxidant must be added to frozen-st

For example, a slow-acting antioxidant must be added to frozen-stored products and a quick-acting antioxidant should be used in baked or fried products (Mariutti et al., 2008). Although the phenolic extract of fermented rice bran has shown a small loss of antioxidant activity with respect to the phenolic extract of unfermented rice bran, in terms of EC50 and AE, the high increase in phenolic content with

fermentation offsets this loss. Phenolic compounds derived from rice bran KU-57788 research buy fermentation with the R. oryzae fungus display antioxidant activity. The production and extraction of bioactive compounds through fermentation is an alternative that deserves attention, since it provides high quality extracts and biological activity with little or no toxicity usually associated with the organic solvents used for the extraction of these compounds ( Martins et al., 2011, Nigam, 2009). Enzymatic browning is an undesirable reaction that occurs in fruits and vegetables. The browning reaction requires the presence of oxygen, phenolic compounds and oxidative enzymes (Pineli

& Moretti, 2007). Thus, antioxidant compounds with similar potential to those in this study are used to inhibit enzymatic browning. Bearing that in mind, phenolic extracts of the control rice bran and fermented rice bran were evaluated for their ability to inhibit polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. The antioxidant solutions showed greater inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme, with www.selleckchem.com/products/NVP-AUY922.html the solutions of ferulic acid and from fermented and unfermented rice bran showing a similar inhibitory

power, reaching close to 60% inhibition when was used a concentration of about three times the value of their EC50 (approximately 0.1 mg/ml) was used (Fig. 3). The polyphenol oxidase was not inhibited at any concentration of antioxidant solutions from fermented and unfermented (control) rice bran extracts, while the solution of ferulic acid showed greater inhibition power at a concentration corresponding to three times the EC50. The fact that the phenolic extracts are not effective inhibitors of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme, even with high ferulic acid content, shows that the extracts have phenolic compounds which also serve as substrate for this enzyme, as in the case of chlorogenic, caffeic and gallic acids Immune system (Queiroz, Silva, Lopes, Fialho, & Valente-Mesquita, 2011). The polyphenol oxidase catalyses the oxidation of polyphenols to quinones which react non-enzymatically to produce coloured pigments whereas peroxidase is capable of oxidising phenolic compounds in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (Pineli and Moretti, 2007 and Queiroz et al., 2011). The potato enzyme extract showed greater peroxidase enzyme activity (0.24 AU/min∗mgprotein) than for polyphenol oxidase (0.06 AU/min∗mgprotein), which behaviour has also been observed by other authors (Cantos et al., 2002 and Pineli et al.

] H Robinson, Asteraceae) is an Andean tuberous root that accumu

] H. Robinson, Asteraceae) is an Andean tuberous root that accumulates large amounts of ITF with a low degree of polymerisation (DP < 10, FOS) ( Itaya, Carvalho, & Figueiredo-Ribeiro, 2002). It has been grown in southeast Brazil since 1991, from August to September,

yielding around 100 t/ha ( Vilhena, Câmara, & Kakihara, 2000). Our previous study demonstrated that the consumption of ITF-containing yacon flour (YF) enhanced the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) balance Ceritinib price in healthy growing rats, contributing to a higher bone mineral retention and strength (Lobo et al., 2007). These effects were accompanied by an increase in caecum weight and in the number and depth of crypts, as well as in the number of bifurcated crypts, thus suggesting an increment in the absorptive surface. It seems likely that these effects contributed to a larger absorption and bioavailability of minerals in YF-fed animals (Lobo et al., 2007). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of supplementing a diet with ITF-rich YF on the bioavailability of iron (Fe) from ferric pyrophosphate (FP; Fe4(P2O7)3; a water-insoluble compound) in a rat model of Fe-deficiency anaemia. Intestinal parameters (caecal weight, caecal content

pH and SCFA production) were assessed as a measurement of ITF fermentation in rats. Furthermore, Enzalutamide supplier Fe status alterations induced by YF consumption were compared with those obtained by consumption of a purified source of ITF (Raftilose P95; RAF; Orafti-Active Food International, Tienen, Belgium). The experimental protocol was approved Org 27569 by the Commission on Ethics in Animal Experiments of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the University of São Paulo (FCF/USP) (CEEA 88/2005 FCF-USP) according to the guidelines of the Brazilian College on

Animal Experimentation. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were obtained from the colonies for Animal Experimentation of FCF/USP, each of them breastfeeding six to eight male pups, were housed in plastic cages with ripcurl and fed a Fe-deficient powder diet ( Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2006) (12 mg Fe/kg; n = 10 female rats) or an AIN-93 M diet ( Reeves, Nielsen, & Fahey, 1993) (n = 2 female rats) for 21 days. On the weaning day, a total of 92 male rats, initially weighing 54–58 g, were transferred to individual metabolic cages under controlled temperatures (22 ± 2 °C) and relative humidities (55 ± 10%) with a 12-h dark-light cycle (lights on 08.00–20.00 h). They received demineralised water ad libitum and were fed Fe-deficient powder diet (ID group; n = 80) or an AIN-93G diet ( Reeves et al., 1993) (CON group; n = 12) for 15 days (depletion period). During this period, 10 ID rats were selected to determine body weight and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration values. When the Hb concentration of these animals reached the mean value of 68 ± 0.7 g/l, it was analysed in all animals.

