For example, necrotrophic plant pathogens make nutrients availabl

For example, necrotrophic plant pathogens make nutrients available by producing enzymes that degrade host cell components including cell wall polysaccharides, e.g. “”GO: 0052010 catabolism by symbiont of host cell wall cellulose”",

and cell membrane proteins, selleck chemicals e.g. “”GO: A-1210477 purchase 0052025 modification by symbiont of host cell membrane”" or “”GO: 0052014 catabolism by symbiont of host protein”" [12, 13] (Figure 2). On the other hand, many biotrophic pathogens colonize host cells via haustoria, differentiated intracellular hyphal structures that facilitate nutrient uptake and suppression of host defenses [14], e.g. “”GO: 0052094 formation by symbiont of haustorium for nutrient acquisition from host”" (Figure 2 and explained

below). Other interesting examples include: parasitic plants and algae [15]; mutualisms of lichenaceous fungi with cyanobacteria and/or green algae [16]; mutualisms of algae within the cytoplasm of protozoans [17]; and symbioses between coral polyps and dinoflagellate algae that are mutualistic or antagonistic depending on the ocean temperature [18]. Annotating gene products involved in symbiotic nutrient exchange with GO terms facilitates comparison among host and symbiont species from diverse kingdoms of life. Gene Ontology terms relevant to nutrient exchange, in a temporal framework In Figure 2 we have represented the establishment of symbiotic nutrient exchange as occurring in three overlapping phases. Phase I involves establishing the physical basis for nutrient exchange through formation of structures or modification of the morphology or physiology of the other organism, or both. In phase II the release of nutrients from the symbiotic partners is achieved, for example through cell killing or modulation of nutrient release. Phase III comprises uptake of nutrients released in phase II, for example via transporters. Figure 2 summarizes GO terms relevant to symbiotic nutrient exchange

within this temporal framework. Terms from the Biological Process ontology related to symbiosis and cell killing are relevant principally to phases I and II, while many terms relevant to phase III are found in the Molecular Function ontology (Figure 2). The terms Thalidomide shown under phases I and II come from the “”GO: 0051704 multi-organism process”" branch of the Biological Process ontology that was created by PAMGO specifically to characterize symbiotic and other multi-organism interactions [8]. Phase I contains two important high-level GO terms, “”GO: 0051816 acquisition of nutrients from other organism during symbiotic interaction”" and “”GO: 0051817 modification of morphology or physiology of other organism during symbiotic interaction”". More specific child terms describe symbiont- or host-centric processes of morphological or physiological modification or structure formation; some of these terms are defined in Additional file 1.

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