Figure 3 Structure of a OSM-PCLA-PEG-PCLA-OSM hydrogel Reprinted

Figure 3 Structure of a OSM-PCLA-PEG-PCLA-OSM hydrogel. Reprinted from Nguyen and Lee [77], with the permission of Copyright and Licensing Manager, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. The gradual release of NO from a material arises from a combination of the features of glassy matrices and hydrogels,

as reported by Friedman et al. [78]. These researchers demonstrated that silane hydrogel containing NO promotes a reduction in angiogenesis, preventing bacterial dissemination from abscesses. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Therefore, such materials may potentially serve as topically applied antimicrobials for the treatment of cutaneous infections and wounds [79, 80]. Additionally, NO-releasing hydrogel/glass hybrid nanoparticles may be preferable to other NO-releasing compounds because they do not depend on Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical chemical decomposition, or enzymatic catalysis but rather only on the rate of hydration [23]. 3. Lipid-Based Nanocarriers 3.1. Liposomes Liposomes are vesicles formed by an aqueous core surrounded by one or several phospholipid bilayers. Hydrophilic drugs or active compounds can be incorporated into the inner aqueous cavity, while lipophilic drugs may be incorporated

into the bilayer [81]. Liposomes are used as nanovehicles in various clinical applications and are potentially Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical valuable vehicles for targeted therapeutics. One benefit of circulating liposomes is that they can accumulate in tissues with high vascular permeability by simple passive diffusion or extravasation, such as at Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the site of cancer, inflammation, or ischemia. Liposomes can also be surface-conjugated with molecules recognized by specific types of cells or tissues for targeted delivery [82]. Liposomes also have applications in molecular imaging, serving as a tool for diagnosis [83]. The

encapsulation of gases into liposomal formulations results in a contrast agent that is suitable for ultrasound imaging. When this gas has a therapeutic application, such as NO, the resultant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical echogenic Idoxuridine liposomes (ELIPs) can also be used for treatment of many diseases [84]. Huang et al. [84] specifically developed a bioactive gas-delivery method, using ELIPs as the NO carrier, to inhibit selleckchem intimal hyperplasia. The release profile of NO from the NO-ELIP demonstrated an initial rapid burst followed by a more sustained release. The delivery of NO to VSMCs using the NO-ELIP was sevenfold greater than when unencapsulated NO was administered, and this liposome remained an effective delivery agent even in the presence of NO-binding hemoglobin. Furthermore, NO-ELIPs triggered a significant reduction in hyperplasia, in contrast with Ar-ELIPs [85]. Liposomes can be targeted to pathologic sites by conjugating antibodies and other ligands to the liposomes’ phosphatidylethanolamine head groups [84].

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