CONCLUSION TFL with biopsy is easy, safe, and cost-effective But

CONCLUSION TFL with biopsy is easy, safe, and cost-effective. But, due to its

low sensitivity rate for diagnosing suspicious lesion of the larynx, it is recommended that all patients with a suspicious lesion diagnosed by TFL biopsy as being benign or CIS should be referred to direct laryngoscopy for verification of the findings. Abbreviations: CIS carcinoma in situ TFL transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscope/laryngoscopy.
World-wide, the head and neck cancers form the sixth most common cancer.1 Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the most common cancer in developing countries.2 It is the most common cancer of males in India and the fifth most common in females.3 HNC form 21% of the cancers in males and 11% in females in Pakistan.4 In India, the age-adjusted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rates among females is the highest.5 While head and neck cancers form one of the most common cancers in South and Southeast Asian countries, they form only 1%–4% of all cancers in the Western world.6 Oral cancers are predominant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical forms of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in India, Pakistan, and other Southeast Asian countries; oropharyngeal and tongue cancers are common in the Western world.4

These differences in site Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of disease may be related to the prevalent habits in the respective regions.5 RISK FACTORS Cigarette-smoking and alcohol consumption are the main reasons for HNSCC in the Western population, whereas the use of smokeless tobacco and areca nut is the most common cause of HNSCC in SoutheastAsia.7,8 The various forms in which smokeless tobacco is used in developing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical countries include khaini, mava, paan (betel quid), zarda, snuff, INCB028050 supplier mashiri, etc.9 Betel quid chewing is the most common form of tobacco chewing in the Asia-Pacific region. Betel quid consists of areca nut, betel leaf, catechu, and slaked lime.10 It has been reported from Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical many countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and migrant populations in Europe, Africa, North

America, and Australia.11 About 10% of the world’s population chew betel quid regularly.12 In one study conducted in Southeast Asia, the lower socio-economic groups had higher risk of developing HNC.13 Areca nut alone is a confirmed carcinogen and causally associated with a premalignant condition called oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral cancer.14 It is a chronic, debilitating disease of the aerodigestive tract owing why to irreversible fibroelastic changes in the lamina propria which lead to stiffness of the oral mucosa resulting in progressive trismus.15 This is uncommon in the Western world due to the rarity of areca nut use. In India alone, 5 million people (0.5% of the population of India) have OSMF. It is considered a public health issue in India, South Africa, and many Southeast Asian countries.16 Tobacco consumption in India is growing at a rate of 2%–3% per annum.17 Tobacco use is expected to cause 8.

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