Roadside monitors were excluded from

Roadside monitors were excluded from Z-VAD-FMK in vivo the main analysis. We averaged the raw data in monitor records over short-term periods

of 1 h for NO2, 24 h for PM and SO2, and daily maximum consecutive of 8 h for O3. We converted all short-term average concentrations recorded in units of ppb/ppm to μg/m3 using the conversion factors at 25 °C according to the US Environmental Protection Agency data coding manual (USEPA, 2010). In each short-term averaging period, we used the maximum average concentration among all monitor records to establish a mass concentration-frequency distribution of the highest air pollution exposure in a year, that is the maximum aggregation approach which reflects the precautionary principle. We excluded extreme concentration values on days when there were accidents or natural events (WHO, 2000b), LY294002 such as huge fires or dust storms, documented from news reports. We examined the air pollutant concentration data by considering the mean and variance of the number of monitors within and between years to reduce potential biases due to systematic missing patterns of monitoring records. The first stage obtained the distribution properties, such as the variance and the percentile differences between the maximums and the means in the observed distribution of pollutant concentration data. This allowed a generalized

approach for modeling data from different places without setting arbitrary value. The second stage applied the extracted distribution properties in the first stage to calculate an annual limit value corresponding to the WHO short-term AQG value so that the underlying factors of the pollution distribution in individual cities remain unchanged except the compliance of the short-term AQG. (i) Obtaining the distribution properties from observed data: We defined any concentration Galeterone value X under the lognormal probability distribution is a function of geometric mean (μg), geometric standard deviation (σg) and cumulative probability (ΣP) ( Limpert et al., 2001), with X = ∞ when ΣP = 1 and X = μg when ΣP = 0.5. We assumed X ≠ ∞ so

that the cumulative probability of the observed maximum concentration value ΣPm < 1. When putting μg, σg and the observed maximum concentration value m (as X) of real data in the function to compute ΣPm, we obtained dm as the difference from 1. We assumed that the arithmetic mean μa is greater than μg due to skewness and hence the cumulative probability of the observed arithmetic mean ΣPa > 0.5. When putting μg, σg and the observed value of μa (as X) of real data in the function to compute ΣPa, we obtained dμ as the difference from 0.5 ( Fig. 1). Fig. 1.  Statistical parameters in a lognormal distribution. We obtained the mean estimates of limit values for PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 from 2004 to 2010 in individual cities and then pooled them by both fixed and random effect methods.

, 2004) These different patterns of resource use efficiency (ReU

, 2004). These different patterns of resource use efficiency (ReUE) might be explained by the ability of a tree to acquire Selleck Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library resources. As long as enough resources are available (i.e. canopy closure is not reached) all trees of a stand are equally efficient (Binkley et al., 2002, Binkley, 2004 and Fernández and Gyenge, 2009). When inter-tree competition starts,

larger trees are able to acquire enough resources, whereas smaller trees might already reach their resource compensation point (minimum resource quantity needed to produce a positive growth). That implies an increase in ReUE for larger trees but a decrease in ReUE for smaller trees-supporting the pattern in this study. For Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson), Fernández and Gyenge (2009) observed differences in the water use efficiency before canopy closure, indicating that differentiation in efficiency is defined in earlier

stages (before canopy closure) to click here determine the dominant and suppressed trees. A comparison between the thinned and the unthinned treatments revealed that (i) on a tree-level basis, with a given tree size, trees from the unthinned plots were more efficient (except the mature stands) and (ii) on the stand-level, the mean tree of the thinned stand was either more efficient (mature and pole-stage1), as efficient (pole-stage2), or less efficient (immature) than the mean tree of the unthinned plots. Wang (1988) found that dry matter per APAR was not affected by thinning, but rather

from nitrogen fertilization for plots of Sitka spruce. Forrester et al. (in press) showed that for Eucalyptus nitens plantations, LUE in terms of annual above ground biomass increased with thinning, while LUE in terms of wood mass declined. They speculate that a decline of efficiency with thinning may occur on sites that are limited by resources other than light. When analyzing light regimes, we had Interleukin-3 receptor to assume that water and nutrient supply was ample, which may not have been the case for the immature stand (the only plot showing a decrease of efficiency with thinning). Assuming that the trees are a representative sample for one hectare, one could roughly scale up to a hectare-level by multiplying the mean efficiency with the stems per hectare. This gives a clear pattern, proving that due to the higher stem number per hectare, the unthinned treatment is always more efficient (with 12.2%, 80.3%, 152%, 185% for mature, immature, pole-stage1 and pole-stage2, respectively). That would mean that more wood per unit light is produced in an unthinned stand. However, forestry typically focuses on producing high quality saw-log timber that cannot be obtained without thinning. Hence a trade-off has to be found between growing the most efficient trees at a low risk of damage with the amount of trees per unit area.

