on and the acro some reaction and may play a role in oocyte calci

on and the acro some reaction and may play a role in oocyte calcium mediated processes that occur during oocyte ac tivation. The same SNP in CAST found to be asso prompt delivery ciated with DPR in this study was earlier associated with DPR, PL, NM and SCS. The embryonic gene ZP2 encodes for a protein that makes up part of the zona pellucida and is the location that sperm bind on the zona pellucida. One of the genes related to DPR, NLRP9, is likely to play an important function in the oocyte. The gene Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries is expressed in the oocyte, and steady state amounts of NLRP9 mRNA decline after fertilization and become undetectable after the maternal to zygote transition. There is much evidence to implicate immune function in the establishment of pregnancy. Seven of the genes with SNPs associated with DPR are involved in immune function.

The gene C1QB is involved in com plement activation, CD14 is a co receptor for rec ognition of bacteria, CD40 regulates cell surface receptor signaling, and NFKBIL1 regulates den dritic cell function. Additionally, MON1B and RABEP2 help regulate phagocytosis and endocytosis and mutations Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in FUT1 have been associated with disease resistance. Polymorphisms in FUT1 have also been associated with total number of piglets born and number of piglets alive at weaning. It is possible that allelic variants in these genes that are positively associated with DPR improve immune function and decrease incidence of diseases such as endometritis, metritis, and mastitis that disrupt reproduction. Three genes related to DPR are anti apoptotic, ARL6IP1, DYRK3 and PARM1I.

Induction of apoptosis in the oocyte and associated cumulus cells is associated with reduced fertilization rate. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Two molecules that improve Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries embryo competence for establishment of preg nancy after transfer into recipients, CSF2 and IGF1, are anti apoptotic in embryos. A variety of other roles are also represented by the genes with SNPs associated with DPR. Two genes are involved in energy pathways. The COQ9 pro tein is necessary for the synthesis of CoQ10, which is needed for generating ATP. PCCB is an enzyme that converts proponyl CoA to methylmalonyl CoA dur ing gluconeogenesis. The CSPP1 gene plays a role in spindle formation and cytokinesis, MARVELD1 in hibits cell cycle progression and migration, and LDB3 helps organize actin and actinin binding in sarcomeres.

Finally, CPSF1 is involved in 3 end processing of pre messenger RNAs into messenger RNAs. Several gene networks were significant among the genes related to DPR but most contained only two genes. The exceptions were estrogen biosynthesis, discussed earlier, and a network of genes associated with ubiquitin C. It is not surprising Carfilzomib that the proteins Sunitinib c-Kit encoded for by so many genes bind to UBC because ubi quitin is involved in a large number of intracellular func tions. Five transcription factors, two hormones, and one growth factor were determined by the IPA software to be sig nificantly overrepresented as regulators of DPR genes. Each of the

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