coli strains only focused
on the identification of colicin production [30, 32]. While Šmarda and Obdržálek (2001) used five different indicator strains to detect colicin production in the fecal E. coli strain 1043 , Achtman et al. (1983) used 2 indicator strains for the detection of colicin producers in a sample of 234 fecal E. coli strains . More recently, Gordon and O’Brien (2006) used PCR with 19 bacteriocin genes to screen 266 fecal E. coli strains (38% of which were bacteriocinogenic) , and Šmajs et al. (2010) detected 29 bacteriocin types in 411 fecal E. coli strains (55% of which were bacteriocin-encoding click here strains) . Our results have check details revealed that the frequency of bacteriocinogeny in E. coli strains positively correlates with the detected number of virulence determinants. Bacteriocinogeny increased by as much as 75–80% depending on the number of encoded virulence factors. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the correlation between bacteriocinogeny frequency and the number of encoded virulence factors has been shown. This finding suggests that at least some bacteriocin-encoding genes should
be considered as factors which increase the virulence of E. coli strains. E. coli strains encoding only fimbriae type Stattic purchase I did not show differences in the frequency of bacteriocinogeny compared to strains without genes for virulence factors. The role of fimbriae type I in development of human infections is not clear. Although deletion of the fim gene cluster from virulent E. coli strain O1:K1:H7 attenuated virulence in the urinary tract infection (UTI) model ; possession of fimbriae type 1 in E. coli strains from different sources was not found to correlate with the ability to cause UTIs [34–39]. Several virulence factors, typical for diarrhea-associated E. coli strains, including
pCVD432 (EAggEC), ial/ipaH (EIEC), eaeA/bfpA (EPEC) and afaI (DAEC) were not found to be associated with bacteriocin genes. Bacteriocin selleck chemicals producers therefore appear to be mainly associated with ExPEC virulence factors (E. coli strains containing combinations of sfa, pap, aer, iucC, cnf1, α-hly determinants). The occurrence of these virulence factors were associated with both chromosomally (microcins H47 and M) and plasmid encoded colicin (E1, Ia and S4) and microcin types (B17, V). Presently, several bacteriocins including colicin E1, and microcins H47, I47, E492, M, and V are considered virulence factors in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains [20–23]. Azpiroz et al. and Budič et al. found an association between production of microcins H47, I47, E492, M, and V and the distribution of virulence factors (i.e. hlyA, cnf1, usp, iroN, iroCD, fyuA, papC, papG and tcpC) in uropathogenic strains of E. coli; from these results they assumed that production of these bacteriocin types could contribute to development of bacteraemia.