This has brought economic and environmental benefits, has increas

This has brought economic and environmental benefits, has increased food security and alleviated poverty in many regions, and has created incentives for conserving forest genetic resources (Dawson et al., 2014, this special issue). In many countries, the transfer of tree germplasm has increased investments (at least in the short-term) in research and development (R&D). Furthermore, the establishment of research trials has promoted international collaboration and the sharing of information. The transfer of tree germplasm has, however, also raised concerns, such

as the potential for spreading pests and diseases, and that introduced tree species may become invasive. Over the last decades, research and debate on alien invasive species and their effects on biodiversity and livelihoods have expanded to such an extent that Carruthers et al. (2011) considered ‘invasion DAPT biology’ as the newest ethos in the history of plant introductions. Climate change is likely to alter the suitable distribution range of many tree species, while their natural dispersal dynamics are often limited by natural barriers

or human activities. This has led to a debate on assisted migration (i.e., the intentional movement of species within or outside their historical ranges to mitigate observed or predicted selleck chemicals biodiversity losses as a result of climate change) that is closely linked to the debate on invasive species (e.g. Hewitt et al., 2011 and Alfaro et al., 2014). Although such debate has often been subjective, it has increased awareness of the necessity of evaluating risks and benefits more carefully. In 2010, the tenth Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

adopted an international agreement called the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair mafosfamide and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (access and benefit sharing arrangements are known by their acronym ABS). This agreement will enter into force on 12 October 2014. The implementation of the Nagoya Protocol is left to individual Parties (i.e., national governments), which, unfortunately, have had a poor track record in implementing earlier ABS measures (CBD, 2014). The “utilization of genetic resources” is defined rather narrowly in the Nagoya Protocol, meaning “to conduct research and development on the genetic and/or biochemical composition of genetic resources, including through the application of biotechnology” (CBD, 2011). The protocol does not apply therefore to the use of genetic resources for purely production purposes, such as raising seedlings and planting them for forestry in the way that it does to R&D.

These patterns coincide well

with groupings according to

These patterns coincide well

with groupings according to prior information on geographical and ethnic origin. In some cases, relatively large genetic distances were found for pairs of migrant and potential source populations, such as African Americans and autochthonous Africans. For forensic casework involving these populations, separate reference databases need to be established and used. On the other hand, populations showing small genetic distances, such as Western or Eastern Europeans, Arabs from Iraq and Lebanon or Mestizos Selleckchem MK-2206 from Peru and Bolivia may be merged into meta-populations for the purpose of reference databases. The annotated PPY23 data used in this study have been fully integrated into the YHRD database as of October 2013 (release 45, www.yhrd.org). B.B., W.P., H.N. were supported by the Austrian Academy of Sciences and Alexandra Lindinger is greatly acknowledged for her technical assistance. A.S. was supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (SAF2011-26983); Plan Galego IDT, Xunta de Galicia (EM 2012/045), C.A., R.S. working at IPATIMUP which is an Associate Laboratory of the Portuguese PARP inhibition Ministry of Science,

Technology and Higher Education is partially supported by FCT, L.S.M. and H.M. were supported by FCT [PTDC/CS-ANT/108558/2008 Programa COMPETE, European Union Community Support Framework III, co-funding FEDER], D.L. and C.J. were supported by the Collaborative Innovation Center of Judicial Civilization, China University of Political Science and Law, M.E.D’A. and S.D. were supported by the NRF and UWC, J.K.O. was supported by the Ellen og Aage

Andersen’s Foundation, A.S. would like to thank the Foundations’ Pool Professorship (Paulo Foundation) for support, C.T.S., Y.X., W.W, Q.A. were supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant no. 098051), S.N., X.W. B.C. were supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 31100906 and 81241136), J.H.W. was supported by the Leverhulme Trust, as part of the “Impact of Diasporas on the making of Britain” program (F/00 212/AM), and M.A.J. by a Wellcome Trust Senior Fellowship Edoxaban in Basic Biomedical Science (grant no. 087576), R.Y.Y.Y. was supported by MINDEF, Singapore, J.S., M.C.D.U and J.J.R.R were supported by the Department of Science and Technology – Philippine Council for Industry, Energy and Emerging Technology Research and Development (DOST-PCIEERD), the Office of the Vice President for Academic Affairs, University of the Philippines (UP-OVPAA) under its Creative Writing Grant Program and the Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research and Extension, University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB-OVCRE).