In summary, our work opens exciting new avenues for research into environmental sensing and nutrient acquisition mediated by the calcineurin-CrzA pathway in this important human pathogen. Methods Strains and media methods A. fumigatus strains used in this study are Capmatinib price CEA17 (pyrG-), CEA17-80 (wild type), ΔcalA , FMS5 (ΔcrzA::pyrG) , ALCCRZA (alcA::crzA), and RCNA (ΔrcnA). A. nidulans strains used are GR5 (pyroA4 pyrG89; wA3), TNO2a3 (pyroA4 pyrG8 ΔnKUa::argB) , CNA1 (ΔcnaA::pyroA; pyroA4 pyrG89; wA3) , ALCRZA1 (pyroA4, alcA::gfp::crzA), RCNA1 (pyroA4, ΔrcnA::pyrG), and ALCARCNA (pyroA4, alcA::gfp::rcnA). Media were of
two basic types. A complete medium with three variants: YAG (2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, 2% agar, trace elements), YUU (YAG supplemented with 1.2 g/l each of uracil and uridine) and liquid YG or YG + UU medium of the same compositions (but without agar). A modified minimal medium (MM: 1% glucose, original high nitrate salts, trace elements, 2% agar, pH 6.5) was also used. Trace elements, vitamins, and nitrate salts are described by Kafer . Expression of tagged genes under the control of alcA promoter was regulated by carbon source: repression on glucose 4% (w/v), derepression
on glycerol and induction on ethanol or threonine. AG-120 concentration Therefore, MM-G and MM-E (or MM-T) were identical to MM, except that glycerol (2% v/v) and/or ethanol (2% v/v for liquid medium) or threonine (100 mM for solid medium) were used, respectively, in place of glucose as the sole carbon source. Strains were grown at 37°C unless indicated otherwise. Cyclosporine A (CsA) used in the experiments throughout the manuscript is from Neoral™
Sandimmun (Novartis). Standard genetic techniques for A. nidulans were used for all strain constructions . RNA isolation For the microarray experiments, 1.0 × 109 conidia of A. fumigatus wild type and ΔcrzA strains were used to inoculate 400 ml liquid cultures (YG) in 1000 ml erlenmeyer flasks that were incubated in a reciprocal shaker (250 rpm) at 37°C for 16 hours. After this period, the Amisulpride germlings were harvested by filtration and transferred to a fresh YG medium plus 200 mM of CaCl2 for either 10 or 30 minutes. Again, after this period, the germlings were harvested by centrifugation or filtration immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. For total RNA isolation, the germlings were disrupted by grinding in liquid nitrogen with pestle and mortar and total RNA was extracted with Trizol reagent (Invitrogen, USA). Ten micrograms of RNA from each treatment were then fractionated in 2.2 M formaldehyde, 1.2% w/v agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide, and then visualized with UV-light. The learn more presence of intact 25S and 17S ribosomal RNA bands was used as a criterion to assess the integrity of the RNA. RNAse free DNAse I treatment for the real-time RT-PCR experiments was carried out as previously described .