Bacterial Tat signal peptides also contain a well-conserved Ser/Thr-Arg-Arg-x-Phe-Leu-Lys motif and the importance of each of the residues within this motif has been widely studied (Berks, 1996; Stanley et al., 2000; Mendel et al., 2008). The TatFIND algorithm (Dilks et al., 2003) was developed to identify putative Tat substrates by looking for the presence of this conserved motif in bacterial signal peptides. The extent to which different bacteria utilize the Tat pathway varies greatly. Some bacteria make extensive use of this pathway with Streptomyces coelicolor having as Autophagy Compound Library many as 145 predicted substrates, whilst Helicobacter pylori has just three (Dilks
et al., 2003). Synechocystis is predicted to have 20 substrates (Dilks et al., 2003), with an additional Tat substrate (sll1358) not predicted by the TatFIND algorithm, but identified experimentally (Fulda et al., 2000; Tottey Y-27632 ic50 et al., 2008); this is a low number given the role of the Tat pathway in targeting proteins to the
cytoplasmic membrane as well as the thylakoid membranes. There is good evidence that the Tat pathway functions in both membranes. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) can be targeted specifically to the periplasm of Synechocystis when fused to an E. coli Tat signal peptide (Spence et al., 2003), whereas two of the Rieske FeS proteins found in Synechocystis (PetC1 and PetC2) when fused to GFP, were targeted to the thylakoid membranes. A third Rieske FeS protein PetC3, was targeted to the cytoplasmic membrane (Aldridge et al., 2008). Both PetC1 and PetC2 have been experimentally confirmed as Tat substrates whilst PetC3 is strongly predicted to be one (Aldridge et al., 2008). Essentially, the same result was obtained in an independent study that found the same localizations following cell fractionation and immunoblotting (Schultze et al., 2009).
In the past 10 years or so, a number of genomes from both marine and freshwater cyanobacteria have been fully sequenced, 25 of which were selected for this study (Table 1). Marine unicellular cyanobacteria are particularly well-represented in the genomes sequenced thus far. This group Docetaxel purchase comprises, amongst others, two main genera, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, that are numerically the most abundant phototrophs in the world’s ocean (Partensky et al., 1999; Scanlan et al., 2009), accounting for a significant proportion of global primary production (Li, 1994; Jardillier et al., 2010). Each occupies separate but overlapping niches. Synechococcus is ubiquitous in the oceans being found across open-ocean, coastal or estuarine environments from polar regions to the tropics. In contrast, Prochlorococcus is largely confined to tropical and subtropical oligotrophic waters between c. 45° N and 40° S (Olson et al., 1990; Tarran et al., 1996; Partensky et al., 1999; Scanlan et al.