The grafted films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spe

The grafted films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle testing, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that grafted chains under the SI-ATRP method were preferentially located on the surface for surface grafting and in the bulk for

conventional free-radical polymerization initiated by benzoyl peroxide. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 184-194, 2011″
“Background: Decision makers responsible for allocation of healthcare resources may require that health states are valued by the population for whom they are making decisions. To achieve this, health-state HSP990 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor descriptions can be combined with a value set that reflects the valuations of the target population. In the decision-utility approach, such a value set is at least partly based on wants and expectations regarding given health states. This may reflect aspects

different from the health state experienced and valued by a respondent.

Objectives: To derive a value set that is completely based on experienced health states, emphasising the patient’s perspective, and test its predictive performance in comparison with established approaches.

Methods: Problem descriptions and rating scale valuations of the EQ-5D were drawn from two representative AC220 German population surveys in 2006 and 2007. Two models based on given health states but differing in valuation method (la, b) were analysed, along with three models based on experienced health states: (2) ordinary least squares regression; (3) scale-transformed regression; and (4) a generalized linear model with binomial error distribution and constraint parameter estimation. The models were compared with respect to issues in specification, and accuracy in predicting the actual valuations of experienced health states in a new data set, using correlation,

mean error and ranking measures for the KU-57788 purchase latter. In addition, the impact of standardizing experience-based index models for age and sex of the subjects was investigated.

Results: Models I (a, b), 2 and 3 partly led to plausible and comparable parameter estimates, but also led to problems of insignificance and inconsistencies in some of the estimates. Model 4 achieved consistency and featured partly equivalent and partly better predictive accuracy. Using this model, mean valuations of health states were much better predicted by the experience-based approach than by the decision-utility approach, especially for health states that frequently (>10) occurred in the population sample. Standardizing the experience-based index models for age and sex further improved predictive accuracy and strengthened the position of model 4.

Conclusions: A value set for the EQ-5D can be plausibly estimated from experience-based valuations.

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