The strength of the relationship between functional connectivity and see more cognitive control did not differ between groups. These results indicate that SUD is associated with abnormal interactions between subcortical areas that process reward (nucleus accumbens) and cortical areas that govern cognitive-behavioral control. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4282-4292, 2014. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background. Although mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is recommended at a fixed dose, there is increasing interest in controlled-dose (CD) MMF based on therapeutic drug monitoring. We systematically evaluated published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy and safety of CD
versus fixed-dose MMF for kidney transplant recipients. Methods. The electronic databases Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library (up to June 2012) were searched to identify relevant RCTs. Two reviewers independently applied the study selection criteria, examined the study quality, and extracted
the data. Dichotomous measures were expressed as relative risk (RR) and continuous outcomes were expressed as weighted mean difference, both with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.1.6. Results. Four RCTs met our selection criteria and included 1755 de novo recipients. The differences between CD and fixed-dose MMF in treatment failure (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.82-1.10; P=0.52), serum creatinine clearance (weighted mean difference, CP456773 2.46; 95% CI, -1.15 to 6.07; P=0.18), total gastrointestinal
adverse events (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.65-2.35; P=0.53), diarrhea (RR, 1.08; this website 95% CI, 0.92-1.25; P=0.35), anemia (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.95-1.64; P=0.12), leukopenia (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.93-1.35; P=0.25), thrombocytopenia (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.47-1.36; P=0.41), and malignancy (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.27-1.38; P=0.23) were not statistically significant. Furthermore, total infections were more frequent in the CD group (36.0% vs. 30.9%; RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30; P=0.01). Conclusions. Based on current evidence, CD MMF administration cannot be recommended as routine practice for kidney transplant recipients. Therapeutic drug monitoring for MMF may be targeted toward high-risk recipients, who should be identified in future studies.”
“The formation of mossy lithium and lithium dendrites so far prevents the use of lithium metal anodes in lithium ion batteries. To develop solutions for this problem (e.g., electrolyte additives), operando measurement techniques are required to monitor mossy lithium and dendrite formation during electrochemical cycling. Here we present a novel battery cell design that enables operando electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.