Results: From April 1, 2004 through December 31, 2007, 12,062 chi

Results: From April 1, 2004 through December 31, 2007, 12,062 children presented in clinic with eligible Cilengitide febrile and respiratory illnesses, from whom 321 influenza isolates were obtained from 2370 nasopharyngeal washes (13.5%), representing 16,043 child-years of observation (adjusted influenza incidence 102 episodes/1000 child-years). There were 8198 pneumonia episodes during the period (pneumonia incidence 511 episodes/1000 child-years). Ninety influenza-positive children (28%) developed pneumonia during their illness. Among influenza culture-positive children, those

with pneumonia were younger than those without (23.4 vs. 29.7 months, ANOVA: P < 0.001). Pneumonia was more commonly associated with Influenza A (H3N2) than either A (H1N1) or B infections (age-adjusted relative odds (RO) 2.98, [95% CI: 1.56, 5.71] and 2.75, [95% CI: 1.52, 4.98], respectively). Influenza was associated with 10% all childhood pneumonia.

Conclusions: Influenza is a major contributor to childhood pneumonia both through high influenza infection VX-770 molecular weight incidence and high pneumonia prevalence among infected children. Its contribution to early childhood pneumonia appears under-appreciated

in high pneumonia-endemic tropical settings. Influenza vaccine trials against childhood pneumonia are warranted.”
“BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia results from consumption of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids and is usually associated with cardiovascular disease. A diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids is usually associated with improved cardiovascular condition.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids (U-HFD)-in which fatty

acid represents approximately 45% of the total calories-impairs the cardiovascular system.

METHODS: Male, 30-day-old Wistar rats were fed a standard (control) diet or a U-HFD containing 83% unsaturated fatty acid for 19 weeks. The in vivo electrocardiogram, the spectral analysis of heart EPZ5676 rate variability, and the vascular reactivity responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and prazosin in aortic ring preparations were analyzed to assess the cardiovascular parameters.

RESULTS: After 19 weeks, the U-HFD rats had increased total body fat, baseline glucose levels and feed efficiency compared with control rats. However, the final body weight, systolic blood pressure, area under the curve for glucose, calorie intake and heart weight/final body weight ratio were similar between the groups. In addition, both groups demonstrated no alteration in the electrocardiogram or cardiac sympathetic parameters. There was no difference in the responses to acetylcholine or the maximal contractile response of the thoracic aorta to phenylephrine between groups, but the concentration necessary to produce 50% of maximal response showed a decrease in the sensitivity to phenylephrine in U-HFD rats.

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