In summary, M062 is a novel host range factor that controls produ

In summary, M062 is a novel host range factor that controls productive MYXV replication in rabbit cells and in a wide variety of human cells. M062 also binds and antagonizes cellular SAMD9 in human cells, suggesting that SAMD9 is a novel innate antiviral factor against poxviruses.”
“Up to 50% of bipolar disorder STAT inhibitor (BD) patients present a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol use disorders (AUD). BD patients with comorbid AUD, even when in remission from the AUD, have a poorer

outcome and functional impairment than patients with BD alone. The neurobiological abnormalities that potentially characterize this severe subgroup of BD patients are unknown. Our goal was to investigate gray matter (GM) volume abnormalities in BD I patients with comorbid AUD. Twenty-one BD-AUD patients, 21 BD-nonAUD BD patients, and 25 healthy controls (HC), matched by age, gender, and handedness were studied. The BD-AUD patients were in remission from AUD on average for 6.8 years. 3D SPGR MRIs (TR = 25 ms, TE = 5 ms, slice thickness = 1.5 mm) were acquired from all subjects using a 1.5 T GE Signa Imaging System. We used an optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol to compare GM volumes among the groups. BD-AUD patients presented smaller GM volumes in the left medial frontal and the right anterior cingulate gyri compared to BD-nonAUD patients. BDnon-AUD patients did not present GM volume differences

compared to HC. These findings provide evidence for an effect of comorbid

AUD on OTX015 cost regional brain structure of BD I patients and warrant AR-13324 in vivo further research on neurobiological aspects of this prevalent and severe comorbidity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The switch between the latency and lytic cycles of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is accompanied by specific alterations of histone codes. Recently, comprehensive analysis of histone modifications of KSHV showed the deposition of H3K27me3 across the KSHV genome with two specific regions occupied by the heterochromatin marker H3K9me3. Here, we show that knockdown of JMJD2A, an H3K9me3 demethylase, attenuates viral titers, whereas its overexpression increases KSHV reactivation. JMJD2A is localized in regions of latent viral chromosomes that are deficient in the H3K9me3 mark, indicating that JMJD2A may be responsible for the low level of this mark on viral chromatin. The presence of JMJD2A on the latent genome maintains H3K9 in unmethylated form and signals the readiness of specific sets of viral genes to be reactivated. The demethylase activity of JMJD2A is important for KSHV reactivation, because a demethylase-deficient mutant cannot restore the JMJD2A knockdown phenotype. Interestingly, we found that the KSHV encoded K-bZIP associated with JMJD2A, resulting in the inhibition of demethylase activity of JMJD2A both in vivo and in vitro.

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