Lastly, such guidelines must be individualised to specific instit

Lastly, such guidelines must be individualised to specific institutions or area health and require the input of all specialities involved and be reviewed and audited on regular intervals to ensure it is effective in achieving its aims. Fig. 1 An example of an institutional guideline on the management

of hip fracture patients. Ix = Investigations; CBC = Complete Blood Count; Na = Sodium; K = Potassium; Ur = Urea; Cr = Creatinine; Glu = Glucose; LFT = Liver Function Tests; PT = Prothrombin Time; APTT = Activated Partial Thromoplastin Time; CK = Creatine Kinase; TFT = Thyroid Function Test; IV = Intravenous; CXR = Chest X ray; CT = Computerised Tomography; CVA = Cerebrovascular Accident; OT = Operating Theatre; COPD = Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary

Disease; IHD = Ischaemic Heart Disease; AMI = Acute Myocardial Infarction Conflicts learn more of interest The authors declare that there LB-100 are no conflicts of interest. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References 1. Price JD, Sear JW, Venn RM (2004) Perioperative fluid volume optimization following proximal femoral fracture. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD003004PubMed 2. Devereaux PJ, Goldman L, Cook DJ, Gilbert K, Leslie K, Guyatt GH (2005) Perioperative cardiac events in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a review of the magnitude of the problem, the pathophysiology of the events and methods to estimate and communicate risk. CMAJ 173:627–634PubMed 3. Sorensen JV, Rahr HB, Jensen HP, Borris LC, Lassen MR, Ejstrud P (1992) Markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis after fractures of the lower extremities. Thromb Res 65:479–486CrossRefPubMed 4. Smetana GW, Lawrence VA, Cornell JE, American college of Physicians (2006) Preoperative pulmonary risk stratification for noncardiothoracic surgery: systematic review for the American

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