However, this finding could be explained by competition for nutri

However, this finding could be explained by competition for nutrients between host and pathogens as described by Prentice & McDermid, 2008 [18]; therefore decreasing the food supply for bacterial growth. Alternatively, endogenous or environmental bacteria could, as we said before, be already present at the pulmonary parenchyma in undernourished mice, competing for nutrients. The fact that S. aureus is a poor competitor and does not grow well in the presence of other microorganisms supports this hypothesis [19]. Previous immunization of undernourished mice, differently from the findings in the well nourished group, did not decrease the amount of cocci in the lungs. We believe that this

result could be attributed, at least partially, to a decreased antibody production because they are essential to control S. aureus infections, including life-threatening conditions selleck compound as

pneumonia and septicemia [20]. From a practical point of view, these results raise two very relevant aspects. The first one relates to the condition of malnutrition as a high risk factor for nosocomial pulmonary infections caused by MRSA. This possibility has not been directly investigated but it has been suggested by some findings as the ones described by Miyake et al., 2007 [21]. Our results also alert for a possible low efficacy of an MRSA CP673451 molecular weight vaccine in undernourished patients, mainly concerning the prevention of pulmonary involvement. Conclusion Together these results demonstrated that a 20% dietary restriction in food intake triggered a secondary immunodeficiency Parvulin in BALB/c mice. This condition determined a very distinctive lung involvement in comparison to well nourished animals. This organ presented an inflammatory process that was not altered by infection with S. aureus or by infection preceded by immunization with the formolized bacteria. Absence of required nutrients or a state of resistance by the previous inflammatory process could decrease S. aureus growth in lungs of undernourished animals.

Methods Experimental design Isogenic female BALB/c mice, 4-5 weeks old were manipulated according to the ethical guidelines adopted by the Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation, being the experimental protocol approved by the local Ethics Committee. After weaning the animals received a 10 day acclimation on a standard chow. In the first set of experiments, after being acclimated they were distributed into three experimental groups (with 5-6 animals each) including the control fed ad libitum and two others that received 80 or 90% of the amount of food consumed by the control group and that were called DR 20% and DR 10%, respectively. The animals were kept in these conditions during 20 days and then evaluated by clinical (weight), biochemical (triglycerides) and lymphocyte number. In a second set of experiments, after being acclimated, mice were allocated into 4 experimental groups (4-5 animals each).

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