Pathological examination revealed that the resection edge of the

Pathological examination revealed that the resection edge of the extradural component consisted of a spinal nerve with thickened epineurium and was free of neoplastic cells. No schwannoma component was evident in the intradural tumor. No obvious transition thus existed between the extra- and intradural tumors. Distinguishing these tumors prior to surgery is critical for determining

an optimal surgical plan, as schwannoma and meningioma require different surgical procedures. We therefore recommend a careful review of preoperative imaging with the possibility of concurrent tumors in mind. “
“M. Paradisi, M. Fernández, G. Del Vecchio, G. Lizzo, G. Marucci, M. Giulioni, Napabucasin supplier E. Pozzati, T. Antonelli, G. Lanzoni, G. P. Bagnara, selleck inhibitor L. Giardino and L. Calzà

(2010) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology36, 535–550 Ex vivo study of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in human pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy Aims: Neurogenesis in adult humans occurs in at least two areas of the brain, the subventricular zone of the telencephalon and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampal formation. We studied dentate gyrus subgranular layer neurogenesis in patients subjected to tailored antero-mesial temporal resection including amygdalohippocampectomy due to pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using the in vitro neurosphere assay. Methods: Sixteen patients were enrolled in the study; mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was present in eight patients. Neurogenesis was investigated by ex vivo neurosphere expansion in the presence (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate of mitogens (epidermal growth factor + basic fibroblast growth factor) and spontaneous differentiation after mitogen withdrawal. Growth factor synthesis was investigated by qRT-PCR in neurospheres. Results: We demonstrate that in vitro proliferation of cells derived from dentate gyrus of TLE patients is dependent on disease duration.

Moreover, the presence of MTS impairs proliferation. As long as in vitro proliferation occurs, neurogenesis is maintained, and cells expressing a mature neurone phenotype (TuJ1, MAP2, GAD) are spontaneously formed after mitogen withdrawal. Finally, formed neurospheres express mRNAs encoding for growth (vascular endothelial growth factor) as well as neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor). Conclusion: We demonstrated that residual neurogenesis in the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus in TLE is dependent on diseases duration and absent in MTS. “
“A polymorphous variant of oligodendroglioma was described by K.J. Zülch half a century ago, and is only very sporadically referred to in the subsequent literature. In particular, no comprehensive analysis with respect to clinical or genetic features of these tumors is available.

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