These include acute phase reactants, inflammatory cytokines,

These include acute phase see more reactants, inflammatory cytokines,

and components of the complement cascade.71 The inflammatory proteins observed in AD are produced by microglia and/or astrocytes. The parallel observation of an inverse relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and AD led to the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory agents Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reduce AD risk. Recent literature suggests an association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and decreased AD risk, including prospective data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. This has led to the initiation of several clinical trials of anti-inflammatory agents, many of which are still ongoing. As early as 1993, it, was noted that patients with mild-tomoderate AD treated with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical indomethacin, exhibited stable cognitive performance relative to patients on placcbo.72 However, not all clinical trials with anti-inflammatory agents have yielded positive findings. ‘The Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study (from the National Institute of Aging [NIA]),73 a multicentcr, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose steroid prednisone conducted

in a total of 138 subjects, observed no difference in cognitive decline (assessed by the ADAS-Cog) between the prednisone and placebo treatment groups in the primary intentto-treat, analysis, or in a secondary analysis which included completers only. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical On the basis of these findings, they concluded that prednisone did not seem to be therapeutic for AD patients. Clinical trials of new anti-inflammatory agents, such as the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX II), inhibitors are ongoing. Several investigators Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have suggested that COX II inhibition directly impacts neuronal function in addition to inflammatory microglia since COX II is present not only in microglia but also in neurons.74,75 Moreover, on the basis of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical animal and cell studies, investigators suggest that COX II activity may contribute to neurodegencration in AD by oxidative mechanisms.76

Additional anti-inflammatory drugs, including hydroxychloroquine and colchicine, are being examined in clinical trials with AD patients. Oxidation Excess brain protein oxidation Chlormezanone and decreased endogenous antioxidant activity are well noted in both normal aging and AD.77 Thus, reduction of oxidative stress has become a target, for the treatment of AD. Agents that protect against oxidative damage, such as vitamin E and Ginkgo biloba extract, are thought, to reduce neuronal damage and potentially slow the onset and/or progression of AD. An extensive clinical trial of vitamin F, and selegiline, a type B or selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor, in AD patients found that both compounds delayed the progression of nursing home placement by approximately 6 months, thus precipitating the widespread use of vitamin E. However, data on the effects of such compounds on cognitive symptoms is more limited.

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