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2000:365–386. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions MI participated in the design of the study, perfected the DNA extraction method, processed and analysed Emilia Romagna and Tuscany samples, performed Real Time analyses and helped to draft the manuscript. ML contributed in coordination of the study and helped in processing Molise and Abruzzo samples. MO processed and analysed Molise and Abruzzo samples. ES participated in processing Tuscany samples and carried
out the statistical analyses. EB helped to perform Real Time analyses and to analyse the data. AZ participated in the study conception and coordination and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.”
“Background Atopic diseases are chronic inflammatory disorders caused by an aberrant T-helper (Th2)-type immune response against common and innocuous environmental antigens . The elaboration of cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13 and IL-5, can contribute to disease Baf-A1 purchase induction . During the past decades the prevalence of atopic diseases among children in the western world has dramatically increased . Too fast for any possible shift in genetic constitution, environmental changes associated with the western lifestyle are believed to be involved [3, 4]. The human intestinal microbial community has been indicated as a key factor to interpret the impact of the western lifestyle on the etiology of atopic diseases [3–7]. The intestinal microbiota is extremely plastic in response to diet and environmental factors and, at the same time, governs many aspects of the immune function throughout the body . Thus, the hypothesis that specific western lifestyle-driven dysbioses of the human intestinal microbiota are involved in the bloom of atopy in western children has been advanced.