“There is growing empirical and clinical interest in purpo

“There is growing empirical and clinical interest in purported associations between smoking and the aggravation of cancer symptoms and treatment side effects, such as pain. Both pain and smoking are highly prevalent among persons with cancer, and there is recent evidence to suggest that cancer patients who continue to smoke despite their diagnosis experience greater pain than nonsmokers. Accordingly, the main goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine associations between multiple levels of smoking status and several Fosbretabulin pain-related outcomes among a sample of 224 cancer patients

about to begin chemotherapy. Patients completed self-report measures of pain severity, pain-related distress,

and pain-related interference, as well as a demographics questionnaire. Results indicated that persons who continued to smoke despite being diagnosed with cancer reported more severe pain than never smokers, F (2, 215) = 3.47, p < .05. Current smokers also reported greater interference from pain than either former or never smokers, F (2, 215) = 5.61, p < .01. Among former smokers, an inverse relation between pain severity and the number of years since quitting smoking was observed, r (104) = .26, p < .01. These data suggest that continued smoking despite a cancer diagnosis is associated with greater pain severity and interference from pain; however, future MAPK inhibitor VX-680 nmr research is warranted to determine the directionality of this relationship. (C) 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In 2005 we published draft guidelines for reporting studies of quality improvement,

as the initial step in a consensus process for development of a more definitive version. The current article contains the revised version, which we refer to as standards for quality improvement reporting excellence ( SQUIRE). This narrative progress report summarises the special features of improvement that are reflected in SQUIRE, and describes major differences between SQUIRE and the initial draft guidelines. It also briefly describes the guideline development process; considers the limitations of and unresolved questions about SQUIRE; describes ancillary supporting documents and alternative versions under development; and discusses plans for dissemination, testing, and further development of SQUIRE.”
“Multivariable regression models can link a potentially large number of variables to various kinds of outcomes, such as continuous, binary, or time-to-event endpoints. Selection of important variables and selection of the functional form for continuous covariates are key parts of building such models but are notoriously difficult due to several reasons.

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