Subjects were 29 schizophrenic patients, 28 nonpsychotic first-de

Subjects were 29 schizophrenic patients, 28 nonpsychotic first-degree adult relatives, and 26 normal controls. The volumes were adjusted for total cerebral volumes; statistical analyses were controlled for the effects of sex. Compared with controls, relatives had significant volume reductions

bilaterally in the amygdalahippocampal region, the thalamus, and the cerebellum, and significantly increased volumes in the pallidum. Celecoxib datasheet patients demonstrated significantly increased volumes in the lateral and third ventricles, the pallidum, and the right cerebral white matter. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical They had significant, decreases in the left thalamus and the right, hippocampus. Compared with relatives, patients had significantly larger putamen and amygdala-hippocampal regions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and smaller cerebral cortices. Results indicate that nonpsychotic

relatives of schizophrenic patients have abnormal brain structures that overlap with abnormalities in patients. This supports the hypothesis that the genetic liability to schizophrenia is expressed as brain abnormalities Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in key subcortical structures, including the thalamus and amygdala-hippocampal regions. These results are consistent with other studies of schizophrenic patients, in which third and lateral ventricle enlargements are the most, common findings. Our MRI data are consistent with the hypothesis that abnormalities in limbic-diencephalic areas may be core features of “schizotaxia,” which become amplified by a second “hit” that alters the cortex, enlarges the third and lateral ventricles, and leads to schizophrenic illness. From these data, however, we are unable to determine whether Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the abnormalities found in patients reflect only greater preexisting pathology and thus a greater vulnerability to illness, or some additional pathology due to the progression of the illness or other incidental factors (ie, medications, etc). Eventually, studies of schizotaxia will Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical help resolve this issue. Functional MRI studies In a preliminary study of normal subjects, our primary goal was to assess the brain activations (ie, brain

areas that become activated) associated with simple and demanding auditory vigilance tasks, using functional MRI (fMRI).14 We initially created novel auditory continuous performance tests (CPTs) in which a demanding working memory task was made more difficult Electron transport chain than a simple vigilance task on the basis of increased working memory and interference filtering requirements. Compared with the vigilance task, performance of the working memory task produced significant signal changes bilaterally in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the premotor and frontal eye fields, the parietal-occipital cortex, the thalamus, the superior colliculus, the insula, the anterior cingulate, and the temporal lobe, including the hippocampus. Performance and degree of activation were associated with an IQ estimate.

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