The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of a

The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of a 2-hour PALS training session utilizing high-fidelity mannequins on residents’

psychomotor skills performances.\n\nMETHODS: Between February and June 2009, residents from two urban family medicine residency programs received training on four PALS procedures (bag-mask ventilation, tracheal intubation, intraosseous line placement, and cardiac rhythm assessment/defibrillation) at a university simulation center. Residents completed questionnaires to provide data on previous resuscitation training and experience. We collected self-confidence data and video recordings of residents performing the procedures before and after training. To assess retention at 6 months, we collected self-confidence data and video recordings of PGY-1 and PGY-2 residents

performing the procedures. A blinded reviewer scored the video recordings.\n\nRESULTS: Forty-seven Ilomastat in vivo residents completed the study. The majority of residents (53.2%) had never performed any of the procedures on a real patient. Immediately following skills training, mean overall performance improved from 39.5% (+/- 11.5%) to 76.5% (+/- 10.4%), difference 37.0% (95% Selleck Ispinesib CI, 33.5%-40.6%). Bag-mask ventilation and intraosseous insertion skills remained above baseline at 6-month follow-up.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Simulation training is beneficial for teaching PALS procedures to family medicine residents.”
“Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) find protocol is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in childhood, and the causes of ALL are not completely understood. microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various biological processes including organ development, cell growth regulation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. We performed a case-control study with 570 childhood ALL cases and 673 cancer-free controls to investigate the association between hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 T bigger than C polymorphism and ALL risk. The bioinformatics was used to estimate the potential

target of hsa-miR-196a2. In the present study, the hsa-miR-196a2 variant TC heterozygote, and CC/TC genotypes were found to be associated with a significantly increased childhood ALL risk, compared with the TT wild-type homozygote (adjusted OR= 1.50, 95% CI= 1.15-1.95 for TC and OR= 1.40, 95% CI= 1.09-1.79 for CC/TC). Further, the difference was pronounced in younger ( smaller than = 6) subjects or parental non-drinker. The significance of the increased risk is more obvious than the higher treatment branch. Additionally, we found that the rs11614913 TC genotype can increase B-phenotype ALL risk (OR = 1.37,95% CI = 1.07-1.76). Finally, combination of three bioinformatics approaches revealed that HOXC8 may be the target gene of hsa-miR-196a2. Taken together, our finding suggested that hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 T bigger than C may increase the risk of childhood ALL. Large studies with the function of hsa-miR-196a2 are needed in the further study. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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