Despite years of research, the immunological mechanisms responsib

Despite years of research, the immunological mechanisms responsible for protective immunity versus immunopathology are still not well understood, although it is widely accepted that T cell driven IFN-g and Th17 responses are critical for clearing infection. While antibodies are able to

neutralize infections in vitro, alone they are not protective, indicating see more that any successful vaccine will need to elicit both arms of the immune response. In recent years, there has been an expansion in the number and types of antigens that have been evaluated as vaccines, and combined with the new array of mucosal adjuvants, this aspect of chlamydial vaccinology is showing promise. Most recently, the opportunities to develop successful vaccines have been given a significant boost with the development of a genetic transformation system for Chlamydia, as well as the identification of the key role of the chlamydial plasmid in virulence. While still remaining a major challenge, the development of a successful C. trachomatis vaccine is starting to look more likely. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier

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“The human immune system has evolved a variety of mechanisms for the primary task of neutralizing and eliminating microbial intruders. As the first line of defense, the complement system is responsible for rapid recognition and opsonization of bacteria, presentation to phagocytes and bacterial cell killing by direct lysis. All successful GSI-IX human pathogens have mechanisms of circumventing the antibacterial activity of the complement system and escaping this stage of the immune response. One of the ways in which pathogens achieve this is the deployment of proteases. Based on the increasing number of recent publications in this area, it appears that proteolytic inactivation of the antibacterial activities of the complement system is a common strategy of avoiding targeting by this arm

of host innate immune defense. In this review, we find more focus on those bacteria that deploy proteases capable of degrading complement system components into non-functional fragments, thus impairing complement-dependent antibacterial activity and facilitating pathogen survival inside the host.”
“Background. – New evidence for involvement of aquaporins (AQPs) in cell migration and proliferation adds AQPs to an expanding list of effectors in tumor biology. But there is few report concerning the expression and role of AQPs in human gastric carcinogenesis so far. The aim of this current study was to investigate the expression profile of AQPs in human gastric carcinoma and its significance.\n\nMethods. – We screened the expression profile of AQP0 similar to AQP12 in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and corresponding normal mucosa from 89 patients with gastric cancer by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and immunochemical assay.

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