Leaders of the G20 at the 2009 London Summit
agreed to make the best possible use of investment funded by fiscal stimulus programs toward the goal of building a resilient, sustainable, and green recovery, and to make the transition toward clean, innovative, resource-efficient, low-carbon technologies and infrastructure. Green development plans are already on the agenda in the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. Similarly, fiscal stimulus is being used by many countries, including Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, and Singapore, to support domestic demand through tax cuts, investment in infrastructure, and increasing spending on social programs. There may be scope for building into such stimulus packages “green investment” Caspase Inhibitor VI chemical structure programs that combine adaptation and mitigation measures with efforts to shore up the economy, create jobs, and reduce poverty. Countries could integrate adaptation and mitigation actions more closely into their sustainable development poverty reduction strategies and policy-making processes. A study by the USAID shows the possibilities for implementing clean energy solutions (Fig. 1). While the existing international
funding sources available for supporting GSK1210151A order adaptation and mitigation actions in ACP-196 molecular weight developing countries fall far short of what is required, and need to be scaled up, the region should enhance institutional capacity to make better use of existing and potential international funding sources. Blanford et al. (2009) have presented their analysis using the design specified by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) Transition Scenarios
study on achieving climate stabilization goals with delayed participation by developing countries. Their results indicate that a radiative forcing target equivalent to 450 ppmv CO2-e cannot be met, even allowing for an overshoot of the target during the entire twenty-first century and full participation of developing countries. With delayed participation of developing countries, Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase a target of 550 ppmv CO2-e is only attainable with pessimistic assumptions about economic growth, and even then only at very high cost. A target of 650 ppmv CO2-e can be met with delayed participation for a more affordable cost. Fig. 1 Ranking results for clean energy options that can be implemented through regional cooperation programs. The ranking provides an approximate prioritization of options that have strong regional applicability and have the greatest potential for low-cost carbon mitigation in a short-term time frame (3–5 years). (Source: USAID 2007).