A highly damaged surface layer with a decreased refractive index

A highly damaged surface layer with a decreased refractive index was caused by electronic excitations in LiNbO3 crystals implanted with 4.0 MeV oxygen ions at a fluence of 2×10(15) ions/cm(2), which buried the optical modes inside the crystals. This relationship was also used for the estimation of the lattice damage in ion-implanted LiNbO3 crystals. It could make a quick estimate which was basically agree with the measured damage level. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3503414]“
“Background: Few questionnaires that assess usual physical activity have been reported to be valid for all different subdimensions of physical activity.

Objective: The objective was to assess the validity

and reliability of the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), which assesses usual physical activity (PA) in 4 domains (work, travel, recreation, and domestic life).

Design: Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured https://www.selleckchem.com/products/3-deazaneplanocin-a-dznep.html for 14 d by using the doubly labeled water technique combined with a measure of resting metabolic rate to yield PA energy expenditure (PAEE) in 25 men and 25 women. Simultaneously, intensity of activity was measured by using combined heart CT99021 datasheet rate and movement sensing

for 11 d. Repeatability of the RPAQ was assessed in an independent sample of 71 women and 60 men aged 31-57 y.

Results: Estimated TEE and PAEE were significantly associated with criterion measures (TEE: r = 0.67; PAEE: r = 0.39) with mean (+/- SD) biases of -3452 +/- 2025 kJ/d and -13 +/- 24 kJ . d(-1) . kg(-1). The correlation

between self-reported and measured time spent was significant for vigorous PA (r = 0.70) and marginally insignificant for sedentary time (r = 0.27, P = 0.06). The mean biases were relatively small for sedentary time and vigorous PA: 0.7 +/- 2.8 h/d and -12 +/- 24 min/d, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient for repeatability of total PAEE (kJ/d) was 0.76 (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: The RPAQ is the first questionnaire with demonstrated validity for ranking individuals according to their time spent at vigorous-intensity activity and overall energy expenditure. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 106-14.”
“It is known that neutralizing species-specific selleckchem or serovar-specific antibodies are produced in response to chlamydial infection in humans and in some animal species. In a previous study, a strong in vitro neutralizing activity to Chlamydia suis in 80% of sera from C. suis-infected pigs had been observed. In view of the close relationship between C. suis and Chlamydia trachomatis, in the present study, the neutralizing activity against D-K C. trachomatis and C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs) in sera collected from C. trachomatis-infected patients and C. suis-infected pigs was evaluated. A neutralizing activity of 50-70% was observed in the human sera against the homologous serovar and one to five heterologous C. trachomatis serovars.

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