(C) Following photodynamic therapy with laser light and methylene

(C) Following photodynamic therapy with laser light and methylene blue (L+S+), the wounds show a dense cellular infiltrate at the edges and the subcutaneous fat very similar to the control wounds. Discussion There are many reports in the literature of the ability of light-activated antimicrobial agents to kill a wide range of microbes in the laboratory [9, 20]. In some of these in vitro investigations, attempts have been made to model the in vivo situation by using biofilms of the target organisms [21] or by carrying out experiments in the presence of blood or serum.[22, 23] In this study we have taken this further by investigating

the ability of a LAAA, methylene blue, to kill bacteria while present in a wound. Our in vivo model reflects the early stages of an infectious process i.e. the initial colonisation of a wound by a potential disease-inducing organism. We Luminespib used a strain of MRSA that is known to cause wound infections EGFR inhibitors cancer with significant clinical relevance, including fatal outcomes. The results of our study demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to reduce the number of

viable MRSA present in a wound using the LAAA methylene blue when activated by 360 J/cm2 of light (with a wavelength of 665 nm – the absorbance maximum of methylene blue) from a low power laser. Although substantial reductions in the viable count of MRSA in the wounds were achieved, the kills observed in this in vivo model were substantially lower than those reported in in vitro studies. Hence, using light doses as low as 43 J/cm2, 4.7 log10 reductions in the viable count of a suspension of MRSA (1010 CFU/ml) were GSK2126458 datasheet obtained using the LAAA toluidine blue O (a phenothiazinium dye closely related to methylene blue) at a concentration

of 12.5 μg/ml [12]. Wainwright et al. also reported that methylene Olopatadine blue and toluidine blue O are extremely effective LAAAs against MRSA in vitro [13]. To our knowledge, only three papers have been published on the use of LAAAs to kill S. aureus in vivo [17, 24, 25]. Each of these has used a different animal model and a different LAAA which makes comparisons with the present study difficult. However, in all of these studies the bacterial kills reported were considerably lower than those that can be achieved in vitro. For example, when the LAAA meso-mono-phenyl-tri(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin (PTMPP) was used to kill S. aureus in burn wounds in mice, the kills achieved amounted to less than 2 log10 units using a light dose of 211 J/cm2 [17]. Much greater kills were attained in vitro using a considerably lower light dose (0.6 J/cm2 compared with 211 J/cm2) and concentration of PTMPP (1.6 μM in vitro compared with 500 μM in vivo).

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