CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents a validated preoperative mort

\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Our study presents a validated preoperative mortality score for very elderly patients needing an emergency colectomy. The greater discriminating power of this targeted score indicates that preoperative risk assessment may need to be customized to specific

procedures and patient circumstances. (J Am Coll Surg 2011;213:220-225. (C) 2011 by the American College of Surgeons)”
“The vegetative and reproductive shoot architectures displayed by members of the grass family are critical to reproductive success, and thus agronomic Sapitinib molecular weight yield. Variation in shoot architecture is explained by the maintenance, activity and determinacy of meristems, pools of pluripotent stem cells responsible for post-embryonic plant growth. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the major properties of grass shoot meristems, focusing on vegetative phase meristems and the floral transition, primarily in rice and maize. Major areas of interest include: the control of Selleck Nepicastat meristem homeostasis by the CLAVATA-WUSCHEL pathway and by hormones such as cytokinin;

the initiation of axillary meristems and the control of axillary meristem dormancy; and the environmental and endogenous cues that regulate flowering time. In an accompanying paper, Tanaka et al. review subsequent stages of shoot development, including current knowledge of reproductive meristem determinacy and the fate transitions associated with these meristems.”
“Epidemiological studies indicate that women are at a higher risk

developing lung cancer than men are. It is suggested that estrogen is one of the most important factors in lung cancer development in females. Additionally, cigarette smoke, and environmental pollutants, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), may play salient roles in female lung carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms responsible for the interaction of these factors in the promotion of lung cancer are still poorly understood. The present study was designed to explore two ideas: first, the synergistic lung tumorigenic effects of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanol (NNK) combined with TCDD, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) or both through a selleck kinase inhibitor long-term treatment experiment, and second, to identify early changes in the inflammatory and signaling pathways through short-term treatment experiments. The results indicate that A/J mice given E2 had strong effects in potentiating NNK-induced activation of MAPK signaling, NF kappa B, and COX-2 expression. In the long-term exposure model, E2 had a strong tumor promoting effect, whereas TCDD antagonized this effect in A/J mice. We conclude that treatment with NNK combined with either E2 or TCDD induces lung carcinogenesis and the promotion effects could be correlated with lung inflammation.

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