Moreover, FGF-23 is emerging as the most potent phosphate-regulat

Moreover, FGF-23 is emerging as the most potent phosphate-regulating hormone and, like phosphate, could be a promising novel therapeutic target in the CKD-MBD pathway. However, it

is not known whether elevated levels of phosphate and FGF-23 are mere biomarkers of CVD and mortality or play a causative role Stem Cell Compound Library nmr in the pathogenesis. The epidemiological data are bolstered by many laboratory studies that show a role of phosphate to induce vascular calcification and endothelial dysfunction. These data make a compelling argument for testing whether phosphate reduction strategies can mitigate renal and non-renal risk in patients with CKD, although there is limited evidence on the effects of phosphate-lowering therapy on clinical outcomes and study design is complicated by the multiple mechanisms that are aimed to maintain phosphate homeostasis when GFR is normal or minimally compromised. Large randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to prove or disprove the benefits, risks and potential

economic impact of introducing phosphate-lowering therapy before patients develop ESKD. NT is the recipient of a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) PLX4032 manufacturer National Institute of Clinical Studies (NICS) Fellowship. Although this Fellowship is supported by NHMRC the views expressed herein are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the NHMRC. “
“Aim:  Chronic nephrotoxicity of long-term cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment is a matter of concern in patients with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). Methods:  Twenty-eight adult NS patients

(25, minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (NS); three, focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis) were divided into three groups. Group A was continuously treated with CsA for more than 5 years (143 ± 40 months, 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/kg per day at final analysis, n = 12); group B had been previously treated with CsA (70 ± 27 months, n = 6); and group C had been treated with corticosteroids alone (n = 10). The clinical variables related to chronic CsA nephrotoxicity were examined. Results:  In groups A and B, estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased from 86 ± 22 and 107 ± 17 to 83 ± 23 and 88 ± 13 mL/min per 1.73 m2, respectively, at final analysis (both P < 0.05). Serum magnesium levels in group A were significantly lower than those in group B or C (A, 1.78 ± 0.16 mg/dL; Baf-A1 B, 2.00 ± 0.14 mg/dL; C, 2.03 ± 0.10 mg/dL; A vs B, C, P < 0.01), and a significant correlation between these and the duration of CsA treatment was found (r = −0.68, P < 0.001). There was a trend towards a correlation between the duration of CsA administration and urinary α1-microglobulin (r = 0.38, P = 0.07). Conclusion:  Mild decrease in renal function and hypomagnesemia were found in adult SDNS patients with long-term CsA treatment. Careful monitoring of renal function, blood pressure and serum magnesium levels is necessary.

Comments are closed.